Posted on

## Foundations of Artificial Intelligence

Foundations of Artificial Intelligence

Part A: True/False. Indicate whether the following statements are True or False. [10]

1. The traditional Turing Test is an interactive test consisting of exactly two artificial agents and one human agent.
2. Depth-first search is always slower than breadth-first search.
3. A* search is always faster than hill climbing.
4. A newborn baby comes pre-wired with intelligence.
5. Learning is an attribute of intelligence.
6. For an agent to adapt to a new environment it needs to be intelligent.
7. Draughts (checkers) and Scrabble are both deterministic games.
8. When playing games, the horizon effect can be solved by limiting the search depth.
9. A rational intelligent agent acts in such a way as to minimize its expected value of performance measure given the percept sequence to date.
10. “Two primary school children, Dennis and Sarut are playing the Tic-tac-toe game. Dennis makes the first move (starts the game).” The minimum number of moves Sarut could make is 2 for Dennis to win the game.

Part B: Multiple-choice. Select the most suitable answer. [6]

1. What is the space complexity of breadth-first search with branch factor b, solution depth d, and maximum search depth m?

(A) O (bd/2)         (B) O (bd)          (C) O (bm)          (D)  O (bd)        (E)  O (bm)

1. Which term describes a case in heuristic search where the positive gradient in the heuristic evaluation function lies along a small region of the state space?
• Plateau problem
• Ridge problem

(C)  Foothill problem (local optima that are not global optima)

(D)  (A), (B) but not (C)

(E)  (A), (B) and (C)

1. Natural language understanding is used in

(A) natural language interfaces

(B) natural language front ends

(C) text understanding systems

(D) All of the above

(E) (B) and (C) above

1. What is the term used for describing the judgmental or commonsense part of problem solving?

(A) Heuristic

(B) Critical

(C) Value based

(D) Analytical

(E) None of the above

1. A computer program that contains expertise in a specific domain is called an:

(A) intelligent planner

(B) automatic processor

(C) expert system

(D) operational symbolizer

(E) None of the above

1. A search method that examines the values associated with the immediate successor nodes and goes to the node with the highest value, is

(A) sequential search

(B) minimax search

(C) hill-climbing search

(D) heuristic search

(E) None of the above

Part C: Work out. [9]

1. Using the A* algorithm work out a route from town A to town M. Use the following cost functions. [7]

g(n) = The cost of each move as the distance between each town (shown on map).

h (n) = The straight line distance between any town and town M. These distances are given in the table below.

Provide the search tree for your solution and indicate the order in which you expanded the nodes. Finally, state the route you would take and the cost of that route.

Straight Line Distance to M

 A 223 E 165 I 100 M 0 B 222 F 136 J 60 C 166 G 122 K 32 D 192 H 111 L 102

1. The straight line distance heuristic used above is known to be an admissible heuristic. What does this mean and why is it important? [2]
Posted on

## BCT 2305   NETWORK SUPPORTED MULTIMEDIA TECHNOLOGIES.

UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS: 2017/2018
EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
BIT 2106: SOFTWARE ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES
BCT 2104: PRINCIPLES OF SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
FULL TIME/PART TIME/DISTANCE LEARNING
DATE: DECEMBER, 2017 TIME: 2 HOURS
INSTRUCTIONS: Answer Question One & ANY OTHER TWO questions.

QUESTION ONE
a) What is software engineering? Specify the attributes of good software. (6Marks)
b) List the fundamental activities, which are common to all software process. (4Marks)
c) What do you mean by separation of concepts in software designing? (4Marks)
d) Distinguish between functional and non-functional requirements with examples.
(4Marks)
e) Differentiate between Software Correctness, Software Robustness and Software Reliability.
(4Marks)
f) Explain the importance of stress testing. (4Marks)
g) What are the user interface design principles? What are the components of GUI?
(4Marks)
QUESTION TWO
a) Explain with a neat diagram, the Boehm spiral model of software development process. What
are the merits of spiral model? (10 Marks)
b) With a neat diagram explain RAD techniques. (10 Marks)
QUESTION THREE
a) What do you mean by requirement elicitation and analysis? What are the problems associated
with that? Explain. (10 Marks)
b) Explain reverse engineering process. What do you mean by abstraction level and
completeness of a reverse engineering process? (10 Marks)
QUESTION FOUR
a) What is Architectural design? Explain the repository model and client – server model, with an
example for each. (10 Marks)
b) Describe DFD as structured analysis and UML as object oriented analysis tool giving suitable
examples. (10 Marks)
QUESTION FIVE
a) Explain in detail COCOMO model used for software cost estimation. (10 Marks)
b) What are CASE tools? Classify CASE tools based on the function. (10 Marks)

