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  1. State four financial publics of a company listed in the Nairobi Securities Exchange
  2. The table below represents the public transfer process. Fill in the missing information to complete the process

  1. List three limitations of using the bureaucratic style of management in a public relations department
  2. State three personal factors that may influence the formation of an individual’s attitude
  3. List three negative types of defense mechanism that may be exhibited by a frustrated employee
  4. Highlight three advantages of exhibitions as a media for public relations activities in an organization
  5. Give three reasons that make it necessary for the public relations professional body to enforce the code of conduct on its members
  6. Outline three responsibilities of the public relations department to the company’s distributors
  7. List three challenges that may be faced by modern public practitioners
  8. State the three components of personality as expounded by Sigmund Freud


  1. a)Explain six ways in which the public relations department of an organization can facilitate the media to report accurately during a crisis (9 marks)
  1. b) Highlight four techniques that may be used by public relations practitioners to change the attitude of a target audience (8 marks)
  1. a) Explain six benefits of engaging a consultancy firm to undertake public relations activities for an organization (9 marks)
  1. b) Outline four personality traits that an effective public relations manager should possess (8 marks)
  1. a)Give four reasons that make it necessary for managers to vary the techniques for enhancing human relations in an organization (8 marks)
  1. b) Outline six characteristics that an informal organization may display (9 marks)
  1. a)Highlight six objectives of public relations that an organization may seek to attain (9 marks)
  1. b) Give four reasons that make the government an important public for all business organization (8 marks)
  1. a)Explain four uses of a photo library in a public relations department of an organization (8 marks)
  1. b) Explain six factors that may influence the choice of media for public relations activities in an organization (9 marks)




  1. List four elements that may constitute the corporate identity of an organization
  2. State three limitations of using consultants to carry out public relation activities for an organization
  3. Give three reasons that may make it necessary for an organization to call for a press conference
  4. Give three reasons that made it necessary to have a code of conduct in the public relations profession
  5. Outline three ways in which a manager may assist an employee who is going through frustration
  6. Give three reasons why it is important for employees to relate well among themselves in an organization
  7. Outline three factors that may make an employee develop a negative attitude
  8. List three theories of personality
  9. State three disadvantages of the bureaucratic style of leadership
  10. Give four reasons that make it necessary for an organization to clearly define its publics


  1. (a) The management of Makwenzi Limited usually communicates the company’s financial information to the organization’s publics. Outline four objectives of such communication (8 marks)

(b) Highlight six methods that may be used to determine the perception of publics towards an organization (9 marks)

  1. (a) Explain six factors that a public relations department may consider when planning to introduce a house journal in the organization (9 marks)

(b) Highlight four duties of a public relations officer in an organization (8 marks)

  1. (a) Give four reasons that make employees an important public an organization (8 marks)

(b) Explain six qualities that an effective public relations officer should possess (9 marks)

  1. (a) Explain six ways in which a manager may motivate employees in an organization (9 marks)

(b) Outline four indicators of frustration among employees in an organization (8 marks)

  1. (a) Outline six factors that determine social stratification in an organization (9 marks)

(b) It is necessary for managers to understand the attitude of their employees. Give four reasons why this is necessary (8 marks)




  1. Give three reasons that motivate people to work
  2. State four characteristics of a bureaucratic type of organization
  3. List three environmental factors that may influence the formation of an employee’s personality
  4. State three techniques that a public relations assistant may  use to assess the attitudes of the  publics in an organization
  5. Outline three positive mechanisms which an employee may adopt to cope with frustration in the work place
  6. Outline the phases of the evolution of public relations practice
  7. Outline three benefits that an organization may  get from clearly defining its publics
  8. List four qualities that an effective public relations officer should possess
  9. State three types of print media that may be used for communicating with employees in an organization
  10. List three limitations of using employees to implement an organization’s public relations programmes


  1. (a) Explain six non-financial ways through which the management of an organization may motivate its employees (9 marks)

(b) Outline four techniques that can be used to change the attitude of employees in an organization (8 marks)

  1. (a) Give six reasons that make it necessary for a public relations supervisor to understand the personality traits of employees (9 marks)

(b) Outline four ways through which the level of education may create different social classes among employees in an organization (8 marks)

  1. (a) Explain six work related issues that may cause frustration among public relations staff (9 marks)

(b) Outline four benefits that a practitioner may get from membership to a public relations professional body (8 marks)

  1. (a) Explain six factors that may influence the type of activities undertaken by the public relations department in an organization (9 marks)

(b) Explain four benefits that an organization may obtain from using social media to publicize its activities (8 marks)

  1. (a) Give four reasons for evaluating the success of public relations activities in an organization (8 marks)

(b) Outline six areas though which an organization may express its corporate identity




  1. Outline four consequences that may be faced by an organization that does not establish a public relations department
  2. List three causes of frustration amongst employees in an organization
  3. State three factors that determine the social group that an employee may join in an organization
  4. State four factors that should be considered when planning a public relations programme in an organization
  5. Outline three measures that can be adopted to improve human relations in an organization
  6. State three publics that a hospital may have
  7. Highlight three elements of an organization’s corporate identity
  8. Outline three benefits that an organization may derive from conducting a customer service week
  9. State three organizational factors that may contribute to the development of attitude among employees in an organization
  10. Highlight three reasons that make it necessary  for public relations officers to observe the professional code of conduct


  1. (a) Explain six  benefits that an organization may derive from establishing an internal public relations department (9 marks)

(b) Highlight four signs of negative attitude towards work among employees in an organization (8 marks)

  1. (a) Outline four factors that should e considered when preparing audio visual materials for a public relations campaign (8 marks)

(b) Explain six consequences that may be faced by an organization which does not clearly define its publics (9 marks)

  1. (a) Highlight six limitations of bureaucracy as a management style (9 marks)

(b) Musa, the Public Relations Officer at Pwani Investments is organizing a public relations event. Explain four factors that he should consider when selecting the appropriate media to cover the event (8 marks)

  1. (a) The Public Relations Officer at Complexi Limited has discovered that some of the organization’s products in the market are faulty. Explain four measures that he may take to address this situation (8 marks)

(b) Explain six measures that the management of an organization may put in place in order to manage frustration among its employees (9 marks)

  1. (a) Explain four factors that may make a public relations programme fail to achieve its intended objectives (8 marks)

(b) Explain six benefits that the employees of an organization may derive from having an introvert Human Relations Manager (9 marks)

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Refer to possible interaction groups within the organization. They include;

  1. Formal groups
  2. Informal groups

Refer to employees local arrangements within the work station for their own personal benefits and indirectly have little or no benefits to the organization .Example include Merry go round and Chamas. They aim at;

  1. Improving living standards of the members
  2. Boosting employees financial position
  3. Improving employee’s living standards through common pool of resources.
  4. Educating the members on empowerment
  5. Uniting the members through sharing common interest.


  1. Mostly its formed to benefit the members
  2. Continuity of the group depends on the members.
  3. Group objectives are very flexible in case of making adjustments
  4. Leadership mostly depends on fame and majority likes and not education level.
  5. Mostly they are not registered hence not recognized outside organization.



Refer to official groups which every employee within the organization should join e.g. organization welfare, employee Unions, Committee membership etc.


  1. The group has governing rules and regulation outlined in the constitution.
  2. The group has specific objectives and deadlines which can only be adjusted upon agreement by committee.
  3. The group benefits is mostly to the organization in general and little benefits to individuals
  4. They are registered hence recognized within and outside the organization
  5. The group leaders have specific duties outlined to them
  6. Continuity of the group does not depend on dismissal/retirement of a member
  7. Leadership position depends on education level and experience.


