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These are some of the most popular ways of presenting statistics
A bar chart consists of strips of different lengths each representing a numerical figure.
The longer the bar the larger the figure it denotes

How to construct a bar chart
1. Decide on the scale in which the figures are to be represented example 1 cm for $500.
2. Draw the axis – the lines which the scale is marked mark out the scale at regular intervals.
3. Decide on the order of the bars. If they show statistics over a period of time they should be arranged in chronological order.
4. Label the bars if necessary making sure that all writing is horizontal so that it can be read easily.
5. Give the chart a clear heading if possible at the top.
6. Give the source of the data used to reassure the reader that the figures are accurate.

They are used to show the relative size of separate components of a whole. For example they can be used to show how the income of a country is spent.


4. 2. GRAPHS
Graphs are a valuable form of visual communication they are a means of presenting data on the relationship between two constantly changing elements in the form of single line , the shape of which reveals the nature of the relationship at a glance.

1. Use a graph paper
2. choose the variables for each axis
3. Choose the scales for the two axis which will fit the graph paper
4. Mark off the axis at regular intervals
5. Plot the points of the graph.
6. join the points to draw the line graph
7. make sure each axis is labeled to show what information it gives and the scale used
8. Give the graph a clear title

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Essay writing is an attempt to write a given topic. Essay is derived from French word essays that means to attempt. It means composition. In any topic or subject composition is made up of paragraphs which are logically arranged and connected with one another. Each paragraph discusses a particular subject relating to the topic i.e. leads to succeeding.

How to write good essay

1. Define the scope of essay e.g. if you are about the problems of industrialization the scope will be different from if you are to write about evils industrialization. In the 1st topic i.e. the problems of industrialization you will discuss about the availability
of raw materials, energy, labour and market conditions etc. In the 2nd topic you can write about effects or industrialization e.g. pollution of atmosphere, exploitation of labour, concentration of wealth in few hands etc.
2. Jot down the ideas
This means you put down relevant ideas in a sketch form.
3. Prepare the outlines
You arrange the ideas you have generated in a logical sequence and you prepare your outline e.g. if you are writing about an event you should write using chorological sequences.
4. Think of an attractive beginning
Introduction should be fresh, original and arresting. It should be strictly relevant to the subject.
5. Conclusions have to be stated clearly and firmly.
6. Develop different points in different paragraphs.
7. Revise your essay
8. Avoid being irrelevant.
9. Use simple language
10. Develop habit of reading newspapers and periodicals.

It is used for communication to persons outside the organization


  1. To provide a convenient and inexpensive means of communication without personal contact.
  2. To seek or give information
  3. To furnish evidence of transactions entered into
  4. To provide a record for future reference.
  5. To provide a written record and reference

Business letters can be classified into:

  1. Letters of inquiry
  2. Letters answering a request
  3. Claim and adjustment letters
  4. Credit letters
  5. Collection letters
  6. Sales letters and
  7. Employment letters

1. Promptness
Reply to the letter the day it is received. If time is needed acknowledge the letter and indicate when a reply will be sent.
2. Knowledge of the subject
This includes knowledge of past correspondence.
3. Accuracy, completeness and clarity:
Verify facts before you write them.
4. Courtesy
We should seek favours politely and express our gratitude for the favours done to us.
5. Appropriateness
Vary the tone of your letter according to the occasion and the psychology of the reader.
6. Tact
You should endeavour to retain the goodwill of someone even though his request has been turned down.
7. Persuasion
This means winning people to your point of view by making positive suggestions and explaining that what you say is to
their advantage.
8. Conciseness
Eliminate all irrelevant details from your letter.
9. Adopt the you approach
Avoid the ‘I’ and ‘We’ in your letter.
10. Adopt the positive and pleasant Approach.
Avoid No’s and Sorry’s in your letter they are unpleasant and unwelcome No for example can be written as ‘
another time’ or ‘try later’ sorry may be presented as’ I will try’.
11. Use familiar language
Avoid jargon, bombastic and colloquial or words when writing a business letter.

The heading is the letter head of the letter. It contains; the name of the organization, the logo, the address, the telephone number, fax number, e-mail, and the physical location of the business.
The date comes below the heading. The date should have a format of either ‘30th October 2007’ or ‘October 30th 2007’ the date should be underlined. For fully blocked letters the date comes at the left hand side. In case of semi blocked letter ,it will appear
at the right hand side of the paper.
It comes below the date for fully blocked letters, or it is written on the same line as the date for semi blocked letters but starting at the left margin. The reference is used to identify the department or section where the communication originates.
Examples are:
-Reference No………
-Ref. No……

It contains the name and address of the person or firm to which the letter is written. You can add ‘For the attention of ’ when you want the letter to be directed to an identified officer in the organization.
This is the greeting part of the letter. For formal letters you can address dear Sir, for and Dear Madam for ladies. For semi-personal letter you can write Dear Mr. Otieno or Dear Moraa. For personal letters you can write My dear Juliet.
It is divided into

  • Subject or Reference
    Subject is used when writing a letter for the first time while reference is used when replying a letter.
  • Opening paragraph
    The letter should open with the expression of pleasure, gratitude or Acknowledgement. Remember to use the ‘you approach’ in your opening paragraph.
  • Main paragraph
    This paragraph contains the subject matter of the letter. Make sure all issues are detailed in this paragraph.
  • Closing Paragraph
    The ending should aim at motivating the reader to take action. You can close with an offer or a request.

This is also referred to as subscription. It is a polite way of ending a letter. Letters having salutations ‘Dear Sir, Madam, Sirs, and Mesdames’ should end with ‘yours faithfully’. Less formal letters can end ‘yours truly’ or ‘yours very truly’.
Letters having Dear Mr. John should end ‘yours sincerely’. Letters to superiors can end ‘yours respectfully’
The writer should sign by putting his/her name down and the position in the organization.
This is used when there are other documents enclosed in the same letter for the receiver.
This is used to show who else has been sent the same letter. For example.
Cc District Officer1
Town clerk
Town engineer

3.2.2. MEMO
Memo is short form for memorandum
It is used for internal communication

A report is an orderly presentation of facts about specific business activities or programs. Reports can also be defined as a communication from someone who has some information to someone who wants to use that information.

Report – It’s a document in which a given problem is examined for the purpose of conveying information, reporting, finding, putting forward, ideas and sometimes making recommendations.