Posted on

## BCT 2104 PRINCIPLES OF SOFTWARE ENGINEERING.

UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS: 2017/2018
EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
BIT 2106: SOFTWARE ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES
BCT 2104: PRINCIPLES OF SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
FULL TIME/PART TIME/DISTANCE LEARNING
DATE: DECEMBER, 2017 TIME: 2 HOURS
INSTRUCTIONS: Answer Question One & ANY OTHER TWO questions.

QUESTION ONE
a) What is software engineering? Specify the attributes of good software. (6Marks)
b) List the fundamental activities, which are common to all software process. (4Marks)
c) What do you mean by separation of concepts in software designing? (4Marks)
d) Distinguish between functional and non-functional requirements with examples.
(4Marks)
e) Differentiate between Software Correctness, Software Robustness and Software Reliability.
(4Marks)
f) Explain the importance of stress testing. (4Marks)
g) What are the user interface design principles? What are the components of GUI?
(4Marks)
QUESTION TWO
a) Explain with a neat diagram, the Boehm spiral model of software development process. What
are the merits of spiral model? (10 Marks)
b) With a neat diagram explain RAD techniques. (10 Marks)
QUESTION THREE
a) What do you mean by requirement elicitation and analysis? What are the problems associated
with that? Explain. (10 Marks)
b) Explain reverse engineering process. What do you mean by abstraction level and
completeness of a reverse engineering process? (10 Marks)
QUESTION FOUR
a) What is Architectural design? Explain the repository model and client – server model, with an
example for each. (10 Marks)
b) Describe DFD as structured analysis and UML as object oriented analysis tool giving suitable
examples. (10 Marks)
QUESTION FIVE
a) Explain in detail COCOMO model used for software cost estimation. (10 Marks)
b) What are CASE tools? Classify CASE tools based on the function. (10 Marks)

Posted on

## BCT 1306  SYSTEMS AND SYSTEMS THEORY.

UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS: 2017/2018
EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN
INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
BCT 1306 SYSTEMS AND SYSTEMS THEORY
FULL TIME/PART TIME
DATE: DECEMBER, 2017 TIME: 2 HOURS
INSTRUCTIONS: Answer Question One & ANY OTHER TWO questions.

QUESTION ONE [30 MARKS]
a) Highlight the contributions of Ludwig von Bertalanffy in systems theory (5 Marks)
b) Justify why a business is a system. (4 Marks)
c) Distinguish between Redundancy and Symbiosis giving suitable examples (4 Marks)
d) Identify the components in a control system (5 Marks)
e) Using system theory explain why drug trafficking is a complex vice in society
(6 Marks)
f) Explain the term systems approach and give suitable examples. (3 Marks)
g) Define environment as used in system theory given an example of search in a business
firm (3 Marks)
QUESTION TWO
a) Explain the following terms (10 Marks)
i) Negative Entropy
ii) De-coupling
iii) Factoring
iv) Synergy
v) Equilibrium
b) Discuss why a system whose survival is threatened must change (5 Marks)
c) Why is systems thinking critical in an organization? (5 Marks)
QUESTION THREE
a) Designing of a user interface in computer systems is essential. Give four reasons.
(8
Marks)
b) Identify the essential components in a feedback and control system and explain their
functions. (12 Marks)
QUESTION FOUR
a) Explain how a smoke detector alarm system works by using your knowledge of systems
theory (6 Marks)
b) Universities must establish industry linkages to remain relevant Give reasons for this
argument (6 Marks)
c) Why should there be coupling between SALES DEPARTMENT systems and
PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT in an organization? (8 Marks)
QUESTION FIVE
a) Distinguish between a Logical and physical system (4 Marks)
b) Describe the Just in Case(JIC) system from the system theory perspective (4 Marks)
c) Joblessness of the youth is a simmering problem in society. With your knowledge of
systems theory, how will you address the phenomenon? (12
Marks)