  1. Financial position of an individual (i.e. employer or employee)-different groups have different financial obligation to honor hence an individual should join depending on financial ability
  2. Group objectives/benefits- different groups have different activities hence one should join the group that best satisfy individual expectation.
  3. Job position- An individual may be influenced by job position on the group to join because it influences individual fitness in the group in terms of contributing suggestions, interacting with other members, gaining respect etc
  4. Education level-for formal organization education level contribute especially on leadership where individuals may be appointed as a result of education level
  5. Size of the organization-well-paying organizations contributes to success of groups and vice versa.



  1. There is individual empowerment e.g. financially, skills ,experience etc
  2. Promotes unity through interactions, sharing common interest etc.
  3. Improves relations among members


  1. Informal groups consume organization working hours yet they are of little or no benefits to the organization.
  2. Informal groups may bring division within the organization especially between members and non- members.
  3. Depending on their objectives, achievements and challenges they may affects corporate image negatively.
  4. Formal groups are of little benefits to the members
  5. Financial losses to members due to mismanagement of funds by corrupt leaders


  1. Sharing of information hence promoting togetherness.
  2. Promotes work morale because individuals are able to fit in the workplace.
  3. Interactions among the members on social activities promotes healthy environment within organization.
  4. Completing employee living standards which employer is not able to provide.
  5. Facilitates togetherness which reduces resistance in leadership of organization core duties.
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  • Carrying out planning and implementation of public relations programme
  • Factors considered when choosing implementers of public relations programme
  • Method of evaluating public relations programme


  • Research indicates that many PR practitioners cannot plan well
  • They cannot measure the contribution of PR to a company’s overall success
  • It is important to be able to evaluate how well various public relations programmes contribute to the success of any given company


Justification for Planning PR Programmes

  • Skinner et all (2007) argues that the PR Plan is the benchmark for measuring performance. It is the blue print from which the PR team operate
  • Frank Jefkins (1998: 39) gives 4 reasons for planning:
  1. To set targets for public relations activities
  2. Estimate working time and costs
  3. Set priorities to control the number and timing of different activities
  4. Decide on feasibility of carrying out set objectives



STEP 1: Gaining the approval of management

  • You must seek the support of CEO; CEO must endorse the idea for planning. Planning involves preparation of strategic plan for public relations function in the organization
  • Why is it important to get CEO support?
  1. CEOs reluctant to plan for PR because they think it is a waste of time
  2. Commitment to plan means allocating resources
  3. Senior management are reluctant too
  4. They often disagree on preferred corporate image and techniques to be used
  5. It is important to gain support of management to get their buy in
  6. Ensures adequate thought goes into planning for PR
  7. Gives opportunity for opinion research

STEP 2: Situational analysis

  • Involves appreciating the PR situation in the organization
  • It helps to benchmark for PR activities
  • Helps to understand the PR opportunities and challenges
  • Helps to understand the target publics
  • Helps to understand the media of communication

Methods of situational analysis include:

  1. PR audit to understand the PR strengths, weakness, opportunities, threats, resources, etc
  2. Image analysis of the company
  3. PESTEL analysis- Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal regimes
  4. Opinion polls to gauge the perceptions of the publics
  5. Press clip analysis, content analysis and audience analysis
  6. Customer complaints and compliments analysis
  7. SWOT analysis- Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Technological
  8. Stakeholder analysis
  • The situational analysis should describe the PR situation in the organization
  • It should present the findings of the analysis
  • It should also present the implications of the findings on the organization
  • It should make suggestions on now these can be addressed

STEP 3: Setting Objectives/ Articulating objectives

  • You should know what you want to achieve
  • Objectives must be based on overall corporate goals and objectives
  • PR must know the corporate objectives
  • Let CEO clarify them for you, if not sure
  • Objectives must also reflect the findings of the situational analysis
  • Objectives must be SMART. That is: Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic and Time bound.

Examples of objectives:

  1. To change the image of the organization
  2. To improve communication between organization and publics
  3. To gain public confidence
  4. To make known corporate goals and operations
  • Prioritize objectives
  • You must do so according to what is urgent and important
  • You classify as short term and long term objectives

STEP 4: Determining the target publics

  • Segment the publics into internal and external publics
    • Internal publics include: Staff, Management, Directors
    • External publics include: Potential employees, Suppliers, Distributors, Consumers, Opinion leaders, Media, Government, Financial institutions-(banks and insurance), Shareholders, Community members
    • Segment into primary and secondary publics
    • Primary public are the target of the message. They must be reached directly with the message
    • Secondary publics are people who can be used to reach out to the primary publics
    • You can also segment according to level of interest, stakes and demographics
    • You may not succeed unless you know the public
    • You need to understand the following:


  • Needs
  • Interests
  • Stakes
  • Demographics
  • Communication habits
  • Information preferences
  • Perceptions of the company
  • Level of understanding of the company and its operations
  • Their attitudes towards the organization
  • Their expectations of the organizations
  • Clarify whether organizational objectives are in line with public needs and desires
  • Understand the informational needs of the publics

STEP 5: Selecting the media

  • Understand the various media available to the various publics.
  • Remember that various publics require different media
  • The media include: The press, Radio, Television, Exhibitions, Printed materials, Sponsored books, Direct mail, Sponsorships, House journal

STEP 6: Articulate the Message/ Developing the Messages

  • Determine the messages you want to disseminate to each target audience
  • Message must be specific to each audience
  • Message must resonate with audience
  • Message must be simple, clear and complete
  • You may express them as slogans

STEP 7: Set Activities/ Determining the Activities

  • PR activities are the tools of communication. They must transmit the right message to the target audience
  • They include: Facility tours, Symposia, Conferences, Workshops, Public speaking engagements, Media releases, Press conferences, Radio interviews, House journals
  • Broadly, these activities may be classified under: (I) Oral activities (II) Written activities (III) Visual activities
  • They should target the internal and external audiences

STEP 8: Budget

  • Prepare budget based on proposed activities. Budget for everything
  • Budget for: Time 2. Materials 3. Expenses like hospitality bills 4. Budget for salaries, equipment’s, various activities done

STEP 9: Monitoring and Evaluation

  • Define indicators for monitoring and evaluation
  • You monitor the implementation of the activities
  • You monitor using the implementation plans, budgets
  • Methods of monitoring include:
      • Having staff meetings,
      • Interviewing staff and publics,
      • Scrutinizing budgets,
      • Reviewing reports
  • You evaluate by measuring effectiveness of the activities done.
  • You monitor by conducting various research
  • Monitoring helps to manage and control the activities
  • Evaluation helps to document success and failure
  • It helps you improve your PR programmes

STEP 10: Develop an Implementation matrix

  • The implementation matrix contains:
      • Strategy or activity
      • Objective
      • Results (outcome and outcomes)
      • Indicators
      • Time
      • Assumptions
      • Responsibility
      • Budget items and cost

STEP 11: Allocating responsibilities

  • You allocate responsibility for:
    • Chief spokesperson (CEO)
    • Spokesperson for marketing (marketing manager)
    • Spokesperson for finance (finance director)
    • Spokesperson for production (production manager)
    • Spokesperson for PR (PR manager)

STEP 12: Sell the Plan Internally

  • Create awareness about the plan internally
  • Internal publics must know the plan for them to support it
  • Their endorsement is useful



  1. Should be clear and simple to understand
  2. A good plan should have time plan showing the activities that will be carried out
  3. Should be beneficial to both the sender and recipient of PR message
  4. Should be cost effective
  5. Should be in line with the organization objectives


  1. Appreciation of the situation-for PR programmes to be effective, they must be based on sound objectives that are directed at the right audience, delivered at the right time and presented in an attractive and understandable language.
  2. Suitable research tools- research tools involves all means that are used to gather information which includes; interviewing, holding discussions with management, use of questionnaires etc. While planning PR programmes one should consider availability of research tools, reliability of the information etc.
  3. Security-While planning for public relation activities one should put into consideration security to both PR personnel and the respondents
  4. Education level of targeted audience-one should plan in advance on target audience in order to cater for both literate and illiterate.
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  • Definition of media
  • Media used in public relations activities
  • Factors influencing choice of media in public relations activities



Media relation is relationship that company or organization develops with journalists/media houses while PR extends the relationship beyond media to general public. Media involves collective communication outlets or tools that are used to store and deliver information to the public.

