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Bachelor of science in Information Technology Zetech University past papers

Bachelor of science in Information Technology University past papers

System analysis and Design

Data structures and algorithm

Computer Graphics

Software Project management

Object Oriented Programming

Object Oriented System analysis and Design

Computer Organization and Programming

Database Design Techniques

Professional Ethics and practices in IT

Advanced Mobile Communica

Introduction to Computers

Structured programming

Database design

Research methods in IT

Data communication and Networks

Introduction to computerized Business accounting

Introduction to probability and statistics

Computer Organization and programming

Database management systems

Introduction to Multimedia systems

Programming in Java

Document Engineering

Broadband communication

Programming with .NET framework

Electronic Commerce 

Open source Applications 

Introduction to operating system

Real time and embedded systems

Business information systems management

software project management

Messaging and collaboration techniques

Web Logic

Introduction to business computerised accounting

 

 

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BIT3102 BBIT301 BCT2106 BCT2209  INFORMATION SYSTEMS.

UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS: 2017/2018
EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
BIT3102 BBIT301 BCT2106 BCT2209 INFORMATION SYSTEMS
SECURITY AND CRYPTOGRAPHY/ NETWORK SECURITY/
INFORMATION SECURITY POLICY/ PRINCIPLES OF INFORMATION
SECURITY
FULL TIME/PART TIME/DISTANCE LEARNING
DATE: APRIL, 2018 TIME: 2 HOURS
INSTRUCTIONS: Answer Question One & ANY OTHER TWO questions.

QUESTION ONE [30 MARKS]
a) Explain briefly the three people involved in a cybercrime. (3 Marks)
b) Explain any five responsibilities of an incident response team (5 Marks)
c) Discuss briefly the activities in each of the phases of penetration testing. (6 Marks)
d) Differentiate between:
(i) Passive reconnaissance and active reconnaissance (2 Marks)
(ii) Authenticity and Integrity (2 Marks)
(iii) Suicide hackerand cyber terrorist (2 Marks)
e) Explain the steps followed in creating a trojan to infect systems. (5 Marks)
f) Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a set of hardware, software, people, policies and
procedures required to create, manage, distribute, use and revoke digital certificates.
Describe briefly any five components of PKI. (5 Marks)
QUESTION TWO [20 MARKS]
a) With the aid of relevant examples, describe what three types of information can be used to
authenticate a user (6 Marks)
b) Discuss the FOUR possible policies an organization may adopt with regard to providing
Internet access to users of a private LAN. (4 Marks)
c) Discuss any five critical areas physical security must address. (5 Marks)
d) Describe five technical skills required of an ethical hacker. (5 Marks)
QUESTION THREE [20 MARKS]
a) Explain in detail the steps involved in creating and implementing security policies.
(8 Marks)
b) Describe the procedure followed in using a digital signature for secure communication.
(6 Marks)
c) Describe how a hash algorithm operates (6 Marks)
QUESTION FOUR [20 MARKS]
a) A firm security implementation plan can be launched and established using a series of
best practices. State any five of these best practices. (5 Marks)
b) Discuss any four design principles for secure systems. (4 Marks)
c) (i) What is Kerberos? (1 Mark)
(ii) Describe the kerberos logon process (5 Marks)
d) Describe how public key encryption is used to establish the authenticity of a message that is
exchanged between two parties, say Alice and Bob. (5 Marks)
QUESTION FIVE [20 MARKS]
a) Describe any FIVE major considerations you must take into account when choosing the
security design that will secure an organization’s data. (5 Marks)
b) In the last few years, customers have been turning to Managed Security Service (MSS)
providers in growing numbers. That growth reflects a general increase in IT outsourcing.
(i) Outline any four common motivations for companies to seek outside security help.
(4 Marks)
(ii) Explain briefly any four categories of Managed Security Services (4 Marks)
c) Access control services implementation is required for all systems, regardless of the access
control system type. Once the access control rules are provided and implemented, the
system must then limit access based on those rules. List the five steps involved in
implementing access control services. (5 Marks)
d) What do trojan creators look for? (2 Marks)

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BIT3101A  DATA STRUCTURES AND ALGORITHMS.

UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS: 2017/2018
EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE IN BBIT/BAC/Bsc IT/Bsc ICT
BIT3101A DATA STRUCTURES AND ALGORITHMS
MODE: FULL TIME/PART TIME/DISTANCE LEARNING
ORDINARY EXAMINATIONS
DATE: APRIL, 2018 DURATION: 2 HOURS
INSTRUCTIONS: Answer question ONE and any other TWO

QUESTION ONE [30 MARKS]
a) Describe THREE reasons for analyzing an algorithm.
3 Marks
b) Using depth first search traversal, traverse the directed graph in fig 1 below:


Fig 1: Directed graph
5 Marks
c) Describe the procedure for testing an algorithm.
4 Marks
d) Briefly explain how divide and conquer algorithms work.
4 Marks
e) Discuss greedy algorithms. Give two examples.
6 Marks
f) A mathematics teacher at Mbooni girls high school wants to use a computer program to assist
his students learn how to expand a binomial expression that has been raised to some large
power. Using your knowledge of dynamic programming algorithms, provide the design using
a pseudo code for this program such that the user will key in the large power, then the system
calculates the binomial coefficient.
8 Marks
QUESTION TWO [20 MARKS]
a) State and explain the TWO sufficient conditions for a binary tree to be a heap.
4 Marks
b) The array represented in fig 2 below is to be sorted using bubble sort technique. Showing
your working rearrange the elements in ascending order.


Fig 2: one dimensional array.
6 Marks
c) Discuss the various ways of classifying algorithms. Give examples.
8 Marks
d) Differentiate between deque and dequeue as used in queue ADT.
2 Marks
QUESTION THREE [20 MARKS]
a) Assuming you are given the complexity function f(n) of an algorithm, explain, using an
example any THREE rules that can be used when estimating the big O complexity of that
algorithm.
6 Marks
b) The elements stored in a hash table are not always sorted. Explain.
3 Marks
c) Discuss any FOUR techniques for resolving a collision in a hash table ADT.
8 Marks
d) State and explain any THREE applications of stack ADT.
3 Marks
QUESTION FOUR [20 MARKS]
a) Given the infix expression: (((A+B) *C+D) *E)-((F+G) *H-I) and using stack ADT convert
this expression to its prefix form.
6 Marks
b) Describe the procedure for inserting a new node to store integer value 7 between 4 and 6 in
the linked list represented in fig 3 below.


Fig 3: singly linked list
5 Marks
c) Consider the business process case below:
In a certain chain store in town, a customer picks items he/she wants to buy and puts them in
a shopping basket provided at the entrance. The customer then proceeds to the teller/cashier.
The teller scans each item in the basket using a bar code reader to ascertain the price and
quantity. The program then computes the total cost of the items. The customer pays for the
items using a debit card, credit card, cash or by mobile money. The program then prints the
receipt. The transaction is then closed. Design an algorithm for this business process using a
flowchart.
9 Marks
QUESTION FIVE [20 MARKS]
a) Define a graph ADT.
2 Marks
b) Given that V = {A, B, F, T, R, S, W} is set of seven town of population 1000, 1500, 1200,
1500, 1600, 1800 and 20000, respectively. E ={(x,y) | if x more populated than y} where V
and E are set of vertices and edges respectively, construct a directed graph.
6 Marks
c) Represent the graph constructed in b) using adjacency matrix.
4 Marks
3 4 6 8 9
null
d) The tree data structure represented by fig 5 below is a binary search tree, give two reasons to
support this claim.


fig 5: Tree ADT
2 Marks
e) Traverse the tree ADT in fig 5 using in-order traversal.
4 Marks
f) Explain your observation of the output after the traversal in e).
2 Marks

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BIT2311 BCT2102 BAC2501  NETWORK SYSTEMS DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT .

UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS: 2017/2018
EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY/BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY/BACHELOR
OF SCIENCE IN APPLIED COMPUTING
BIT2311 BCT2102 BAC2501 NETWORK SYSTEMS DESIGN AND
MANAGEMENT
FULL TIME/PART TIME/DISTANCE LEARNING
DATE: APRIL 2018 TIME: 2 HOURS
INSTRUCTIONS: Answer Question One & ANY OTHER TWO questions.