Posted on

## BCT 1305  SEMICONDUCTOR AND DIGITAL LOGIC.

UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS: 2017/2018
EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN
INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
BCT 1305 SEMICONDUCTOR AND DIGITAL LOGIC
FULL TIME/PART TIME
DATE: DECEMBER, 2017 TIME: 2 HOURS
INSTRUCTIONS: Answer Question One & ANY OTHER TWO questions.

QUESTION ONE [30 MARKS]
a) Name the gates in the diagrams below. For each give the truth table. [10 Marks]

b) Using diagrams explain the difference between N-type and P-type Semiconductors[6 Marks]
c) Describe the difference between a logic gate and a flip-flop. Give a symbol for each
[4 Marks]
d) Give the symbols for the XNOR and NAND gates [2 Marks]
e) Give the difference between the semiconductor and conductor materials [2 Marks]
f) Define the terms below
i. doping
ii. p-n junction
iii. forward bias
iv. free electrons [4 Marks]
QUESTION TWO
a) Define the terms digital and analogue. Clearly show the difference. Neat waveform diagrams
may be used [6
Marks]
b) Perform the following number conversions [8 Marks]
i. 34.6710 = _______________2
ii. 2B.3E16 = ______________2
iii. 10010.10112 = __________8
iv. 26.78 = ________________2
c) List two applications of computer systems [2 Marks]
d) Give two advantages of digital transmission over the cheaper analogue transmission
[2 Marks]
QUESTION THREE
a) Define the following as used with digital logic [4 Marks]
i. Sequential logic
ii. Counter
iii. Register
iv. Multiplexer
b) Using D-flipflops construct a 4-bit register [4 Marks]
c) Name two main types of counters [2 Marks]
d) Give the circuit and operation of a comparator circuit [6 Marks]
e) Give any two number codes and their use [4 Marks]
QUESTION FOUR
a) Define the term combination logic [2 Marks]
b) Minimise the following logic expressions using the K-map [9 Marks]
i. F(ABC) = m(0,1,2,5,7) Ʃ
ii. F(ABCD) = m(0,1,3,4,6,7,8,10,12,13,15) Ʃ
iii. F(ABC) = m(1,3,5,6,7) Ʃ
c) Apart from data storage give three other application of register circuits. Illustrate each with a
block diagram [6 Marks]
QUESTION FIVE
a) Given the truth tables below, minimise the output using a k-map and give the outputs X and Z.
Draw the circuits. [10 Marks]
A B C X Z
0 0 0 0 1
0 0 1 0 0
0 1 0 1 1
0 1 1 1 1
1 0 0 1 1
1 0 1 0 0
1 1 0 1 1
1 1 1 1 0
b) Give the difference between combinational and sequential logic [3 Marks]
c) A circuit compares two bits A and B, and gives two outputs X{A>B} and Y{A<B}. Draw the
truth table and the logic circuit [7 Marks]

Posted on

## BBIT102  BAC1101 BIT1109 COMPUTER ORGANISATION  ARCHITECTURE, COMPUTER ORGANISATION  APPLICATIONS.

UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS: 2017/2018
EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
BBIT 102/BAC 1101/BIT1109: COMPUTER ORGANISATION &
ARCHITECTURE, COMPUTER ORGANISATION & APPLICATIONS
FULLTIME/PART TIME/DISTANCE LEARNING
DATE: DECEMBER, 2017 TIME: 2 HOURS
INSTRUCTIONS: Answer Question One & ANY OTHER TWO questions.