The major role of press relation is to achieve maximum publication and broadcasting of PR information in order to create knowledge and understanding.



Electronic means of communicating that uses audio features


  1. Its audio means commonly used since its readily available and cheaper compared to television.
  2. Programmes can be produced quickly and inexpensively
  3. Information can be available even in local languages.


  1. The listeners may lack any idea of how the product being advertised look like
  2. Network problems in remote areas
  3. Radio is a background medium. Most listeners are doing something else while listening, which means that your ad has to work hard to get their attention
  4. Loud music can cause sound pollution.


Its electronic means of communicating that uses both audio and visual features.


  1. There is complete information about the product i.e. both sound and the pictures.
  2. Its easily accessible in public areas e.g. hotels
  3. Delivery of the message is more convincing and appealing to the customers.


  1. Production of TV programs is time consuming compared to radio
  2. It’s expensive
  3. Problem of changes in technology
  4. Not easily accessible in rural areas without electricity.


Refer to display of information which is eye catching at strategic places e.g. at roundabouts.


  1. The information lasts for long.
  2. It’s cheaper compared to television adverts
  3. Involves words and pictures hence effective delivery of message.


  1. The information is limited to one area only.
  2. Threats from competing industries e.g. by mutilating or destroying the billboards
  3. It accommodates less information compared to other mediums
  4. The passer-by may lack to pay attention to the information.


It’s a means by which one person can exchange message with other people over the internet through use of computers or smartphones.


  1. E-Mail message can be sent to the recipient mailbox at any time at sender’s convenience.
  2. It’s a fast means of delivering the message.
  3. E-mail information can be kept for long compared to information from phone calls.
  4. Records of e-mail message may be kept in electronic form therefore reducing filing problems and administration cost.


  1. Staff may waste time on non-productive e-mails
  2. Sometimes information that is more urgent may fail to reach the recipient on time due to delays as a result of internet problems.
  3. E-mails may not guarantee individual security on message due to challenge from internet hackers.


Involve creating awareness through demonstrations, films, video shows, road shows etc.


  1. Exhibitions are open to a large and sometimes different range of audience which provides a platform to promote products and services to a large population.
  2. Being involved in exhibitions can provide one with opportunities to branch out to business partnerships and create customer database
  3. Quick feedback is received on general opinion about the product through interacting with customers.



  1. Trade-shows and exhibitions require pre-arrangement on time hence are time consuming.
  2. Travelling and setting up expenses may be costly e.g. hiring vehicles, tents, public address etc.
  3. Stiff competition on demonstration from those offering similar services.
  4. Free samples and displays are costly.
  5. Targeting the wrong audience may be more expensive than expected benefits i.e. if the target audience does not reciprocate positively.


  1. Wrong choice of medium– All media have their merits and demerits hence unsuitable medium may fail to deliver the information appropriately.
  2. Physical barriers-e.g. poor roads, insecurity may hinder timely and efficiency of message delivery.
  3. Language barrier– It contributes to lack of common understanding between the sender and recipient of message.
  4. Psychological barriers-They results from social problems e.g. attitude, resistance to change, poor retention of message, closed mind etc. hinder efficiency of message.


  1. Choosing appropriate channels that will deliver information effectively.
  2. Good relations with public which facilitate reduction of message resistance.
  3. Communication should be well planned in order to reach the targeted audience.
  4. Right choice of language in order to facilitate understanding i.e. avoiding language barriers
  5. Avoiding negative pre-judgement of message.


  1. Cost-one should consider the media which is more cost effective in order not to affect other activities negatively. The amount paid to access service from media should be less than the expected benefits.
  2. Media coverage-depending on the targeted population, one should consider effectiveness of media that will reach all the audience e.g. Local, National or International stations. More than one media can be used to facilitate maximum delivery of message.
  3. Urgency of the message-If the message is more urgent, the media that is fast to prepare the news should be used e.g. radio.
  4. Content coverage-The media to be used should be able to cover the content in details in order to facilitate clarity of the message. E.g. for an intake in progress its more appropriate to use newspaper than billboard.
  5. Competence of personnel working in the media-specific personnel influence attractiveness of the audience hence success in message delivery.
  6. Accessibility-one should consider the media that is accessible to the target audience. More than one media can be used depending on financial ability of informer in order to facilitate maximum delivery of message.
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  • Definition of ethics
  • Code of consultancy practice
  • Code of professional conduct
  • Functions of public relations department
  • Functions of public relations officer
  • Qualities of public relation officer


Definition of Ethics

Ethics is code of acceptable behavior that facilitates good relationship between an individual and the general public(s)

Ethics facilitating building of long term relationship, building respect, trust etc


  1. Provide good working condition to employees.
  2. Should encourage democratic leadership in order to minimize misunderstandings within the organization.
  3. Should be able to carry fair promotions without discrimination e.g. based on work experience, education level etc
  4. Should be able to promote team work within organization hence working towards achieving common goal.
  5. Paying employees on time in order to boost their work morale.
  6. Carrying the outlined duties with high integrity i.e. must be honest and transparent therefore not engaging in corruption.


  1. Only correct information should be published or broadcasted based on evidence and from reliable sources.
  2. The personnel carrying PR activities should ensure they meet legal requirements.
  3. The information they pass should not injure reputation of another person e.g. giving wrong information that might tarnish personality of an individual.
  4. They should not publish or disclose confidential information unless when authorized by law e.g. revealing source of intelligence information which may cause insecurity to them.
  5. High reputation should be portrayed while carrying the duties in order to boost corporate image of the organization they are working under gain public confidence and trust
  6. Should not misuse information regarding his/her employer for their own self benefit financially or other gains.
  7. Respect other employees in order to facilitate togetherness and team building so as to work towards achievement of common goal.