Business report
It’s a document which investigates a specific subject according to a prescribed format and for a clearly defined leadership. A report can be oral or written. However, a written report is preffered to an oral report for a number of reasons.
1. Oral report can be denied at any time but written report is a permanent report and it can not be denied.
2. An oral report tends to be vague. It may contain some irrelevant facts and some important points may be overlooked.
3. A written report tends to be accurate and precise.
4. A written report can be referred to again and again.
Report can be either informative, interpreting.

Informative reports
An Informative report is one that represents facts pertinent to a given situation or issue. Interpretive reports They are reports that analyze the facts, draw conclusion and make recommendations .e.g. An informative report on sale of tables, draws will simply record the number of tables sold during a given month/months. An interpretive report on sale of tables, we analyze why and to what extent the sale of tables go up during summer month i.e. May-July and it will make recommendation on the schedule of production.

Importance of reports
Report is basic management tool that is used for decision making

Characteristics of reports
It should be precise, clear and answering the questions that is being investigated.
A report should have accurate facts because they are used for decision making inaccurate facts may lead to disastrous decisions.
A report must be relevant i.e. should contain only relevant facts. Irrelevant facts should not appear in the report.
A good report should be leader oriented.

Objectivity of recommendation. If you are to write conclusions make sure they are impartial and they are objective. They should come as logical conclusions to investigation and analysis.
Reports should be written in simple and ambiguous language.
Report should be clear and brief.
A report should be grammatically correct.
According to stephene a report should be characterized by clear expression and neat display. It should be nature of agreement well reasoned and arranged, accurate in all details and leading logically to the conclusions and recommendations set forth.

Skills/Qualities of Report Writing
Ability to record facts clearly and objectively
Ability to interpret facts and attributes them to findings
Ability to formulate and present opinions based on the facts but clearly separated from them.

Types of business reports
1. Based on legal formulations reports are of two kinds

  • Formal Reports
    They are prepared in prescribed form and presented accordingly to an established procedure to prescribed authority.
  • Informal Reports
    Usually inform of person to person communication and usually submitted in form of letter or memo.

Formal reports can be divided into two:-

Statutory reports – They are prepared and presented according to the form and procedure laid down by law. e.g. the directors of a company are required to submit a statutory report to the share holders in annual general meeting.
An auditors report
Non statutory reports
Are formal reports which are not required under any law. e.g. management may require a departmental head to write a report on a certain issue.

2. Based on number of persons writing a report

  • Report by individuals
  • Report by committee or sub committee

3 On the basis of nature of reports

  • Periodic or routine reports
  • Progress reports
  • Examination reports
  • Recommendation reports
  • Statistical reports

Writing a Report
1. Before beginning you need to know why you are writing the report and what exactly you are writing about.
2. You need to keep report accurate and relevant
3. While writing the report omit opinions from sections concerning the facts.
4. Organize your points in a logical order.
5. Use your judgment and experience when suggesting actions or making recommendations.
6. Use language suited to the leader and make sure each session has clear heading.

Sections of a Report
1. The title
The title should be concise but comprehensive. The situation stated briefly together with name of company and date of the event. E.g. Report on staffing levels in the general office, William engineering on Friday 15th December 2006.
2. Background
This contains two kinds of information. Brief descriptions of circumstances under discussion and outline of the procedure/method of inquiry used by writer. e.g. On Friday 15th December the general office was staffed only by Mr. Jones and the other four staff
members were absent. As a result the services available were limited. I have discussed the matter in confidence with each member of staff involved and also with other departments which were concerned.
3. Findings
This is the part of report. It presents in simple clear, unbiased terms an account of the events or circumstances which form the subject of the report.

Principles to follow when preparing the findings
1. Organize your material in sections according to subject area and present each one under a clear descriptive heading which could be clearly numbered.
2. Write in clear, single style points under consideration only. Don’t note from or numbered from below your findings.
3. Include only those statistics that are really essential to support your points. The findings do not interpret, they only give the observations
4. Conclusions
This means that section of report that interprets the facts and the observations represented in the findings. It presents direct and clear interpretation of event or circumstances.

Basic Principles of presenting conclusions
1. Conclusions should be presented under the same series of subject heading as findings and in the same order with the same system of numbering.
2. It should be written in simple continuous prose.
3. Do not include statistics or graphs or maps which have not been included in the findings.
5. Recommendations
It’s the final section of a report and it puts forward future course of action concerning the topic under investigation.

1. Each recommendation should be as specific as possible given the information available.
2. Even when we feel the present arrangement for a certain aspect of topic is satisfactory, you should mention this in the recommendation section. E.g. current arrangement for replacing lost library tickets is satisfactory and should remain unchanged.
3. Recommendations should be grouped under the same heading and should appear in the same order as used in findings or conclusions.
4. Recommendations must rest on the information and the findings and the reasoning in conclusions so that the leader can see that the reports proceed clearly and logically and nothing has been cancelled.
5. Signature, Name, Position and date.
This should follow each other in that sequence.

Summary is also referred to as precise or abstract. It means a prose passage or composition from which all unnecessary and unrelated ideas and words have been removed. Word precise is a French term that means exact or just. A precise is written in precise
writer own words and about 1/3 of original passage.

Abstract: Its summary constructed by extracting the key sentences or a paragraph and putting them together coherently.
A precise/summary is in form of paragraphs a summary on the other hand can be in form of paragraph or inform of notes.

Objectives of Precise/Summary
Objectives of summary is
To put down in short form a message which can be understood by very busy officers who do not have time to read original passage.

Qualities of good summary

  1. Should be concise
    I.e. a summary should be as long or short to serve the purpose.
  2. Clarity
    – It has to be clear.
  3. Coherent
    I.e. it should hold together. You can use the following words to join sentences or paragraphs consequently. Moreover, however, naturally, next, thus, nevertheless, finally etc. You can also use phrases to join paragraphs or sentences e.g. equally important, in
    this way, on contrary, first of all, on the other hand, of course, for instance etc.

How to make summary
1. Read the passage thoroughly. Try to get general idea of passage
2. Read the passage again until you have grasped the entire meaning
3. Underline/highlight all important ideas.
4. Write down a title which sums up the theme of the passage
5. Rewrite in fewer words what the author has said, use your own language as far as possible.
6. Re-read the passage, compare you point with passage to ensure no important points have been overlooked and nothing insignificant has been included.
7. Using your points write down sum and substance of the passage in well connected and readable paragraphs. This is your rough draft.
8. Count the words in your rough draft. Make alterations if necessary to give your summary the required length.
9. Review and rephrase you rough draft where desirable.
10. Reconsider the appropriateness of your heading/title.