QUESTION ONE [30 MARKS]
a) Differentiate between RISC and CISC (6 Marks)
b) What, in general terms, is the distinction between computer organization and computer
Architecture? (4 Marks)
c) What are the four main functions of a computer? (4 Marks)
d) Monitors can either be of CRT (Cathode Ray Tube: like the television type) type or LCD
does each of these provide?
(6 Marks)
e) Describe briefly following
i) WORM
ii) Trojan Horse Virus (4 Marks)
f) Distinguish between Impact and Non-impact printers, giving examples of each.
(4 Marks)
g) What is an interrupt? (2 Marks)
QUESTION TWO
a) Define pipelining in microprocessor architecture. (2 Marks)
b) What do the following acronyms mean in disk controllers (6 Marks)
i) SCSI
ii) IDE
iii) SATA
c) Discuss the four Computer Programming Languages. (12 Marks)
QUESTION THREE
a) Perform the following operations(showing your workings)
ii) Octal: 456+333 (2 Marks)
b) Define word length (2 Marks)
c) What are the steps required for a superscalar processor to process the instruction?
(4 Marks)
d) Distinguish between a parallel port and USB port (4 Marks)
e) In computer performance explain what you understand by these terms, giving a definition
and an example for each.
(i) Latency (2 Marks)
(ii) Throughput. (2 Marks)
QUESTION FOUR
a) Distinguish between a compiler and an interpreter giving an example of each
(4 Marks)
b) Describe SIX functions of the operating system (6 Marks)
c) List FOUR topologies in networks (4 Marks)
d) Explain cache memory. (2 Marks)
e) What are virtual and logical addresses? (4 Marks)
QUESTION FIVE
a) What risks do organization face under virus attack (4 Marks)
b) How would you mitigate the risks in 5(a) (4 Marks)
c) Differentiate between synchronous buses and asynchronous buses. (2 Marks)
d) Describe FOUR access methods on storage devices (4 Marks)
e) What are the three key concepts on which the Von Neumann Architecture is based on?
(6 Marks)

Posted on

## BBIT 209  DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMSx.

UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS: 2017/2018
EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF BUSINESS IN
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
BBIT 209 DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS
FULL TIME/PART TIME
DATE: DECEMBER, 2017 TIME: 2 HOURS
INSTRUCTIONS: Answer Question One & ANY OTHER TWO questions.

QUESTION ONE
a) Explain the relationship between business intelligence and DSS (4Marks )
b) Identify five types of systems in the DSS hierarchy (5Marks)
in each step (5Marks)
d) One of the key functions of management is decision making. Using specific examples, you are required
to:
i. Describe the types of decisions that managers are required to take. (3 Marks)
ii. Describe the characteristics of decisions taken at different levels in an organisation. (2 Marks)
iii. Identify the four conditions under which a manager has to make decisions (4 Marks)
e) Define the following terms as used in DSS (4 Marks)
i) Objective Utility
ii) Goal Seeking
f) Identify three functions of modeling in DSS. (3 Marks)
QUESTION TWO
a) Distinguish between data-directed and goal-directed analysis in rule-based systems. Which is preferred
for medical diagnostic systems and why? (6 Marks)
b) Using relevant examples differentiate between the following decision theories :descriptive,
prescriptive and normative (9 Marks)
c) Describe five types of systems in the DSS hierarchy (5Marks)
QUESTION THREE
a) Identify and assess the integration of multiple techniques in DSS development tools. (7 Marks)
b) Outline the organizational computing field and discuss its relevance to the decision support system.
(7 Marks)
c) Discuss under what circumstances might designers be more concerned about the “appropriateness of the
format” of the information than the “timeliness” of the information. (6 Marks)
QUESTION FOUR
a) Sunny Bakery is a small grocery store, provides customers’ need and concerned with the
financial- viability of the store. Bread is one of their major daily products. Their problem is to
determine how much bread to stock each day. They decide to explore a few possible
approaches to solve the problem
i) Describe possible approaches to solve this problem (6 Marks)