PR can be practiced in 2 ways:

  1. Internal responsibility
  2. External responsibility

Some organizations prefer:

  1. In house PR departments
  2. External PR consultancies
  3. Hybrid: combination of In house PR dept. and External PR consultancies


  • Refers to department within an organization that is in charge of PR function
  • Headed by PR Manager who ideally reports to CEO


Advantages of In House PR Departments

  1. Offers full time services: Staff work for required time; Work as required by contract
  2. Enables the creation and sustenance of good lines of communication: PR staff know other staff, They know the organization well, Can respond appropriately to challenges, Staff intimately involved with the firm
  3. Provide continuity: PR staff get valuable experience and are better placed to attain goals such as handling the media. Can also handle people well by providing info on organization
  4. Value for money: PR staff are economical and do what consultants offer at no extra-cost thus there is minimal waste company resources
  5. Immediacy: PR staff got immediate access to the firm and to decision makers in firm thus able to address problems proactively and handle challenges on time
  6. Familiarity: PR staff are familiar with operations therefore can give better services as they have a lot of experience about the firm
  7. Quick service: PR staff can respond quickly to unfolding challenges and are readily available on demand and can respond to problems on their feet


NB/The above advantages depend on strategic position of the PR department in the organization

  • In house PR better felt when PR department is strategically positioned
  • PR Manager must have access to CEO


Disadvantages of In House PR Department

  1. Lack of impartiality: PR staff may lose objectivity because of: Fear of being fired, too much loyalty, Pressure from management, May not be critical as expected, may compromise professional integrity to keep job
  2. Narrow range of experience: PR staff may have limited span of PR activities to do and may have narrow experience in a few PR activities
  3. Lack of training: Some PR staff lack professional training and some have not been to PR schools. Most are journalists and may lack integral PR know how.
  4. In subordination of PR department: PR may be put under marketing department thus function may not be prioritized making PR subservient to other managers and departments
  5. Misusing PR staff: Some CEOs use PR as personal assistants because they don’t know what PR is and what it can do the organization


NB/• PR can only be effective if CEO and management know its strategic role in management

  • PR staff must have clearly spelt out responsibilities
  • Lines of communication must be clearly defined



  • PR consultancy is not an agency
  • Refers to professionally run businesses offering PR services to clients
  • Run by experienced professionals
  • Knowledgeable and skilled PR practitioners


Reasons for Appointing External PR Consultancies

  1. Lack of finances for in house PR
  2. Need for management counseling
  3. Lack of time by PR staff
  4. Execution of complex PR programs
  5. Provide specialized services

Advantages of External PR Consultancies

  1. Objectivity – offers unbiased services
  2. Have excellent media contacts
  3. Strategically positioned to service diverse clientele. Gives them an edge over in house staff
  4. Have access and knowledge of service providers
  5. Have geographical scope of operations as they are located in various cities and continents
  6. They have ability to reinforce internal staff

Disadvantages of External PR Consultancies

  1. Clients get only what they pay for
  2. Lack of intimacy
  3. Divided loyalties
  4. Lack of specialized knowledge
  5. Use of inexperienced interns
  6. May face internal opposition and hostility by in house staff

Criteria of Hiring External PR Consultancies

  1. Scrutinize expertise and experience base
  2. Implementing consultant to be present during negotiations and presentations
  3. Understand your needs as a firm
  4. Understand the capability of the consultancy
  5. Subject it to tendering
  6. Avoid those servicing your rivals
  7. Scrutinize budgets
  8. Talk about retainer

Internal or external PR department may be small or large depending on;

  1. The size of the organization
  2. The value placed on PR by management.
  3. Financial position of the organization
  4. The nature of the activities undertaken by organization.


Refers to the chief executive officer who manages the company public relations


  1. To advice management on communication problems, solution and techniques.
  2. To inform the public on organization policies and activities
  3. To monitor outside opinions (public opinion) about the organization and give this to management
  4. To establish and maintain a good image of the organization.
  5. To set targets or define objectives for PR operation
  6. To estimate the budgets, working hours and other resources that need to be costed
  7. Selecting the appropriate media to use while communicating with customers/communicating organization activities.
  8. Decides feasibility of undertaking set objectives
  9. Decides priorities



  1. PR manager must keep top management well briefed for interviews, speeches, representing the organization in public occasion and updating them on day to day changes.
  2. PR manager should create external lines of communication in order to achieve feedback.
  3. Should be competent in order to carry work with high efficiency.
  4. Setting internal lines of communication so that information can be obtained at all times in all sections of the organization.
  5. Creating external lines of communication in order to diversify source of information.



  1. PR manager is more familiar with the organization than the PR manager from consultancy firm
  2. PR manager can easily establish lines of communication inside the organization hence getting reliable information.
  3. PR manager is in a better position to give management day to day advice.
  4. The PR manager is readily available hence can make quick decision in case of emergency
  5. The manager may be able to consult from other organizations at a free cost.
  6. It promotes corporate identity of the organization.


  1. PR manager may be too close to organization workers hence portraying discrimination and being biased in decision making.
  2. In small and disorganized organizations, PR manager may lack job specification hence making it hard to achieve required tusks.
  3. PR manager may lack sufficient executive status to enjoy the respect of management e.g. if his /her subordinates have higher education level than him /her.
  4. If the PR manager is not properly trained and qualified he /she could contribute to downfall of organization.
  5. May lack skilled personnel’s within the department and limited work experience due to lack of exposure in various activities.


  1. Write and distribute news, photographs
  2. Compile press lists-updates
  3. Organize press conferences, receptions
  4. Maintain a media information service
  5. Arrange interviews with media
  6. Briefing photographers and maintaining a picture library
  7. Editing publications
  8. Commissioning audio-visual materials
  9. Commissioning and organizing PR exhibitions
  10. Commissioning and maintaining forms of corporate identity and house styling such as logos, color schemes, typography
  11. Handling PR sponsorships
  12. Organizing facility tours
  13. Attending appropriate meeting like board meetings
  14. Attending conferences
  15. Representation of company at trade association meetings and other external meetings
  16. Liaison with PR consultancies
  17. Training PR staff
  18. Commissioning opinion polls
  19. Supervising advertising by PR department
  20. Liaison with politicians and civil servants
  21. Arranging visits by royalty or VIPs
  22. Handling official launches
  23. Celebrating centenaries, Jubilees, special awards
  24. Organize feedback of press cuttings, radio, TV and monitoring
  25. Analysis of PR feedback and evaluation of projects.
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Public is a social unit consisting of all those affected who recognize a common problem for which they can seek common solution

The group has a common interest

Publics are often latent or passive in communication

Grunig identifies three factors that make latent publics become communicating active publics:

  1. Problem recognition

The public must recognize that something is wrong and recognize the need for information

  1. Constraint recognition

The public must see themselves as limited by external factors and that they can do something about it. They will seek information to make plans for action

  1. Level of involvement

The individual members must see themselves as affected by the situation. They will communicate because they are affected.


Grunig identifies 4 types of publics:

  1. All issue publics who are active on all issues
  2. Apathetic publics who are inattentive and inactive on all issues
  3. Single-issue publics who are active only on one or limited number of issues
  4. Hot-issue publics are active after media exposure

The most common publics that various organizations interact with include;

  1. THE COMMUNITY: these are the neighbors’ near where the organization is located. They are not necessarily the organizations’ customers but they contribute to either success or failure of organization. Possible ways an organization can promote good relations with its community could include for instance; Provision of street light within organization area, construction of safe foot path, participating in community programmes e.g. harambee, schools, roads, hospital construction, involving some of local community members in some of the organization jobs though depending on their qualifications etc
  2. EMPLOYEES: Refers to workers within the organization. Even for computerized organization they can’t do without human labor
  3. DISTRIBUTORS: Refer to everyone concerned with bulk breaking, transferring the products near the customers etc . Depending on size of organization and its activities it can either have internal or external distributors or both.
  4. SUPPLIERS: publics that deliver necessary tools and equipment needed for organizations operation at a cost. Each organization should ensure good relationship with its suppliers in order to avoid unhealthy interruption of organization activities. This is done through paying them on time, communicating to them of any changes that might affect them etc.
  5. CUSTOMERS: Refers to the end-beneficiary of organization products and services. Organization should relate well with its customers so as to retain them, attract new ones, satisfy their desires and build good corporate identity. This facilitates maintaining them and not switching to the competitors.
  6. GOVERNMENT: Organizations should ensure healthy relationship with the Government through complying with the legal requirements e.g. offering quality services, paying the tax, paying business permits etc. The Government in Kenya can either be represented by the National or government
  7. FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: Are institutions dealing with receiving deposits from their customers and issuing the loans. Organizations should maintain good relationship with the bank by meeting their financial obligations timely
  8. TRADE UNIONS: are associations/movements formed to fight for the rights of workers. They exert a powerful influence on commercial, industrial and political bodies in order to fight for better services for its workers.
  9. INVESTORS: Are people who mobilize savings and put money into working capital in relation to organization activities.