QUESTION ONE [30 MARKS]
a) Discuss in detail the following concepts as used in hierarchical network designs:
(i) User community analysis 4 Marks
(ii) Data stores and data server analysis 4 Marks
b) A company has considered creating a network for their complex that has just been
completed. The building is composed of six floors including the ground floor. You have
been tasked to be the designer of this network which will later be connected to the rest of
the company network. It is assumed that you will base your design on Ethernet and all the
floors will be cabled. It is further assumed that each floor will have approximately 380
computers. On each floor, there will be administrative computers which must be
separated from the student computers.
(i) What four critical goals would inform your network design? 4 Marks
(ii) What is the minimum number of wiring closets you would create for this
particular network? 1 Mark
(iii) Where would you place your MDF and why? 3 Marks
(iv) Assuming that the average UTP cable run for each computer is 50 metres. How
many reels of UTP cable would you require for wiring the whole building? Show
your working. 4 Marks
c) A wide variety of software and hardware tools are available to make troubleshooting easier.
These tools may be used to gather and analyze symptoms of network problems and often
provide monitoring and reporting functions that can be used to establish the network
baseline. Explain any three of these tools 6 Marks
d) (i) Two buildings on the Ruaraka campus of KCA University must be connected to
use Ethernet with a bandwidth of at least 100 Mbps. Our main concern is about possible
problems from voltage potential differences between the two buildings. Explain which
media type should be used for the connection 2 Marks
(ii) You are installing IP phones in a new office. The phones and office computers
connect to the same device. To ensure maximum throughput for the phone data sessions,
the company needs to make sure that the phone traffic is on a different network from that
of the office computer data traffic. What is the best network device to which to directly
connect the phones and computers and what technology should be implemented on this
device? 2 Marks
QUESTION TWO [20 MARKS]
a) Your company has a class C network address of 200.10.57.0. You want to subdivide your
physical network into 5 subnets (A, B, C, D and E). You will need at least 20 hosts per
subnet. Based on the given information, fill in the table below. 12 Marks

b) Explain how the following diagrams help in troubleshooting a network.
(i) Physical Network Diagram 4 Marks
(ii) Logical Network Diagram 4 Marks
QUESTION THREE [20 MARKS]
a) Describe the procedure you would follow in isolating problems at the physical layer.
6 Marks
b) With the aid of a well-labelled diagram, describe in detail the procedure you would
follow in laying your cabling between the work areas and the wiring closets.
6 Marks
c) To efficiently diagnose and correct network problems, a network engineer needs to know
network baseline. This information is captured in documentation. Network
documentation include 3 components: Network configuration table, End-system
configuration table and Network topology diagram. Discuss briefly the contents of each
of these three documents. 6 Marks
d) What is port security in relation to switches? 2 Marks
QUESTION FOUR [20 MARKS]
a) (i) What does a switch do if a frame arrives and the destination MAC address is not
in its MAC address table? 1 Mark
(ii) What does a switch do with a broadcast frame? 1 Mark
(iii) You replace a hub with a layer 2 switch. How does this affect collision domains?
1 Mark
(iv) You replace a hub with a layer 2 switch. How does this affect broadcast domains?
1 Mark
(v) Why do routers typically add more latency than switches? 2 Marks
b) Describe any three rules will help ensure that the structured cabling design projects are
both effective and efficient. 6 Marks
c) Discuss the three most common causes of network congestion. 6 Marks
d) Differentiate between a server-based and client/server network. 2 Marks
QUESTION FIVE [20 MARKS]
a) Briefly describe five factors that must be taken into account when deciding what type of
Network Operating System to install on a network. 5 Marks
b) What three goals does a security policy meet? 3 Marks
c) State any five benefits of a security policy to an organization 5 Marks
d) Describe four guidelines for creating effective network documentation 4 Marks
e) There are three key factors that influence network uptime/availability. State these three
factors and illustrate how they affect availability. 3 Marks

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BIT2308  HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION1.

UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS
EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE
IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
BIT2308 HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION
DATE: APRIL, 2018 TIME: 2 HOURS
Instructions
o Answer question ONE and any other TWO.
o Question One carry 30 marks, others 20 marks each.