ii) Design a modeling solution to help them solve the problem (8 Marks)
b) Using a relevant example, discuss how a bank can use excel to determine the loan processing procedure
as part of a simple DSS. (6 Marks)
QUESTION FIVE
Clothes Entreprise is a leading clothing with over 100 departmental stores in Kenya. The
departmental stores have to reconsider the best way to secure and maintain a competitive
advantage. With increasing competition, they are planning on using a sophisticated decision
support system. The existing system in the company handles large amounts of data, however,
inadequate data access and analysis capabilities prevented managers from exploiting the wealth of
information buried in their business transaction.
i) Identify THREE (3) risks in implementing a DSS project in the company. (6 Marks)
ii) Explain how the company is able to gain competitive advantage against its competitors by the
new DSS. (6 Marks)
iii) Give THREE (3) decision situations which can be supported by the new decision support
system. (8 Marks)

Posted on

## BBIT 209  DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS.

UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS: 2017/2018
EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF BUSINESS IN
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
BBIT 209 DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS
DISTANCE LEARNING
DATE: DECEMBER, 2017 TIME: 2 HOURS
INSTRUCTIONS: Answer Question One & ANY OTHER TWO questions.

QUESTION ONE
a) List FOUR major components in building DSS (4 Marks)
b) Name FOUR stages in decision-making process (4 Marks)
c) Distinguish between decision-making and problem solving (4 Marks)
d) Why are spreadsheets considered as DSS tools (2 Marks)
e) State FOUR major differences between TPS and DSS (4 Marks)
f) Explain the following categories of DSS
i) Data driven
ii) Model driven
iii) Knowledge driven
iv) Document driven (12 Marks)
QUESTION TWO
a) Identify Key milestones in the history of DSS (8 Marks)
b) What are the features of a GDSS tools (8 Marks)
c) Why is prototyping a desired method for the development of DSS (4 Marks)
QUESTION THREE
a) List FIVE characteristics of Decision support systems (5 Marks)
b) State SEVEN dimensions of information quality (7 Marks)
c) Distinguish between an expert system and a decision support system (8 Marks)
QUESTION FOUR
a) Explain Business Intelligence application in decision making (4 Marks)
b) Organisations have for some time used the THREE levels in its hierarchy. What are the
characteristics of the decisions made in these levels (12 Marks)
c) Explain the goal seeking and what is scenarios as used in DSS (4 Marks)
QUESTION FIVE
a) Distinguish between inter-organisation and intra-organisation DSS (6 Marks)
b) What functionalities do the web-based DSS provide? (4 Marks)
c) State FOUR major differences between MIS and DSS (4 Marks)
d) Discuss using a suitable case study in industry of DSS decision (6 Marks)

Posted on

## BBIT 207 SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGY.

UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS: 2017/2018
EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF BUSINESS
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
BBIT 207 SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGY
FULL TIME/PART TIME/DISTANCE LEARNING
DATE: DECEMBER, 2017 TIME: 2 HOURS
INSTRUCTIONS: Answer Question One & ANY OTHER TWO questions.

QUESTION ONE (Compulsory)
a) Discuss the conventional and human oriented views of ISD (4 Marks)
b) Discuss the key drivers of knowledge management (6 Marks)
c) Describe the approaches to addressing competitive effectiveness using IS/IT
(6 Marks)
d) Distinguish between JAD and Stakeholder analysis (2Marks)
e) Describe the potential benefits and the potential blocks to problem cognition when using
techniques in system development (5 Marks)
f) Define the term information systems development (2Marks)
g) Describe Mumford’s three levels of user participation (3 Marks)
h) Discuss two ways in which ICT-enabled organizational change can happen in an organization.
(2Marks)
QUESTION TWO
a) Consider and describe the nature of analyst, methodology, and situation and their
interrelationships in terms of some of the systems development methodologies discussed
during this subject. (8Marks)
b) Identify the outcomes of BPR programmes (4Marks)
c) Current trends in software engineering are moving away from the waterfall model for
large projects and moving toward iterative methods such as the spiral model. Discuss
what are we gaining and losing as a result (8 Marks)
QUESTION THREE
a) Describe a methodology which can be considered to reflect the “science” paradigm and a
methodology which can be considered to reflect the “systems” paradigm. Refer to the
main objectives, phases/activities, and deliverables of the methodology in your
description. Justify your classification of the methodologies. (10 Marks)
b) Systems analysts need to communicate and interact extensively with users. However the
“vocabulary” of systems development is often not familiar to users and the organisational
backgrounds and experience of systems analysts may be very different from those of
users. What problems might this cause during the requirements definition phase in
particular, and how might they be overcome? (10 Marks)
QUESTION FOUR
A company has over the years used software development methods that rely on documented
specifications and designs. Agile methods are being considered seriously in the pursuit of growth
a) Explains the agile principles for rapid software development and justify its appropriateness as
a method for adoption. (12 Marks)
b) Discuss the view that modern life cycle models with their emphasis on prototyping, create
systems that are often fragmented and difficult to integrate; of unsatisfactory reliability,
performance, and functionality; and of limited longevity. (8 Marks)
QUESTION FIVE
Explain and compare the implications of choosing Object Oriented Systems Development, as
opposed to Structured Systems Development, for the following challenges in developing
approach for each challenge.
a) Designing the software. (5 Marks)
b) Producing the software code. (5 Marks)
c) Testing the software product. (5 Marks)
d) Documenting the software process. (5 Marks)