  1. It’s cost effective because the organization does not make unnecessary speeding targeting the wrong audience.
  2. It helps an organization to concentrate with its publics hence building a healthy relationship with them
  3. Reduces the risks especially while introducing/launching new products/services. The risks can be in form of loss, resistance, unhealthy competition etc
  4. Facilitating building of long term relationship with relevant publics
  5. Helps avoid wastage of resources i.e. time and money.


  1. The results do not match with the set objectives because of targeting wrong publics.
  2. Wastage of resources on wrong audience.
  3. High resistance from the public especially when launching new products.
  4. Same message can be repeated to the same group.
  5. High possibility of losses due to targeting wrong audience.

NB/ the organizations’ CUSTOMERS changes depending on institution activities e.g. in learning institutions they are called STUDENTS, in hospitals-patients, in transport-passengers etc.

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Controlling involves the measurement and correction of the performance of employees, and of other organizational resources in order to ensure that everything is going according to plan. Any manager charged with putting plans into action must carry out control. Controls help to point deviations from plans so that corrective action can be taken. Before controlling can be done management must ensure the two prerequisites of the control system:

(a)        Controls require plans: Controls must be based on plans. Managers cannot determine whether their units are achieving what is expected unless they know what is expected in the first place. Managers must first set plans and these plans become standards against which performance is measured.

(b)        Controls require a clear organizational structure: Organizational responsibilities must be clear and definite so that when something goes wrong one can tell at which position it did. Lack of a good structure means that managers may know something is going wrong but they cannot tell exactly where the responsibility for the problem lies. Without clear knowledge of exactly where things are going wrong, corrective action is impossible.

The Steps in the Control Process

The methods used for control of the various resources, techniques and procedures are basically the same regardless of where it is being done or what is being controlled. The process has three major steps:


Step One: Establishment of Standards: The first step in the control process is to establish plans which serve as the standards against which performance is measured. In establishing the standards for control purposes, critical points must be selected. These are the points at which if anything went wrong, there would be devastating effects on the organization. It is difficult to control every aspect of the firm. Standards is the measure by which performance is judged as “good” or “bad”, “acceptable” or “unacceptable”. The standards set may be of many kinds and among the best are the verifiable goals and objectives, which stipulate the desired results. These goals and objectives may be in physical terms e.g units to be produced, sales volume, products rejected, profits earned, customer complaints etc.

Step Two: Measurement of Performance: This step involves measurement of actual performance in the light of the standards set. The objective of this step is to answer the question of “how well are we doing in meeting the standards set for our activities?” Where possible standards should be such that they can detect deviations before they actually occur so that appropriate corrective action can be effected

Step Three: Correction of Deviations: Taking the necessary corrective action is actually what completes the control process. Deviations from standards can either be positive or negative. When positive, then performance is better than expected and even if this is good, it is necessary to evaluate the standards and check for their accuracy and adequacy. Correction of negative performance is the point at which control is seen as part of the whole system. Corrective action is the step at which all other managerial functions are integrated into the process of control.

Devices of Control

Broadly, all the devices of control can be classified into

(a) Budgetary control devices: include budgets such as production budget, cash budget, sales budget, capital budget etc

(b) Non-budgetary control devices: consist of managerial statistics, break-even analysis, internal audit, cost accounting, etc.

Budgeting or Budgetary control

A budget is a financial or quantitative statement prepared for a definite period of time. It states the policy to be pursued during that period for the purpose of attaining a given objective. It provides standards for comparison with the results actually achieved. Budgeting is the process of preparing budgets whereas budgetary control is a device or technique of managerial control through budgets. Thus, budgetary control is planning in advance of the various aspects of business can be controlled.

Characteristics of budgetary control

  • Planning of activities of each department,
  • Co-ordination among various departmental plans,
  • Recording of actual performance,
  • Comparison between budgets standards and actual performance,
  • Determining the deviations
  • Finding out the reasons for deviations (if any) and taking of follow-up action.

Essentials of Effective Budgetary control

  • Effective Organisation: should be effectively organized and the responsibilities of each departmental managers are clearly defined and the line of authority sharply drawn.
  • Quick reporting: The subordinates must send reports on performance without any delay. The managers on their part must analyze the report and take necessary action immediately.
  • Support of top management: The top management must have a clear idea of the objectives of budgetary control and should implement the budgetary control programme seriously in order to infuse a sense of seriousness among the subordinates.
  • Reward and Punishment: The employees whose performance is according to the budget plans should be suitably rewarded and the employees whose performance is not as per budget should not go unpunished.
  • Appropriate Authority: The employees who are entrusted with the responsibilities of implementation of budgetary control should also be given appropriate authority to do so. If a person lacks authority to enforce his decision, it is difficult for him to fulfill his responsibilities
  • Flexibility: If the circumstances warrant, the management should not hesitate to alter the budget figures. But at the same time, care must be taken to see that the budget figures are not altered too much or too often.


Classification of Budgets

Budgets may be classified on the basis of purposes for which they are prepared. On this basis, we have the following types of budgets.

(1) Cash budget: it gives the estimated receipts and payments for the budget period and indicates the position of cash arising from it. It shows the cash requirements at various times of the budget period and helps the management in planning and arranging cash for the business concern.

(2) Capital Budget: gives the estimates in respect of the capital resources of the business. It also states the plans with the estimated cost for investment, expansion, replacement, etc. Thus the budget serves as a device for planning capital expenditure.

(3) Sales Budget: gives a comprehensive sales programme and plans for a specific period. It states the sales potential in terms of quantity, values, period, product, etc. Sales budget is one of the important budgets because it is the basis for preparing other types of budgets.

(4) Selling and Distribution Cost Budget: This budget gives the cost of selling and distribution of the products during the budget period. It includes costs of selling and distribution such as cost of insurance, packing, storing, transport, advertisement, sales commission, market research etc.

(5) Production Budget: also known as output budget and is based on sales budget. It indicates the quantity of units to be produced during the budget period. This budget helps in maintaining optimum balance between production, sales inventory position of the firm.

(6) Production Cost Budget: it is based on the production budget, lays down the estimated cost of carrying out the plans relating to production. Production cost budget is sub-divided in to various sub-budgets like labour budgets, raw material budget, production overhead budget, etc.

(7) Labour Budget: gives the estimated requirements of labour for carrying out the estimated production during the budget period. It may state both direct and indirect labour requirements. Generally, the personnel department prepares the labour budget in coordination with other concerned departments.

(8) Raw Material Budget: This budget which is prepared by the production department gives the estimated requirements of raw materials of different types for carrying out production during the budget period.

(9) Production Overhead Budget: This budget lays down the estimates of all production overheads to be incurred for carrying out the estimated production during the budget period. It breaks up the production overheads into fixed overheads, variable overheads and semi-variable overheads.

(10) Master Budget: Master budget is summary of all functional budgets and indicates how they affect the business as a whole. A master budget generally includes particulars regarding sales, production, cash position, fixed assets, labour, factory overhead, administration overhead, and selling and distribution overhead, major financial ratios and profit.