QUESTION ONE. (COMPULSORY)
(a) Explain the following principles in HCI (6 Marks)
i. Affordance
ii. Usability
iii. Visibility
(b) Discuss three main goals of HCI. (3 Marks)
(c) Compare the constructivist and ecological theories of perception and give examples
of how each has influenced interface design. (4 marks)
(d) Describe, with the aid of a diagram, the Extended Human Information Processing
model. (5 marks)
(e) Explain between knowledge in the world and knowledge in the head. (2 Marks)
(f) (i) Differentiate “recognition rather than recall” as used in HCI (2 marks)
(ii) Discuss areas in system design where ‘recognition’ is encouraged (2 Marks)
(iii) Discuss areas in system design where ‘recall’ is encouraged (2 Marks)
(g) Discuss any two metaphors used in the study of HCI and clearly show their
importance in system design. (4 marks)
QUESTION TWO
(a) What is the meaning of User-centered design? (2 Marks)
(b) Discuss audio and visual devices that are used in input and output devices.
(3 Marks)
(c) What is HOMERUN in reference to a usable website? (3 Marks)
(d) Describe two techniques for evaluation, highlighting their key points and the
differences between them (12 Marks)
QUESTION THREE
(a) Discuss any four interaction styles that are applicable in computing giving its
advantages and disadvantages. (12 Marks)
(b) Discuss KCA University website using Cognitive Task Analysis, GOMS
(8 Marks)
QUESTION FOUR
(a) An electricity power plant was redesigned so that the old system consisting of a
single large display screen which could be seen by all of a team of three operators was
replaced by individual workstation screens for operators. This worked well until there
was a problem which resulted in dangerous gases being released. The team of operators
had great difficulty in finding the source of the problem and deciding what to do.
Because they no longer have access to all the information, they have to spend time
explicitly co-ordinating their understanding of the situation by talking to each other.
Under the old system, the knowledge would be shared – one operator would know what
was happening with another’s area of the plant without explicit communication. Although
the team’s individual responsibilities would still have been clearly divided, the
knowledge of the system would be shared.
(i) What is distributed cognition? (2 Marks)
(ii) How could the new system of individual workstations be modified to make better use
of distributed cognition?
(11 Marks)
(b) Explain any four facilities included in an interactive system that allows users to
recover from their mistakes (4 Marks)
(c) How does evaluation fit into a user-centered design lifecycle? (3 Marks)
QUESTION FIVE
(a) Why is web page design different to designing for printed media? (6 Marks)
(b) What are design guidelines? (2 Marks)
(c) Shneiderman produced eight golden rules as design guidelines for systems. Discuss
any four.
(4 Marks)
(d) What is meant by accessibility? (2 Marks)
(e) Define Gestalt theory and demonstrate how this theory assists in system interfaces
development. (6 Marks)

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BIT2308  HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION.

UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS: 2017/2018
EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREES OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
BIT2308 HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION
FULLTIME/ PART TIME/ DISTANCE LEARNING
ORDINARY EXAMINATIONS
DATE: APRIL, 2018 TIME: 2 HOURS
INSTRUCTIONS: Answer Question One & ANY OTHER TWO questions.