Title Heading
The heading can be written before the summary is made. The heading should express in few words the theme of passage. The topic should be written one line or less. More than one line may appear confusing. A summary can have many suitable headings but you should choose the best that gives the central theme or the passage.

Rules of writing summary

  1. Determine the theme of passage very carefully.
  2. A summary is not reproduction of important sentences but it’s the act of remodeling.
  3. Brevity is good but not at the expense of clarity.
  4. Your summary ought to be intelligible even to persons who have not read the original passage.
  5. Use your own language.
  6. Summary is always written in 3rd Person.
  7. Use your own discretion if the passage contains statistical information.
  8. The summary should be well proportioned.
  9. You are not to give any comments appreciative or critical on ideas expressed in the passage.
  10. Reproduce the passage to its 1/3rd.

How to achieve brevity
1. Try to replace clauses by phrases and phrases by words. E.g. “an arrangement of a permanent nature,” Can be written as “A permanent arrangement” E.g. “To a considerable degree” you can write “considerably”.
2. Make use of one word substitutions. E.g. “the secretary’s proposal was adopted with the full agreement of all the members”. You can simply say “the secretary’s proposal was adopted unanimously”.
3. Avoid unnecessary repetition e.g. it was decided to allow only our own executives to participate in the seminar and not to invite any external participants. The words in italics are unnecessary repetitions.
4. It’s important to link various sentences. For example; we are selling a new garden fertilizer in the market. It’s in form of powder. Its colour is pink. You can dust it on the plants. You can dissolve it in water and spray. You can say “Our new garden fertilizer, a
fine pink coloured powder can be dusted on the plants or dissolved in water and sprayed”.
5. When writing a summary; omit examples, comparisons, contrasts and mere details.

Many readers waste a lot of time for 2 reasons.

  1. They read everything at the same speed, often at a slow pace.
  2. They do not understand or retain what they have read

A good reader adjusts his/her speed according to the purpose or difficulty of the subjectmatter.

Reading Techniques
1. Scanning
It’s the process of looking quickly through a text to find a particular piece of information. To scan move your eyes quickly down the text looking for key words related to the topic in question. Scanning is used for reading street or telephone directories to find particular name. Its also used when you need to go through a piece of continous writing to find specific piece of information eg. statistics.

Scanning can be useful for reading annual report, catalogue. Members of staff read many reports. Scanning is important to allow them grase the main draft of the report.

How to increase scanning speed
Draw a finger down the center or the page while moving your eyes rapidly from side to side as you follow it down.
Uses of certain techniques – move an envelope or piece of paper down the page curtaining off the line you have read.

2. Skimming
Skimming is glancing at speed over the printed words on a page. In skimming words are not individually note but an impression is gained. Skimming requires a lot of concentration to get an idea of what the text is all about.
Where skimming is used

  • To preview
  • To identify priorities where to read more slowly.
  • To find a required piece of information
  • To help memory by immediate grasp of what we have just read.

How to skim

1. Anticipation.
As we read we should aim to understand the whole content by seeing the complete picture rather than the small separate bits. This means that you think faster than you read and make predictions or what you expect to read next. E.g. if a problem has been described, you may well anticipate a solution.

2. Organization
Go through the structure or patterns of the writing. This skeleton will help you in grasping the whole text e.g. a book is divided into chapters and subsections. If we go through the structure we find our way more speedily.

Study Reading
This is required when you need to read in detail, when studying a report or a textbook study reading is crucial mostly when reading contracts and other legal documents.

1. When you take a textbook, make sure of all the clues it offers before you actually begin to read it.
2. Read the ‘blurb’ inspect the context page I read the preface and check the subject index.
3. While reading, look for the internal skeleton for synopsis and summarize for topic sentences in paragraphs, for headings and italics which may emphasize key points by making the book and taking notes.
4. Skim the notes once you have finished reading.

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Speech or spoken word is very powerful, it can stir people to mutinies and rebellions it can turn a hostile crowd to a friendly gathering. The key to the success of many politicians, industrialists, managers, and salesmen lies in their ability to speak.

1. It is clear.
Your speech should convey to the audience the ideas, emotions, facts or arguments you want to express.
2. It is like an informal talk
When you speak there should be a perfect rapport between you and your audience.
3. It is vivid and concrete
Use concrete facts that are easy to comprehend and visualize. Instead of saying the population of India is growing very fast, a speaker said see how fast our population grows one Australia is added the population of India every year and Australia’s area is two and half times that of India.
4. It is brief
An audience can last up to twenty minutes. Your speech should be tailored to that length. To achieve brevity, include only a few points and elaborate at length
5. It is interesting
Quotations, anecdotes and humorous touches often make a speech interesting. Quotations should be from acceptable authorities. They should be familiar but not worn out. Anecdotes should be new brief and in good taste. Humor should be topical, original spontaneous and gentle.
6. It is audience oriented
A good speech should be tailored to the wavelength of the audience. Consider the following points:

  • Is the audience general or specializes one? This will help you determine the depth of the subject
  • How large is the audience? For a small audience the speech will be more like a chat in a large gathering you will have to be
  • What is the age group of the listeners? Your reference and illustrations should conform to the tastes of that particular group.
  • What is the social religious political and economic views and prejudice of the listeners? What is the expected audience

1. “A good speaker is lively, interested enthusiastic and vital.” He treats his audience as a group of living people. He is keenly interested in the subject he is speaking about and takes pain to make the audience equally interested in it.
2. “A good speaker is earnest”
3. He does not speak just for the sake of speaking – in order to show off, to impress the audience with his erudition or his authority.
4. “A good speaker has a sense of responsibility to others on the program” He does not take more time than what is allotted to him.
5. “A good speaker has a sense of responsibility to his subject” He does not bite more than he can chew. He does not spread it thin.
6. “ A good speaker has a sense of leadership; he stands up tall, he talks eye to eye , he speaks responsibly and with authority as a leader should’
7. “ A good speaker keeps his head” He is not get carried off by his over- enthusiasm or over-confidence.
8. “ A good speaker tries to be balanced and sane”
9. “ A good speaker keeps his sense of humour”

1. Research your topic thoroughly. Identify the points for discussion and decide what you have to say about them.
2. Plan your speech in three parts;

  • The beginning should arouse the interest of the audience.
  • The middle should be devoted to discussion
  • The conclusion should summarize the main points, and if some action is to be taken it clearly tells the audience what they are required.