Advantages of Budgetary Control

  • The various functional budgets state clearly the limits for expenses and also the results expected in a given period thus helping to eliminate any uncertainties that may be faced by the enterprise.
  • Limits and authority of each manager are laid down in the budget making it easy to delegate authority and responsibilities in the enterprise.
  • Generally, the budgets are prepared by committee consisting of important executives of the enterprise and this provides to the company the benefits of combined expertise.
  • Tries to keep the expenditure within control and also to achieve the targets laid down. This keeps everybody always alert and encourages the optimum use of the enterprise resources.
  • It helps in finding out the deviations from the predetermined standards thus the management is able take suitable corrective action promptly. It means wastages and losses are reduced to the minimum.
  • Budgetary control is concerned with the activities of various departments which are inter-related or inter-connected helping to promote co-operation and team spirit
  • Budgetary control involves the communication of management’s policy and objectives to all the managers. Again, the reports of actual performance against the budget, how each manager has fared, what actions are necessary etc., are communicated to the managers. Thus, Budgetary control ensures proper communication in the enterprise.
  • Budgetary control involves two functions (a) planning for its own future performance and (b) control to ensure adherence to the plans laid down. Thus, budgetary control ensures proper performance of the above two managerial functions.

Limitations of Budgetary Control

  • Since an effective budgetary programme reveals the performance of employees, inefficient employees may not support the budgetary programmes.
  • Budgets are based on estimates and hence the effectiveness of budgetary control depends on the accuracy with which the estimates are made about the future.
  • Conditions and circumstances under which an enterprise functions are not static and hence, budgetary control to be effective must be so flexible as to suit the requirements of any change in the circumstances. But it is very difficult to attain flexibility in budget making.
  • Budgetary control will not be effective if no arrangements are made for proper supervision and administration.
  • Budgeting is only one of the tools of management. But often it is taken as a substitute for management rather than as a tool of management which may result to dire consequences for the business.
  • Budgetary control programme is very cumbersome and time consuming process.
  • The manager is discouraged from undertaking activities for which provision was not been made in the budget, but which are otherwise useful for the enterprise. Thus, the managers are discouraged from taking initiative.

Non Budgetary Control Devices


(1) Cost Control

Cost control includes techniques such as (a) Cost Accounting, (b) Standard Costing and (c) Break-even point analysis.

  1. Cost Accounting: Profits of a business enterprise depend very much on the cost of production. Because of this, cost accounting and cost control are given the much importance by organizations. Costs are incurred by an enterprise for different types of activities. Management uses a number of systems for determining the cost of products and services. The management by keeping in view the nature of each industry, designs the cost accounting procedures, methods and records for effective cost control and cost reduction.
  2. Standard Costing: It involves; (a) Deciding cost standards for various components of costs such as labour overheads, raw materials etc. (b)Management of actual performance, (c) Comparison of actual cost with the standard cost and finding out the variances and (d) Finding out the causes of variances and taking measures to prevent the occurrences of variances in future.
  3. Break- even Point Analysis: Break-even analysis is a useful tool of management control over business profits. It is mainly concerned with the cost-volume-profits analysis. It indicates at which level costs and revenue are in equilibrium. It is the point at which total revenue is equal to total cost, i.e., the point of no profit and no loss. It helps in finding out the probable profit at any level of production and the relationship of different volumes, costs sales prices and sales mix to profits.

 (2) Managerial Statistics

Managerial statistics deals with data and methods which are useful to management executives in planning and controlling organisation activities. By using such data, an analysis of past performance is made for control purposes. Managerial statistics also enable the manager to make a comparison between the past and present results with a view to ascertaining the causes of changes that have taken place and for making projection for future.

(3) Internal Audit

In the case of internal audit, the internal auditor who is an employee of the organisation makes an independent appraisal of financial and other operations. In addition, he appraises the company’s policies and plans and performance of management. Further, the internal auditor not only pinpoints defects in the management policies or plans but also gives suggestions for eliminating them.

(4) Production Control

Production control involves planning of production, routing, scheduling, stock control and manufacturing control. It’s the process of planning in advance of operations, establishing the exact route of each individual item, part or assembly, setting starting and finishing dates for each important item, assembly and the finished product, and realising the necessary orders as well as initiating the required follow-up to effectuate the smooth functioning of the enterprise.

(5) Personal Observation

The manager by observing their subordinates while they are engaged in work can exert more fruitful control. By personal observation, the manager will be in a position to know workers attitude towards their work and also correct worker’s mistakes, if any. Further, the worker will not be wasting his time as he knows that he is being observed by his superior.

(6) External Audit Control

External audit is compulsory for all joint-stock companies. External audit ensures that the interests of shareholders and other parties connected with the company are safeguarded against the undesirable practices adopted by the management. The external auditor certifies the annual statements of the company after examining the relevant books of accounts and documents. The external audit is conducted by a qualified Chartered Accountant.

 (7) Inventory Control

Inventory control or material management involves the controlling of inventory used by the enterprise. The enterprise might be using the inventory of different kinds and in different quantities. The controlling of inventory involves the maintaining of stock of the right kind of inventory in the right place and in right quantity and quality.

(8)Special reports and analyses

These are mainly used for particular problem areas. They are not routine and can help review unusual areas that may need significant improvements.


Financial Controls

Businesses exercise financial control for several purposes. It has to determine the need for retaining the earning for company growth. For this, it should consider the pros and cons of retaining the earnings. The company also has to take a decision with regard to the utilization of retained earnings for various purposes. Further, there is a need to take a decision as to how the additional funds required by the company will be made available, that is, whether by the issue of shares raising of loans or by retaining profits. For the purpose of exercising financial control, many control techniques are available. Some of them are;

(a) Comparative financial statements.

(b) Financial ratios

Comparative Financial Statements: Analysis of the financial statements helps in judging the (1) profitability and (2) financial soundness of the company. For exercising the overall financial control of the company, balance sheet and income statement of the company are very helpful.

  • Balance Sheet: For control purposes, a comparative balance sheet is prepared in such a way as to show; (a) balance of accounts on different dates and (b) the extent of increase or decrease in the balance of accounts over a period of time. From the balance sheet, one can know the increase or decrease in the various assets liabilities and shareholder’s equity or capital over a period of time due to operation of business.
  • Income Statement: The income statement helps the manager in finding out the net income generated and losses suffered by the company from its operating activities over a period of time. The operating results may be shown in absolute terms as well as in percentages.

Financial Ratio Analysis: For analysing financial data, ratio analysis is used. From the figures in balance sheet and income statement, financial ratios are computed. Financial ratios are relationships stated in mathematical terms between figures which have a cause and effect relationship or which are connected with each other in some other manner. For example, a ratio of gross profit to sales may indicate the relationship between turnover and profit of the company. Financial ratios provide a measure of financial condition of organisation and hence they are useful in control. Many financial ratios are in use. Some of them are:

  1. The net profit ratio: It expresses the profit as a percentage of sales.
  2. The operating ratio: This ratio states the ratio of total operating expenses to sales.
  3. Return on net worth: This ratio gives the rate of return on the shareholder’s money.
  4. Liquidity ratios: shows the capacity of the company to meet its short-term liabilities.
  5. Acid test ratio or quick ration: This ration also indicates the ability of an organization to pay current liabilities without relying on the sale of inventories and supplies.
  6. Leverage ratio: measures the extent to which an organization has been capitalized by debt. They indicate the extent of borrowings and scope for future borrowings.
  7. Debt-equity ratio: indicates the soundness of financial position of the organization.
  8. Inventory turnover: This shows often inventory turns over or is replenished each year.
  9. Fixed asset turnover: It measures the turnover of fixed assets to net sales and shows the efficiency achieved in the use of fixed assets.