QUESTION ONE [30 MARKS]
a) Explain the following principles in HCI (6 Marks)
i) Affordance
ii) Usability
iii) Visibility
b) Discuss three main goals of HCI. (3 Marks)
c) Compare the constructivist and ecological theories of perception and give examples of how
each has influenced interface design. (4 Marks)
d) Describe, with the aid of a diagram, the Extended Human Information Processing
model. (4 Marks)
e) Distinguish between “knowledge in the World” and “knowledge in the head” (2 Marks)
f) Recognition and Recall are two common HCI concepts:
i) Differentiate between “recognition” and “recall” as used in HCI (2 Marks)
ii) Discuss areas in system design where ‘recognition’ is encouraged (2 Marks)
iii) Discuss areas in system design where ‘recall’ is encouraged (2 Marks)
g) Discuss any TWO metaphors used in the study of HCI and clearly show their importance in
system design. (4 Marks)
QUESTION TWO [20 MARKS]
a) What is the meaning of User-centered design? (2 Marks)
b) Discuss the audio and visual devices that are used for input and output. (3 Marks)
c) What is HOMERUN in reference to a usable website? (3 Marks)
d) Describe any TWO techniques used for evaluation, highlighting their key points and the
differences between them (12 Marks)
QUESTION THREE [20 MARKS]
a) Discuss any FOUR interaction styles that are applicable in computing and give their
advantages and disadvantages. (12 Marks)
b) Discuss KCA University website using Cognitive Task Analysis, GOMS (8 Marks)
QUESTION FOUR [20 MARKS]
a) An electricity power plant was redesigned so that the old system consisting of a single large
display screen which could be seen by all members of a team of three operators was
replaced by individual workstation screens for each operator. This worked well until there
was a problem which resulted in dangerous gases being released. The team of operators had
great difficulty in finding the source of the problem and deciding what to do. Because they
no longer had access to all the information, they had to spend time explicitly coordinating
their understanding of the situation by talking to each other. Under the old system, the
knowledge would be shared – one operator would know what was happening with another’s
area of the plant without explicit communication. Although the team’s individual
responsibilities would still have been clearly divided, the knowledge of the system would be
shared.
i) What is distributed cognition? (2 Marks)
ii) How could the new system of individual workstations be modified to make better use
of distributed cognition? (11 Marks)
b) Explain any FOUR facilities included in an interactive system that allows users to recover
from their mistakes (4 Marks)
c) How does evaluation fit into a user-centered design lifecycle? (3 Marks)
QUESTION FIVE [20 MARKS]
a) Why is web page design different to designing for printed media? (6 Marks)
b) What are design guidelines? (2 Marks)
c) Shneiderman produced eight golden rules as design guidelines for systems. Discuss any
FOUR of these rules (4 Marks)
d) What is meant by accessibility? (2 Marks)
e) Define Gestalt’s theory and demonstrate how this theory assists in system interface
development. (6 Marks)

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BIT2307  GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS.

UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS: 2017/2018
EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
BIT2307 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS
FULL TIME/PART TIME/ DISTANCE LEARNING
DATE: APRIL, 2018 TIME: 2 HOURS
INSTRUCTIONS: Answer Question One & ANY OTHER TWO questions.

QUESTION ONE (COMPULSORY 30 MARKS)
a) Using examples describe three common applications of GIS in society today.
(6Marks)
b) Explain the following terms with reference to geographic information systems;
(i) Layer (2Marks)
(ii) Plug in (2Marks)
(iii) Attribute table (2Marks)
(iv) Transparency (2Marks)
c) Beside the production of maps, the GIS also perform geospatial analysis. Give
Examples of these analyses (5Marks)
d) Attribute data stored in the GIS consists of three basic types. Name any two of these
(2Marks)
e) Explain how each of the following is performed in Qgis:
i) Setting the transparency of a raster image (3Marks)
ii) Creating a new vector layer (3Marks)
iii) Georeferncing a raster image (3Marks)
QUESTION TWO (20 MARKS)
a) Discuss the problems that can be experienced when handling spatial data manually as
Opposed to using geographic information systems (6Marks)
b) Many GIS applications are in existence today, both commercially and in open source.
List the various types of these applications (4Marks)
c) Give the meaning of the following abbreviations as used in GIS
i) OTF (2Marks)
ii) DEM (2Marks)
iii) CRS (2Marks)
iv) GPS (2Marks)
v) CAD (2Marks)
QUESTION THREE (20 MARKS)
a) Explain three methods that can be used to query a GIS project (6 Marks)
b) i) Define digitizing as used in GIS projects (4Marks)
ii) Describe the steps involved in the creation of a GIS database (7Marks)
iii) Define internet GIS using examples (3Marks)
QUESTION FOUR (20 MARKS)
a) Explain the use of a topographic map in GIS projects (2Marks)
b) Explain the three major elements that characterize topology (6Marks)
c) Explain the steps involved in putting a GIS to work (8Marks)
d) Define OTF and explain its importance in any GIS project (4Marks)
QUESTION FIVE (20 MARKS)
a) Explain the major sources of spatial data (8Marks)
b) Name any four types of spatial entities used to represent geographic features (4Marks)
c) Explain the advantages and disadvantages of using raster data for spatial representation
(8Marks)

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BIT2306 BUSS107  ENTRENEURSHIP SKILLS.

UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS: 2017/2018
EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY/ BACHELOR OF BUSINESS IN
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
BIT2306 BUSS107 ENTRENEURSHIP SKILLS
FULL TIME/PART TIME
DATE: APRIL, 2018 TIME: 2 HOURS
INSTRUCTIONS: Answer Question One & ANY OTHER TWO questions.

QUESTION ONE (30 MARKS)
a) Explain a good creative climate. (6Marks)
b) Explain why risk management is a key attribute of the entrepreneur. (4Marks)
c) compare entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship. (6Marks)
d) Explain why entrepreneurship is a process. (8Marks)
e) Describe the role of an entrepreneur in business. (6Marks)
QUESTION TWO (20 MARKS)
a) Describe the ways that an entrepreneur can become unethical. (8Marks)
b) What are the four causes of stress among the entrepreneurs? How can an entrepreneur deal
with each one of them? (8Marks)
c) State four sources of innovative ideas. (4Marks)
QUESTION THREE (20 MARKS)
a) In your own words, what is demand? How can an entrepreneur assess the demand of a
product. (10Marks)
b) Describe the product planning and development process. (10Marks)
QUESTION FOUR (20 MARKS)
a) Explain the factors that can influence one to turn to entrepreneurship. (8Marks)
b) Describe the contribution of entrepreneurship to national development.
(10Marks)
c) Define the term window of opportunity. (2Marks)
QUESTION FIVE (20 MARKS)
a) Describe the techniques that a businessman can use to prevent failure. (8Marks)
b) Explain how an entrepreneur can establish and maintain competitive advantage.
(10Marks)
c) What is the most striking thing that you have learnt in this unit?
(2Marks)

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BIT2305  ICT PROJECT MANAGEMENT BBIT204  IT PROJECT MANAGEMENT  BAC .

UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS: 2017/2018
EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
BIT2305 ICT PROJECT MANAGEMENT& BBIT204 IT PROJECT
MANAGEMENT & BAC
FULL TIME/PART TIME/DISTANCE LEARNING
DATE: APRIL, 2018 TIME: 2 HOURS
INSTRUCTIONS: Answer Question One & ANY OTHER TWO questions.

QUESTION ONE (Compulsory)
a) The success of an IT project is often judged on its closeness to the originally agreed scope, cost
and duration.
i) What is the difference between project and business success? (2 Marks)
ii) Give THREE common project success criteria (3 Marks)
b) Suggest TWO reasons why it is considered that accurate estimating for IS projects is difficult.
(4 Marks)
c) Explain how you would use a Work Breakdown Structure to develop an estimate showing effort
and cost, for a Project. (4 Marks)
d) Describe FOUR differences between “management” and “leadership”. (4 Marks)
e) If the scope of a project increases, what decisions would a project manager have to consider about
the other elements of the Project Triangle? (4 Marks)
f) The constraints governing the jobs are as fo1lows:
A and B are start jobs; A controls C, D and E; B controls F and J; G depends upon C; H
depends on D; E and F control I and L; K follows J; L is also controlled by K; G, H, I and
L are the last jobs. Draw the network, (6 Marks)
g) Define the term project management (1 Mark)
h) Why do we carry out monitoring and control on a project? (2 Marks)
QUESTION TWO
a) Describe THREE warning signs that might indicate to the project manager that there may
be potential problems with the project team. (6 Marks)
b) a) Using an example briefly explain the concept of project crashing (2 Marks)
c) Describe the importance of the following in project management (12 Marks)
i) Software quality assurance
ii) Software risk management
iii) Software configuration management
iv) Supplier management
QUESTION THREE
a)