Posted on

## BBIT 201 INTERNET APPLICATION PROGRAMMING.

UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS: 2017/2018
EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE IN BACHELOR OF BUSINESS
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
BBIT 201 INTERNET APPLICATION PROGRAMMING
MODE: FULL TIME/PART TIME/DISTANCE LEARNING
ORDINARY EXAMINATIONS
DATE: NOVEMBER, 2017 DURATION: 2 HOURS
INSTRUCTIONS: Answer question ONE and any other TWO questions

QUESTION ONE [30 MARKS]
a) Define the following concepts with respect to internet application programming.
i. Protocol
ii. Program
iii. Browser
[3 Marks]
b) Using a well labelled diagram, describe how internet application works.
[4 Marks]
c) Write html tags to display the following table

[8 Marks]
d) Differentiate between GET and POST values in method attribute of a form.
[4 Marks]
e) Describe the general steps for developing an internet application.
[6 Marks]
f) Write a JavaScript program to allow the user to key in two numbers then swap them using a
function called swap () and display the new values.
[5 Marks]
QUESTION TWO [20 MARKS]
a) Write html tags for each of the following form controls
i. Fieldset
ii. Legend
iii. Check box
v. Command button
[10 Marks]
b) Write a JavaScript program to prompt the user to enter quantity sold and price per unit then
calculate and display the total payable. Hint total payable= quantity sold * price per unit.
[6 Marks]
c) JavaScript is a loosely typed language, explain.
[4 Marks]
QUESTION THREE [20 MARKS]
a) Differentiate between client-side and server side scripting
[4 Marks]
b) Write a PHP program to print odd numbers between 3 and 300.
[6 Marks]
c) Write an html code to receive product code, product name, quantity and unit price through a
form then send them to PHP file using POST method. The PHP program calculates and
displays the total payable.

[6 Marks]
d) Discuss any FOUR lexical elements in a JavaScript program.
[4 Marks]
QUESTION FOUR [20 MARKS]
a) Describe any THREE rules followed when naming variables in JavaScript.
[3 Marks]
b) Describe any FOUR calculation operators you may use in a JavaScript program.
[8 Marks]
c) Write a JavaScript program that uses prompt dialogs to get two numbers, calculates their
product and display the result in a confirm dialog
[6 Marks]
d) Briefly outline the HTML elements on a web page.
i. Horizontal line.
ii. Marquee
iii. Superscript.
[3 Marks]
QUESTION FIVE [20 MARKS]
a) Describe THREE attributes you can use in a FORM element.
[6 Marks]
b) Apart from JavaScript outline any other two client scripting languages.
[2 Marks]
c) Write a JavaScript program to receive the final score and display appropriate grade using the
criteria below.

[8 Marks]
d) Identify the role of the following MySQL functions in a PHP program.
i. Mysqli_connection()
ii. MySQL_errno ()
[4 Marks]