3. Time your speech to make sure it is neither too long nor too short.

4. Look for some suitable quotations or anecdotes if possible.
5. Arrange your points in such a way that strong points are kept at the beginning.
6. Tailor your speech to the intellectual level and general taste of the audience.
7. Make sure that your delivery is going to be good, rehearse the speech use a tape recorder or video recorder to fine tune your tone and mannerism.

Meetings are held to discuss particular issues or matters. For the meetings to be successful the following should be done.

  • Define the purpose of the meeting clearly
  • Distribute the agenda among all members.
  • Provide all the facts e.g. you may distribute a copy of previous year results and some comments to the members.
  • Restrict the number of invitees

If you are the chairman of a meeting
To be successful as a chairman observe the following:-
1. Punctuality
2. Clearly define the purpose of the meeting
3. Begin with a positive approach and don’t start on negatives.
4. Your opening remarks should be brief. Short openings suggest the urgency of problem.
5. Sight out the initial silence. After the opening remarks there’s silence because of members general reluctance to speak. Some people may be thinking about the probability and others not want to speak. The chairman should assist
members to open up.
6. Remain impartial sometimes conflicts and personality save ups may arise. The chairman should be able to control the situation. He should not take sides.
7. Control emotional build ups sometimes during the discussion emotions and tensions may build up. The chairman should use humour to control tempers.
8. Draw contributions from all members.
9. Control the meeting
10. Creatively control opposing points of view.
11. Clarify contributions
12. Make frequent summarize of progress of the meeting to all parent.
13. Point out the decisions reached.
14. Point out differences.
15. Point out the course of action.
16. Close the meeting in time.

1. Go to the meeting well prepared.
2. Study the agenda carefully, try to find out the items of your interest and the items in which you are capable to make contributions.
Carefully read the information circulated in advance.
If you want to use any written or visual aids to make your contributions effective prepare them in advance.
If you are not an experienced speaker its advisable to write down points.
3. Study other members who are attending the meeting. Their characteristics, like and dislikes, story and weak points, the way they speak and how they react to different ideas and note their areas of specialization.
4. Speak at the end most appropriate time if you have good ideas. Ideas that you have keen to get accepted, present them early enough so that other members can start thinking along the lines of those ideas.
5. If the discussion is moving along desirable lines, you can wait and present your ideas towards the end of the meeting. This will happen if you are giving an air of finality to the discussion and other members may agree with you and the meeting is closed.

Discussion – it’s a co-operative, critical exchange of opinions, information and ideas about one general subject. Its guided by a leader for the purpose of seeking appropriate, acceptable answers to a question.
Can be conducted before a audience or it can be held in a closed session.
An ideal one involves a force exchange and evaluation of information by open minded participants.

1. The most important purpose is to solve complex problems. When one or two people are incapable of solving a problem, they often call experts from a variety of areas collective wisdom assists in solving complex problems.
2. To publish existing problems
3. To give individuals experience in becoming leaders and discussants by participating in group deliberations.
4. To collect information from many different people in widely separated Geographical, occupational or social-economic sections of society.

1. Amount of research
The amount of research done by participants before the discussion may affect both the quality of discussions and the quality of the results.
2. Underlying motives or secret interests
May also affect discussion quality and results e.g people who are not honest and open because they stand to lose something (friends, positions, status etc) may sway a discussion to protect their secret interests.
3. Nonverbal, vocal & verbal messages
Disgusted expressions, stressed words, or technical terms may suggest attitudes and emotions of the people involved.
4. Sensitivity of the participants to each other and to themselves. If participants are unaware that others are tense, shy, frustrated or bored they’ll probably not be able to draw them into the discussion and benefit from their judgments and

Other factors may be:

  • Time of day i.e. when the discussion is conducted
  • Place where the discussion occurs
  • Size of the group discussing
  • Time limit for completing a task

Types of Discussion Questions
There are 3 general types of questions.
1. Question of fact
To answer this is the discussants try to find which aspects of a particular problem are true, probable or false. These kind of discussions are called “Fact – finding” sessions.
2. Questions of value:
These questions evaluate different ideas to see which one is best. Discussants compare and contrast the worth or value of one thing with another to make judgments.22
3. Questions of policy
These attempts to discover if something should or should not be done.
Discussion questions should deal with subjects that are:
Significant, important and worth discussion


It should follow a logical, sequential pattern; the following is the modified plan for discussion.
1. Locate and define the problem
They need to state the problem clearly so that everyone understand and it may require some terms to be explained from the very beginning, to eliminate confusion once the discussion gets under way.
2. Establish criteria for a workplace solution
After recognition, what the question involves the group must decide on the:
Standards of criteria that must be met if a solution is to be accepted by the entire group.
3. Analyze the problem
It’s a step of exploring the problem, looking for its causes, current status, historical background, probable future and the reason a solution or answer is necessary.
4. Suggest and evaluate possible solutions
The fourth step is to place as many solutions or answers to the problem before the group as possible. Discussants need to be sure each solution meets the standards agreed upon in the second step.
5. Evaluate all solutions and select the best one
In this, they compare and contrast all the alternatives, solutions or answers. The advantages and disadvantages of each one should be weighed in an attempt to discover the one that would best solve the problem.
6. Suggest ways for testing or conveying out the solution.
This step may not be included if the discussion purpose is only to solve problem. However it becomes the last step if the group discusses ways and means of carrying out a solution.

There are two methods of evaluation, namely:

  • interaction and participation diagrams
  • discussion critique

Types of Discussion
The type of discussion held depends on such factors as number of participants the subject
to be discussed and the time allowed for the discussion.
1. Panel Discussion – Involves four – eight members. There are no prepared speeches , instead discussions are expected to follow specific lines to find an answer to question. No set pattern for participation.
2. Symposium
This requires individual discussants either to deal with one assigned area of a discussion question or to present their unique viewpoints on the subject.
3. Round table discussion
This doesn’t include audience participation although observers may be present. It usually begins with a statement of the problem. This is followed by a series of brief reports or observations by several specialists then discussants spontaneously
4. Lecture Discussion
It includes periods of formal, structured presentations or lectures by the discussion leader. Members of discussion group may be given advance assignments to prepare for
the lectures. The leader normally designates specific individuals to respond to certain questions, information or statements. The discussants are allowed to interrupt the leader with questions.
5. Progressive Discussion
It involves several small groups which discuss various, assigned aspects of the same question at the same time. Before the end of discussion period, each leader reports the findings and decisions made by his/her group to the entire session.