Summary of Controlling

From the study of the managerial function of controlling, certain basic truths or essentials have been implied and can be carried under “principles of controlling”. Because control is just a part of the managerial function, these truths may be similar to truths in other areas of management. So generally the purpose and nature of control can be summarized under the following principles.

  1. Principles of purpose of control—Hold that controls are not for the sake of it. They should ensure that plans succeed by detecting deviations and furnishing the basis for correction of such deviations.
  2. Principle of future directed controls—The more a control is based on the feed forward rather than simple feedback of information, the more managers have the opportunity to understand or perceive deviations from plans before they occur and take action in time to prevent them. Control like planning should be forward looking although the principle is usually ignored in practice.


  1. Principle of control responsibility—The main responsibility for the exercise of control rests in the manager charged with the performance of the particular plans involved. Delegation of authority, assignment of tasks, and responsibility for objectives rest in individual managers and must follow that control over this work should be exercised by each of these managers.
  2. Principle of efficiency of controls—Control techniques and approaches are efficient if they detect and highlight the nature and causes of deviations from plans with a minimum of costs or other unsought consequences. The benefits of control should outweigh the costs if controls have to be efficient.
  3. Principle of Indirect Control—The higher the quality of every manager in the managerial system, the less will be the need for direct controls.
  4. Principle of reflection of plans—The more that plans are clear, complete and integrated, and the more that controls are designed to reflect such plans, the more effectively controls will serve the needs of managers. Controls cannot be devised without plans since their task is to ensure that plans work.
  5. Principle of Organizational Suitability—Controls should reflect the place in the organization structure where responsibility for action lies. Controls need a clear organization structure. Since it is the function of an organization structure to define a system of roles, it follows that controls must be designed to effect the role where responsibility for performance of the plan lies.
  6. Principle of standards—Effective controls require objective, accurate and suitable standards controls should provide a simple specific and verifiable way to measure whether planning programs are being accomplished.
  7. Principle of critical point control—Effective control should pay attention mainly to only those areas where deviations would affect the running of the organization substantially (mainly to avoid being wasteful).
  8. The exception principle—The more managers concentrate control efforts on exceptions, the more efficient will be the results of their control. Managers should concern themselves only with significant deviations i.e. exceptionally “good” or “bad” situations.
  9. Difference with critical point—Critical point control has to do with recognizing the points to be watched while exception has to do with watching the size of the deviation.
  10. Principle of Flexibility of Controls—If they are to remain effective in the light of dynamic environments, controls should be flexible. If a plan fails or is changed controls should also be adjusted.
  11. Principles of Action—Controls are justified only if they indicate corrective action through appropriate planning, organizing, staffing and leading. If this principle is forgotten controls could become useless and wasteful of managerial and staff time.
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Meaning of Frustration

Frustration is one of the causes of stress. It arises when one’s motivation to achieve a desired goal is blocked. It is the feeling of being upset or annoyed as a result of being unable to change or achieve something. For example, an employee wants to finish a report before the end of the day but finds that something or the others keep interrupting him at work. This can lead to his frustration.


Sources/Causes of Frustration

Following are the some of the sources or causes of frustration:-

  1. Co-workers: Co-workers may be a major source of frustration. They may place barriers in the way of goal attainment by delaying work, withholding work inputs, poor presentation of work, affecting its quality, etc.
  2. Limited resources: if there are no adequate resources at the workplace such as machines or workforce, job performance will be negatively influenced which may cause frustration among employees
  3. Undefined/Unclear roles: lack of defined roles may cause frustration among employees as they are not aware of how they should execute their duties
  4. Poor communication: effective communication plays a vital role in motivating employees towards better job performance. If there is poor communication in the organization it will cause employees frustration
  5. Employee personal background: if the employee’s background differs from organizational culture and working relationships, the individual may feel frustrated.
  6. Organizational climate: this represents an overall working environment and relationship of the organization. Healthy and friendly environment help motivate employees while uncomfortable working environment leads to employees frustration
  7. Lack of incentive and motivation procedures: clearly laid out incentive and motivation procedures help achieve high job satisfaction while its absence lead to employee frustration as they feel unappreciated
  8. Lack of effective personnel policy: an effective personnel policy enable growth of employees while lack of such makes employees noncommittal and consequently frustrated

Defense Mechanisms to Frustration

These are the ways the brain deals with stress. In order to deal with conflict and problems in life (frustrations), Sigmund Freud stated that the ego employs a range of defense mechanisms which operate at an unconscious level and help ward off unpleasant feelings such as anxiety.

  1. Repression: pushing away painful memories or unacceptable thoughts and motives. It is an unconscious mechanism employed by the ego to keep disturbing or threatening thoughts from becoming conscious
  2. Denial: blocking external events from awareness. If some situation is just too much to handle, the person refuses to just experience it e.g. someone diagnosed terminally ill may refuse to accept the diagnosis
  3. Projection: involves individuals attributing their own inner feelings, motives and thoughts to another person. E.g. saying that people don’t like you when in reality you may not like yourself
  4. Displacement: satisfying an impulse such as aggression with a substitute object e.g. an employee frustrated by his boss at work could go home and kick the cat
  5. Regression: going back to an earlier and less mature pattern of behavior, usually when under a lot of pressure, act in ways that worked before e.g. throwing temper tantrums
  6. Reaction formation: behaving contrary to how one truly feels e.g. saying you like your boss while you despise them
  7. Sublimation: satisfying an impulse such as aggression with a substitute object but in a socially acceptable way e.g. engage in sports when frustrated


Types of Reactions to Frustration

Following are the various types of reactions employees could exhibit when frustrated:-

  1. Withdrawal: Behaviours such as asking for a transfer or quitting a job.
  2. Fixation: An employee blames others and superiors for his problems, without knowing complete facts.
  3. Aggression: Acting in a threatening manner.
  4. Regression: Behaving in an immature and childish manner and may self-pity (to feel sorry for oneself).
  5. Physical Disorders: Physical ailments such as fever, upset stomach, vomiting, etc.
  6. Apathy: Becoming irresponsive and disinterested in the job and his co-workers.


Solutions to Frustrations at the Workplace

  1. Stay Positive: a positive mind is far more open to solutions and answers. A closed mind won’t see the possible solutions when they do come along
  2. Keep an accomplishments log: record everything you accomplish in a journal which can help keep track of the activities that you feel are limiting you
  3. Talk to a friend:  it is therapeutic to talk to someone about things bothering you at work. A problem shared is half solved
  4. Take action: when into serious frustration with a problem there’s tendency not to work on it leading to procrastination. The only way to get out of it is to move forward by taking relevant action
  5. Accept reality: if you have done everything in your power to accomplish something and it still doesn’t work out then you should try to accept it as it is
  6. Be around positive people: stick close to optimistic people as you get positive energy as well as sound advice

Organizational Measures to Manage Frustrations among Employees

  • Encourage feedback
  • Clear personnel policies
  • Clear communication
  • Reward and motivation system
  • In-house counselling programs
  • Plan social gatherings such as team building activities

K.N.E.C Exam Questions

  1. Outline 3 positive mechanisms which an employee may adopt to cope with frustration in the work place (3 marks)
  2. Explain 6 work related issues that may cause frustration among public relations staff (9 marks)
  3. List 3 negative types of defense mechanism that may be exhibited by a frustrated employee (3 marks)
  4. Explain 6 defense mechanisms that a frustrated employee in an organization may adopt (9 marks)
  5. Explain 4 ways in which an employee may react to work related frustration (8 marks)
  6. List 3 causes of frustration amongst employees in an organization (3 marks)
  7. Explain 6 measures that the management of an organization may put in place in order to manage frustration among its employees (9 marks)
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Meaning of attitude