i) Construct the project network and calculate the forward and backward pass. (5Marks)
ii) Find the expected duration and the variance of each activity. (8 Marks)
iii) Find the critical path and the expected project completion time. (2 Marks)
b) Compare and contrast network techniques and Gantt charts (5 Marks)
QUESTION FOUR
a) At a given point in a project, the budgeted cost of work performed was £250,000, the actual
cost of work performed was £370,000 and the budgeted cost of work scheduled was
£225,000.
i) What would be the schedule variance? (3 Marks)
ii) What would be the cost variance? (3 Marks)
iii) Briefly explain the purpose of performing the above calculations. (4 Marks)
b) CityBus is evaluating a possible investment in one of three new vehicles types, each type of
new bus would produce annual savings compared with the old ones. The investments and
annual savings are compared in the table below: Type A Type B Type C Year 0 Expenditure
(50,000) (60,000) (40,000) Year 1 Saving 40.000 30,000 10,000 Year 2 Saving 20,000
30,000 20,000 Year 3 Saving 30,000 30,000 30,000 a) CityBus has always used the Payback
technique for investment. Calculate investment using payback technique (10 Marks)
QUESTION FIVE
a) You have been appointed as project manager for a successful company creating online
training courses. The software infrastructure for the company is crucial to its future
growth. Until recently the company has outsourced its software development work to a
number of consultants. Your appointment represents a decision to carry out all future
development in-house. You have been asked to recruit four other people to create a team
that will be responsible for identifying business opportunities and developing the IT
infrastructure to support the company. Identify a role for EACH of the FOUR people you
will recruit. This will include a job title, a brief description of the role and the skills
required to fulfil it (10 Marks)
b) As a project manager you are requested to perform the effort estimation of an Air –
Traffic Control project. The mode is organic.
The following project information is available:
40 function points with each function point requiring 5 LOCs
30 function points with each function point requiring 4 LOCs
20 function points with each function point requiring 3 LOCs
COCOMO model

Calculate the effort in person months and the number of persons required using COCOMO
model (10 Marks)

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BIT2303  DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS .

UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS: 2017/2018
EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE
IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY/ BACHELOR OF BUSINESS IN
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
BIT2303 DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
FULL TIME/PART TIME/DISTANCE LEARNING
DATE: APRIL 2018 TIME: 2 HOURS
INSTRUCTIONS: Answer Question One & ANY OTHER TWO questions.

QUESTION ONE: 30 MARKS (COMPULSORY)
a) Define a Distributed System 3 Marks
b) By use of well labeled diagrams illustrate three key differences between distributed
systems and centralized systems 6 Marks
c) Differentiate between NOS (Network Operating Systems) and DOS (Distributed
Operating Systems) 6 Marks
d) State and briefly explain four security goals, highlighting the threats to these goals
6 Marks
e) Outline three advantages of replication in Distributed Systems 3 Marks
f) Discuss how the following clock synchronization centralized algorithms work to
achieve external synchronization. 6 Marks
i. Cristain algorithm
ii. Berkeley algorithm
QUESTION TWO: 20 MARKS
a) Discuss four advantages of Distributed Systems over Centralized systems.
4 Marks
b) Briefly describe all the components of a Distributes Systems 6 Marks
c) Discuss the four models of middleware 4 Marks
d) Describe the following models of Distributed Systems 6 Marks
i. Client-Server Model
ii. Peer-to-Peer Model
QUESTION THREE: 20 MARKS
a) Explain the relation between an error, a fault and a failure 2 Marks
b) State and briefly explain four drawbacks of Distributed Systems 4 Marks
c) Describe any three desirable features of a Message Passing System. 6 Marks
d) With the help of a clearly labeled diagram illustrate the implementation of the RPC
mechanism. 8 Marks
QUESTION FOUR: 20 MARKS
a) Define the term reliability 2 Marks
b) A fault causes failure of a system. Define the term fault giving two types of a fault.
6 Marks
c) Differentiate between the following terms in reference to reliability 6 Marks
i. Fault avoidance
ii. Fault tolerance
d) Describe the following forms of transparencies showing their importance in
Distributed Systems 6 Marks
i. Migration Transparency
ii. Replication Transparency
iii. Access Transparency
QUESTION FIVE: 20 MARKS
a) Differentiate between external synchronization and internal synchronization
4 Marks
a) Discuss the following replication approaches. 6 Marks
i. Active replication
ii. Passive replication
b) Briefly discuss the meaning of the following terms in the context of parallel and
Distributed Systems. 4 Marks
i. Mutual exclusion
ii. Dependability
iii. Availability.
iv. Name space
c) Describe using diagrams three algorithms for achieving mutual exclusion
6 Marks