Interview means view between. It means two people meeting for the purpose of getting to view each other or knowing each other. The interviewer is interested to know whether or not the candidate can fit in the open position. On the other hand, the interviewees will asses the organization to decide whether or not to join it.

They include;
1. Screening
This refers to the preliminary interview which is done when there are many applicants for a given post. The aim of screen interview is to eliminate unqualified applicants and prepare a short list of qualified applicants.
2. Random appearance
This method is used when physical appearance is the essential requirement for a given post, such as for bouncers, Air hostesses, policemen and others.
3. Tests
Written or oral tests can be used to test the intelligence, proficiency and general knowledge of the applicants.
4. Under stress interview
In this method the candidate is provoked to test his poise and how he will acquit himself from difficult situations. The candidate may be asked embarrassing questions or asked to demonstrate how he can carry out a given task such as
selling items to panelists.

You should;

  1. Have a thorough knowledge of the company, its profile, operations and employment policies.
  2. Know the nature and profile of the job to be filled.
  3. Know the type of personality, character or temperament required for the job.
  4. Send all inter view messages on time to candidates.
  5. Make proper seating arrangements for candidates in the waiting room.
  6. Make the interview room conducive for the interview that is with no interruptions.
  7. Supply each member of the committee with a copy of the candidate’s bio-data.
  8. Decide before hand who is going to initiate the interview

1. Welcome the candidate in a friendly way,
Offer warm smile to the candidate, talk to him in a friendly tone of voice, hold a small talk with him in an area he is familiar.
2. After the candidate has been made comfortable the you should start talking to him on the subject you want to know about. You will want to know the candidate’s qualifications (ability to do the job), aspiration(willingness to do the job), social
effectiveness and emotional balance (relationship with others) character (trustworthiness), physical vigour and energy, spouse ‘s attitude towards the job, financial stability, willingness to travel and willingness to make permanent move.
3. Make notes a bout the candidate and discuss the notes with other panelists when the candidate has left.
4. give the candidate time to ask questions
5. If a decision is to be made immediately let the candidate know shortly after the discussion.
6. Thank the candidate for his time and tell him by when he should expect a response from you.


  1. Make sure you know everything there is to know about yourself, such as academic qualifications, ambitions, hobbies, work experience.
  2. Gather as much information about the company as possible e.g. their operations, services, personnel remunerations.
  3. Carry with you all your certificates to the interview room.
  4. Prepare a list of questions you predict the interviewers may ask.
  5. Prepare appropriate answers for your predicted questions.
  6. Prepare questions that you could like to ask during the interview.
  7. Dress appropriately; example for men a black or navy blue suit and a plain light coloured shirt may be winning colours
  8. Arrive for the interview on time, arrival time is ten – fifteen minutes before
    the time of the interview.

1. Walk carefully into the interview room, do not wear a scowl or a stupid smile when entering the interview room.
2. Greet the interviewers politely avoid shaking hands unless the interviewers stretch their hands to you.
3. Do not sit down until you have been asked to do so, adopt a natural and upright composed posture when seated.
4. Pay attention to what is being said and do not interrupt the interviewer.
5. When responding give relevant answers only and be audible enough for all the panelists to hear you.
6. Do not boast of your capabilities or qualifications.
7. If there is something you don’t know admit it straight a way.
8. If you are being interviewed by someone who does not possess as many degrees as yourself do not put on airs. Give the interviewers your co-operation and respect.
9. Be calm throughout the interview do not loose your temper or argue with the panelists these may not work your way.
10. Adopt a positive approach throughout the interview; express your enthusiasm for the job and the company. If you give an impression that you are not interested you may realize that the interviewer is also not interested in hiring you.
11. Avoid shifting in your seat, chewing fingers, smoothing your hair, adjusting the knot of your tie or playing with the pen or paper. All these are signs of nervousness. Nervousness is your worst enemy in interview.
12. When you are asked about your previous employer, be frank but do not criticize your former employer. Mention only positive aspects of your former employer.
13. Ask questions where full information has not been provided by the interviewer.
14. When the interview is over do not forget to thank the interviewer. You can ask tactfully when the results will be made known to you.

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1.1. Definition of communication.
Communication is an act of any natural or artificial means of conveying information or giving instruction. It’s the process of passing information and understanding from one person to the other.

According to Newman and summer
Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons.

According to Peter Little
Communication is process by which information is transmitted between individuals/organization so that understanding response results. Its giving, receiving or exchange of information, opinions, or ideas by writing speech or visual means or any combination of the three so that the material communicated is completely understood by everyone concerned.

Administrative communication – Administrative communication is a process involving the transmission and accurate replication of ideas ensured by feedback for purpose of eliciting actions which will accomplish organizational goals.

This definition has emphasized the following points;-

  •  It involves the communication of ideas.
  •  Ideas should be accurately replicated. The receiver should get exactly the same ideas as were transmitted.
  • Transmitter is assured of accurate replication of ideas by feedback.
  •  Purpose of communication is to elicit action.
    This definition can be expanded to include emotions. The purpose of communication is not always to elicit action it may also include communication to seek information or to persuade other person to a certain point of view.

Main aspect of communication

  • Communication must have a source (sender)
  • Communication must have content (message)
  • Communication must have a media
  • Communication must have a destination: i.e. recipient
  • Communication must have a feedback.

Importance of communication
Communication can be described as the life blood of the business
No business can develop in the absence of effective external and internal communication.
Communication is a vital tool of management.
One of the major functions of an office is communication. This involves receiving, recording, processing of information and communicating the information two various functions of the organizations.

Importance of communication can be discussed under two points of view.

  1. Internal communication
  2. External communication.

1. Importance of internal communication
Internal communication refers to exchange of information or message between persons of same organization, e.g. between employer and employee.