Attitude is a learned predisposition to respond to an object or a class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way. An attitude can be as a positive or negative evaluation of people, objects, events, activities, and ideas

Attitudinal Categories

Attitude and behavior interact differently based upon the attitude in question. Understanding different types of attitudes and their likely implications is useful in predicting how individuals’ attitudes may govern their behavior. Daniel Katz uses four attitude classifications:

  1. Utilitarian: Utilitarian refers to an individual’s attitude as derived from self or community interest. An example could be getting a raise. As a raise means more disposable income, employees will have a positive attitude about getting a raise, which may positively affect their behavior in some circumstances.
  2. Knowledge: Logic, or rationalizing, is another means by which people form attitudes. When an organization appeals to people’s logic and explains why it is assigning tasks or pursuing a strategy, it can generate a more positive disposition towards that task or strategy (and vice versa, if the employee does not recognize why a task is logical).
  3. Ego-defensive: People have a tendency to use attitudes to protect their ego, resulting in a common negative attitude. If a manager criticizes employees’ work without offering suggestions for improvement, employees may form a negative attitude and subsequently dismiss the manager as foolish in an effort to defend their work. Managers must therefore carefully manage criticism and offer solutions, not simply identify problems.
  4. Value-expressive: People develop central values over time. These values are not always explicit or simple. Managers should always be aware of what is important to their employees from a values perspective (that is, what do they stand for? why do they do what they do?). Having such awareness can help management to align organizational vision with individual values, thereby generating passion among the workforce

Personal Factors Influencing Attitude Formation

Psychological factors: The attitude of a person is determined by psychological factors like ideas, values, beliefs, perception, etc. All these have a complex role in determining a person’s attitude.

Family: Family plays a significant role in the primary stage of attitudes held by individuals. Initially, a person develops certain attitudes from his parents, brothers, sister, and elders in the family. There is a high degree of relationship between parent and children in attitudes found in them.

Society: Societies play an important role in formatting the attitudes of an individual. The culture, the tradition, the language, etc., influence a person’s attitudes. Society, tradition, and the culture teach individuals what is and what is not acceptable.

Peers: A person’s attitude also depends on the peers/friends a person associates with in day to day life. They initiate formation of new attitudes and reinforce attitudes already developed

Political factors:  Political factors such as ideologies of political parties, political leaders and political stability affect the attitudes of people.

Economic factors: A person’s attitude also depends on issues such as his salary, status, work as such, etc.


Organizational Factors Contributing to Attitude Formation among Employees

Co-workers- they play a role in initiating formation of attitudes and reinforcement of existing attitudes

 Work environment:  work environment could be positive or negative which plays part in influencing employee attitudes

 Job satisfaction: refers to an individual’s general attitude towards their job. A person with a high job satisfaction holds positive attitude about their job

 Reward system: motivated employees feel more committed to their job unlike unmotivated employee

Code of conduct/company and personnel policies: employee friendly policies positively influence employee’s attitudes

Signs of Positive Attitude vs Negative Attitude

  • Responsible v Irresponsible
  • Confident v Insecure
  • High self-esteem v Low self-esteem
  • Disciplined v Undisciplined
  • Reliable v Unreliable
  • Optimistic v Pessimistic
  • Motivated v Demotivated

NB/ List not exhaustive….you can add more

Effects of Positive Attitude in the Workplace:

  1. No stress: people with positive attitude have less stress at their work places. Less stress enables the employees to improve their productivity as they work in a stress free environment.
  2. Improved relations: if you have a positive attitude at work your peers will be happy with you and will want to be around you more often. Happy people also make others happy. This can really help the company grow in the future.
  3. Enhanced job security: You can never be fired for having a good attitude. In fact it is the positivity that will shine and help others see the good side of you. Plus when you are nice, kind and generous to others, you can actually create a very good impression and make yourself eligible for promotion at your work place.
  4. Empowering: positive attitude empowers employees and as a result do much better at work. Chances are greater that such employees are given more tasks/responsibilities which empower them the more.
  5. Better control: Positive attitude enables an employee to be in control and confident of their abilities thus increasing work productivity.


Effects of Negative Attitude at Workplace:

  1. Undermines relationships with all co- workers: Negative attitudes after a point can really drain you down and drain those around you. When your relationship with others at work has been undermined, the connection with others at work will begin to suffer affecting work productivity
  2. Missed opportunities: Bad attitude will cost employees a variety of opportunities as well as missing out on small recognitions from fellow employees. On group assignments such negative employees won’t be first choice for most people.
  3. Hinders advancement: negative attitude may cost an employee promotions and lead to the employee also losing out on allocation important jobs and duties.
  4. Risk your job security: On the extreme, a negative attitude may lead to loss of one’s job. Employers require people with positive attitude who ensure growth of the company
  5. Performance level tends to go down: Having a bad attitude can have a huge effect on the business or the workplace you are in. Negative attitudes always have a bad effect on the performance causing employees to become unhappy and pathetic. Mistakes will show up more often and the output will also be low.


K.N.E.C Exam Questions

  1. State 3 organizational factors that may contribute to the development of attitude among employees in an organization (3 marks)
  2. Highlight 4 signs of negative attitude towards work among employees in an organization (8 marks)
  3. Explain 4 ways in which attitude may positively contribute to the working life of employees (8 marks)
  4. Outline 3 ways through which the management of an organization may change the attitude of its employees (3 marks)
  5. Explain 6 effects of a positive attitude among employees in an organization (9 marks)
  6. State 3 personal factors that may influence the formation of an individual’s attitude (3 marks)
  7. Highlight 4 techniques that may be used by public relations practitioners to change the attitude of a target audience (8 marks)
  8. State 3 techniques that a public relations assistant may use to assess the attitudes of the publics of an organization (3 marks)
  9. outline 4 techniques that can be used to change the attitude of employees in an organization (8 marks)
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Definition of Personality

Personality is the combination of characteristics or qualities that form an individual’s distinctive character. It is also referred to as individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving

Constituents/Traits of Personality (The Big Five Factors)

Various personality traits are generally categorized into what is referred to as the Big Five Factors.

  1. Extroversion: pertains to being outgoing, sociable, full of energy, enthusiastic and action-oriented. Introversion on other hand refers to lack of liveliness and energy
  2. Agreeableness: agreeable people like getting along with each other while disagreeable individuals are more concerned with self-interest and personal well being
  3. Conscientiousness: focuses on how we manage and control our impulses and desires. Conscientious people are intelligent, organized and persistent
  4. Neuroticism/Emotional stability: evident in individuals who are emotionally reactive and is characterized by anxiety, fear, moodiness, worry; emotional stable individuals are less reactive and tend to be calm and even tempered
  5. Openness to experience: trait that characterizes people who are creative, imaginative, curious and intellectuals

Components of Personality

Sigmund Freud is known for his study on 3 basic components that greatly affect our personality. He is also attributed to 3 levels of mental awareness that are congruent to the 3 different parts of the mind:

Level 1: Conscious mind- includes our current or present mental processes contributing    a major part in our current awareness

Level 2: Preconscious mind-comprises those that we are aware of but we don’t really give focus or pay attention

Level 3: Subconscious mind- where some of our thoughts surpass the conscious level

From these 3 levels of awareness by Freud, he then developed the 3 components of our personality

  1. Id: functions primarily based on pleasure principle wherein our mind seeks to achieve pleasure and avoid any form of pain
  2. Ego: it is the heart of our consciousness. Based on reality principle which states that our mind acknowledges what is real and currently existing. Also understands that there are corresponding consequences to our behaviors
  3. Super Ego: where our values and morals are contained. It can offset or compensate id