  • Better understanding between employer and employees. – If complaints of employees are forwarded to employer on time and in
    the right way it will minimize the chances of misunderstanding.
  • Greater efficiency.
    The sound communication system enables the management to instruct the supervisions and subordinates on changes of policy – this results to the increase in efficiency of workers.
  • Effective co-ordination:
    Effective communication leads to effective co-ordination of employees e.g if demand increase the marketing department will inform the production department to increase its production.
  • Proper communication avoids losses:
    If there is a machine breakdown or shortage the management can be informed quickly to take timely action to avoid any possible losses.

2. External communication.
This refers to exchange of information between an organization and other organization or persons outside the organization.
The following facts indicate the importance of external communication.

1. Good reputation
Effective communication with customers and either business enables company establish good reputation this increases prestige of that company.
2. Improvement in public relations:
When a company communicates with general public to keep them informed of its activities more people become interested to deal with that company.
3. Better business prospects –
Due to good communication the company can abstract more customers.
4. Choice of customers –
A company can get information about the liking and disliking of customers. This information will help company produce goods according to the choice of customers.
5. Government department –
The business will deal with licensing authorities, foreign trade offices, custom authorities, banks and other financial institutions. All these institutions require good communication when negotiating.
6. Job requirements –
Most jobs require communication skills such as personnel public relations, marketing, editing, research, advocates, etc.
Executives are expected to make speeches they are expected to give interviews to media.
All these require communication skill.


1. To inform –
One of most important objectives of communication is passing and receiving information about of particular fact of circumstance.
An organization can inform consumers about its products, availability of credit, availability of raw materials, or about government rules and regulations. It can also communicate to inform staff about the latest development in the field of science and technology.
Within the organization you can inform employees about job assignments, or inform them of general information on policies and activities of organization.

2. To advice
Information is factual and objective, advice on the other hand involve personal opinions. It is subjective and neutral.
When advice is given to person he /she may use it or decide not to use it. An advice is aimed at influencing the opinion or behaviour of another person. Advice flows downwards or horizontally, e.g. from a doctor to patient and not vice versa.

3. To order
An order is an authoritative communication; it is a directive to somebody (subordinate) to do something to modify or not to do something. Orders flow from top to bottom.

4. To suggested (make suggestion)
A suggestion is different from other forms of communication. In other forms it flows from superiors to subordinates but, a Suggestion may flow from subordinate to superior. A suggestion is mild or subtle and it moves in all directions.

5. To persuade
This is communication aimed at influencing the attitudes, feelings or beliefs of others.

6. To Educate
Education is a conscious process of communication. It involves teaching and learning, its main purpose is to widen knowledge and improve skills.

7. To warn someone
If employees don’t abide by the rules of the organization they will be warned.

8. Raise the morale.
Morale-stands for mental health.
It’s a powerful factor representing the sum of many qualities such as courage, fortitude, resolution and confidence.

9. TO motivate
Motivation is very close to rising of miracle. It means to energize and activate a person and challenge his or her behaviour towards the attainment of desired goals.


  • Motivation
    This is the basic urge beneath the communication. It is the wider reason why communication takes place. e.g. in a company the urge to communication is to ensure that this year’s profits are higher than last years.
  • The aim
    This is the more particular reason why communication has been under taken. The aim of communication can be: to inform to warn or to initiate a particular action
  • Information:
    is the material from which communication would be constructed. The actual content to put across to the listener or reader. An information doesn’t need to be factual it can be an opinion, an idea or combination of ideas and opinions
  • The sender
    This is the person responsible for sending the communication it can be an individual or a group such as a company, a department, a government ministry etc.
  • The message: after defining the information to be conveyed, the sender puts this into the best form in a process called encoding. When information has been encoded it is referred to as a message. A message takes the form of a letter, a memo, telephone call, or a shrug of shoulders.
  • The media
    This is a larger group of ways of communication within which particular ways of communication can be classified. There are three main media.
    Written communication e.g. letters, memo, books, posters
    Oral communication: this is communication using word of mouth e.g meetings, lectures, telephones or discussions.
    Visual communication: it takes the form of photographs, blackboards etc. In addition to these three media we also have non-verbal communication that is combination of gestures, expressions, tone of voice, position, posture, etc.
  • The channel:
    This the physical means by which message is conveyed for written communication channel may be notice board, postal office.
    For oral communication. It may be personal interview, committee meeting, or public telephone call. For visual communication the channel may be computer printer, fax system or printing press.
  • The receiver:
    Is the person or body which receives the message.
    It can be an individual or an organization.
  • The noise:
    Noise is used to refer to any factors which prevent proper exchange of information apart from that from the sender or receiver. Noise can be physical e.g. typewriters or the telephone bells which interrupt meetings, or it can be some other form of interference such as bad telephone connections, poor handwriting in letter, conflicting messages, e.g in oral communication the visual expression conveys a difference message from that being given orally.
  • Distortion:
    Takes place at the encoding or decoding stage. During encoding the sender may encode the message in such away that it conveys a different meaning from that he or she intended to give. During decoding the receiver may interpret the message in a different way from that intended by the sender. This may lead to distortion of the message.
  • Feedback:
    This is the name given to the message which the sender receives from the receiver to show the acceptance or disapproval of message, such a smile.

Stage 1: information definition
Sender defines information to be sent by thinking about the aim of the communication and the content to be conveyed.
Stage 2:
Encoding stage the information is put into a form which is most suitable for the receiver and the aim of the communication. This involves putting the information into worlds, ideas into picture, gesture/facial expression.
Stage 3:
The actual transfer of the message or sending stage. This is done using the message, medium and channel.
Stage 4 –
(Receiving stage) the receiver takes the message by reading a letter, Listening to a speech, looking at an educational television program etc.
Stage 5 –
(Decoding stage) the receive interprets the message he has been given in order to obtain his idea of information it conveys. Its possibly for distortion to occur at this stage due to poor handwriting, medium used by sender or even the receivers attitude towards the sender.
Stage 6 –
(Feed back) this is the reaction of receiver to the senders message. The feedback informs the sender that the message has been received. Feedback may take the form of nodding, smiling or even listening.
Stage 7 –
It is a complete repetition of the cycle


This is divided into

  • Clarity of thought
  • Clarity of expression

Clarity of thought.
This is important when the idea is being generated in the mind of the sender
At this stage, three points should be checked upon

  • what is the objective of the communication?
    Example:- to warn, educate, congratulate
  • What is to be communicated?
    Example:- A song, play, poem etc
  • Which medium is appropriate for the purpose of communication?
    Example:- Letters, photographic, interviews. Etc.

Clarity of Expression
The following tips should be considered

  1.  Avoid jargon
    Jargon is a special language of trade, certain profession or field of study e.g. medicine, business and only understood and used by people from such fields. It therefore creates a scenario of difficult understanding to those who are not from that field.
    Example: in law, the phrase “Jurisdiction of the court of appeal”. This could only be understood by those in the field of law a doctor may not understand such a term.
  2. Avoid ambiguity
    An ambiguous message is one that contains words that have more than one meanings. This may encourage misinterpretation of the words.
    Example:- The word dispense could mean both To prepare medicine, To dismiss someone
  3. Use short sentences
    Short sentences are easier to comprehend for they are not complex and do not demand greater concentration as is the case for long ones.
  4. Use of simple words
    Simple words tend to be more effective for they are easily understood and are interpreted correctly.
    Example: Use of the word before instead of, prior to
  5. Use of concrete expression
    Concrete expressions create visual images that are easy to register and remember. This can be achieved by avoiding being too general or vague in your expressions.
    Example: you can say, ‘that dress is expensive for it costs shs.150, 000/ ‘instead of plainly saying ‘that dress is expensive’.

It is important for your message to be straight to the point by not loading the message with irrelevant and unnecessary details.
Be as brief as possible but not at the expense of clarity, correctness or courtesy.
If a reader feels that he/she is wasting his/her time on your message e.g.
letter, he may opt to disregard it.

How to achieve conciseness

  • Avoid repetition
    Example: Me, i am thanking you……………..”
  • Include only relevant facts and details
  • Organize your message well i.e. the introduction, the body of the message and the conclusion.
  • The message should be coherent, i.e. it should hold together.
  • Avoid wordy expressions, figures of speech and ambiguous words.

In your message, you should always show consideration for the reader or listener. This can be done in the following ways.

  • Impact integrity to your message
    Ethical principles of sincerity and fair treatment should be observed.
  • Emphasize positive and pleasant statement
    In case where one has to send a message of regret, use positive and pleasant words.

Example of negative expression – “We are sorry to inform you that you have not been admitted to this school”
Positive expression – “Thank you for your application for a course in
Micro- finance; you are however advised that the commencement date is July next year….

  • Adopt the “You” attitude
    Avoid ‘I’ and ‘we’ in you message. The “you” attitude is highly recommend for it shows greater respect and consideration for the recipient.
    Example of ‘I’ attitude: “I am happy that you considered my application”
    Example of ‘You’ attitude: “Thank you for your quick response to my letter”

This calls for a considerate and friendly attitude towards the other the receiver. The following points may assist in promoting courtesy:

  • Answer the letters promptly or respond to the message promptly
  • Omit negative expressions such as “we regret” instead use friendly statements such as “we shall see to it that…”
  • Apologize sincerely for an omission and thank generously for any favour done.
    Example of an apology: – We sincerely apologize for not dispatching your goods on time”.

Complete presentation of facts and details is necessary in any business communication
Incomplete communication leads to ineffectiveness of the action to be taken, irrelevancy, misinterpretation and misunderstanding of the message. This is because it leaves a number of questions unanswered.
Example: When replying to an enquiry from a customer wishing to buy a car, one must include all relevant facts about the car such as the model, colour, price mode of payment and other specifications.
The message should be well organized in such a way that the reader/listener is not in doubt about the details contained in it. Tips for communication completeness

  • While answering a letter, include all relevant details and answer all questions if any.
  • Check on the “5w’s questions to why? What? Where? Who? When?

This simply means:

  • Giving correct facts/statements/arguments etc.
  • Sending the message at the correct time
  • Send the message in the correct style/medium/channel.

Communication will be effective if it flows speedily and smoothly in an uninterrupted flow.
Some common barriers are:
1. wrong choice of medium:
Unsuitable media may act as a barrier to effective communication example an apology will be effective if communicated face to face rather than in writing.
2. Physical barriers
These may due to inadequate staff, faulty procedures, in accuracy in processing and delivery of communication.
Physical barriers include:
Example passing traffic may disrupt a session; poor handwriting may affect the understanding of a letter.
time and distance
People in different shifts may not communicate because of time. Distance may affect face to face communication when a lecturer is addressing a large group of students.
3. Semantic barrier Semantic refers to the meaning of language. The same word may be interpreted differently by different people because of mental attitude and understanding.

Semantic barriers include:

  1.  Interpretation of words.
    The receiver of the message may not assign the same meaning to that purported by the sender. This may be a barrier to communication example;” what is he value of this ring?” This can be interpreted as the monetary value, the importance or the implication.
  2. Bypassed instructions
    This will happen if the sender and receiver of the message attribute different meanings to the same word use different words for the same meaning. Example a manager said to anew office assistant” go and burn this. The manager simply wanted another copy of the letter, the office assistant went on to burn the letter, to the dismay of the manager.
  3. Denotation and connotation
    Words have connotative and denotative meaning. Denotative meaning is the literal meaning of the word such as book, chair etc.
    Connotative meanings arouse qualitative judgments and personal reactions. Words like honesty, noble, competent and sincere.
    Some words may have favourable connotation and unfavourable connotation such as the word cheap it may mean low in price or low in quality. To avoid problems of bypassed instructions the following points should be kept in mind.
  • Use words which are familiar to the receiver.
  • Clarify new words or words used in a different context.
  • Choose words that have a positive connotation rather than those with negative connotation.

4. Different comprehension of reality.
These barriers include;

  • Abstracting
    This is the process of focusing attention on some details and omitting others. This is a barrier because a detail that may appear important to one person may be taken as being trivial by the reader.
  • Slanting
    It means giving a particular bias or slant to a reality. Slanting is similar to allness, in allness we only know a part and are ignorant of the rest but we think that we the whole.
  • Inferring Inferences are drawn from observations and assumptions. If we drop a letter at the post office we assume that will be delivered on time. Inferences are not facts Wrong inference is a barrier to communication.

5. Socio-psychological barriers
This may be due to some social or psychological problems.
Such as:

  • Attitudes and opinions
    If information agrees with our opinions and attitudes we tend to receive it favourably if we disagree with it we to tend react unfavourably to it.
  • Emotions
    Emotional state of mind plays an important role in the act of communication. If the sender is perplexed or worried, excited afraid nervous his thinking will be blurred and he will not be able to organize the message properly. His state of
    mind will be reflected in the message.
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The term marketing mix refers to the tactical elements of the marketing strategy. It is the blending of product, price, promotion and place.

6.1 Product
Product refers to anything that can be offered to a market for attention, use, or consumption that might satisfy a want or need. It includes any tangible item, services, ideas, concepts, or a person.

Product classification

1. Tangible and intangible
A product can classified as tangible and intangible. Tangible product is a physical product, such as mobile handset, cars and the TV set. Intangible product is a product that cannot be touched or felt such software, ideas, and services.

2. Consumer goods and industrial goods product
Industrial goods are consumed as raw materials or inputs by businesses to produce other products, for example, wheat to produce flour. Consumer products are consumed by final consumers for their own interests (individuals and households), and not for commercial purposes like in the industrial goods product case. Consumer goods generally can be classified into four types, namely consumer goods, commercial goods, specialty goods, and goods Unsought. This classification is based on buying habits of consumers, as evidenced by the following three aspects (effort) of consumers to reach a purchase decision, the attributes that consumers use in a purchase, and the frequency of purchase.

3. Convenience Goods
Convenience products are goods that have generally high frequency of purchase (often purchased), take the time soon, and require only minimal effort (very small) in comparison and purchase. Examples include cigarettes, soap, toothpaste, batteries, candy, letters and news. Convenience products themselves can be further grouped into three categories, namely, staples, impulse goods and goods emergencies.

4. Shopping Goods
Purchases of goods are goods that in the process of selection and purchase by consumers in different alternatives that are available. Comparison criteria include price, quality, and model of each item. Examples are household equipment, clothing and furniture.

5.Specialty Goods
Specialist shops are goods which have characteristics and / or identification of a single brand in which a group of consumers willing to make a special effort to buy it. General types of specialized products branded luxury products and a specific model, such as Lamborghini cars, the clothes designed by famous designers

6. Unsought Goods
Unsouqht goods are goods that are not known to consumers or are already known, but are not generally thought of buying it.

Product mix and product lines
A product mix (or product assortment) refers to all the product lines and items that a particular firm offers for sale. Say, a manufacturing firm may have a capacity to produce, kitchen appliances, cars, and mobile handsets. These are examples of a product mix. Product mix consists of a number of product lines. That is various models of cars, mobile handsets and kitchen appliances produced by the firm. These various models , for examples, various models under car, mobile handsets and kitchen appliances are product lines. Product lines are group of products manufactured by a firm that are closely related in use and in production and marketing requirements. The depth of the product line refers to the number of different products offered in a product line.

The manufacture’s product mix has four important dimensions: width, length, depth, and consistency. Product mix width refers to the number of different product lines the company carries. Product mix length refers to the total number of items the company carries within its product lines. Product line depth refers to the number of versions offered of each product in the line. The consistency of the product mix refers to how closely relate the various product lines are in end use, production requirements, distribution channels, or some other way. The three levels of a product: this is a total product concept where a product is understood as a bundle of physical, service, and symbolic attributes designed to satisfy a customer’s wants and needs. For instance, if a product is a tangible product, this product still can be understood as a product with three levels. Let us say that product is a computer to be purchased for primary school teaching. This computer , as a product, has three levels which are a bundle of physical, service and symbolic attributes:

  1. Level one: Core product is the benefit the product gives as a value such as convenience, speed and efficiency to the user. In this sense, the core product is intangible.
  2. Level two : Actual product is the physical product that comes as branding, colour, quality, style and fashion
  3. Level three: Augmented product is the non-physical part of a product which includes installation, delivery, warranties, customer care and finance.

New product development
New product development is a strategy for a firm growth by offering modified or new product to a market segment. The process of new product development has various steps:
1. Idea generation looking for all possible ideas that may help to develop a new
2. Idea screening is the step of eliminating unsound ideas prior to devoting resources to them
3. Concept development and testing , the step of developing the marketing and engineering details
4. Business analysis is the step estimating likely selling price, sales volume, break-even point and profitability
5. Product development
6. Market testing is the step of producing a physical prototype , making adjustment where necessary and determining customer acceptance
7. Commercialization is the step of launching the product for market Once the new product is launched for the market, the remaining main task is the adoption of this new product, which is an innovation, by customers. This will take us to the next topic.

New product adoption process
In adopting process of the new product, customers differ according to the timing of their adoption of the innovation. One of the common models used is the diffusion model. The model groups the adopters of the new product as innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards. Innovators are understood as well-informed and risk-takers who are willing to try the new product. They represent the smallest percentage of the market.

Early adopters are those, based on the positive response of innovators, who begin to purchase the product. Early adopters tend to be educated and opinion leaders. They are more in numbers than the innovators. Early majority are careful consumers who tend to avoid risk; they adopt the product once it has been proven by the early adopters. They rely on recommendations from others who have experience with the product.

Late majority are skeptical and acquire a product only after it has become commonplace. Laggards avoid change and may not adopt a new product until traditional alternatives no longer are available.

The new product adoption process
The new product adoption process suggests the need for the firms to pay attention to help customers so as to go through the stages smoothly and adopt the new product. The potential buyer of the new product, from first hearing the product to the final adoption it goes through the following five stages of the adoption process:

1. Awareness : getting information about the new product
2. Interest : seeking more information about the product
3. Evaluation : checking its benefits and cost
4. Trial : based on the evaluation to buy to estimate the value of using
5. Adoption : if the trial is favorable to adopt the new product to use regularly

Product Life Cycle
With the change in marketing environment, intense competition, customer’s preferences and tastes, product life also changes. Product also passes through four product phases:
1. Introduction
2. Growth
3. Maturity
4. Decline

1. Introduction: in this stage product is relatively undifferentiated; sales are low; price generally high; distribution is selective; increasing brand awareness is the aim of promotion; almost no profit and competitor on site. The strategy is to establish market.

2. Growth: in this stage there may be increase in sales growth; profit begins to rise; there is differentiation in form of new product features; distribution becomes intense; there is improvement in quality of product; price can be maintained or reduced; competitors become entering into the product production as to seize the opportunities. The strategy is market penetration.

3. Maturity: in this stage, there is product differentiation and modification; competition is intense; price reduction is likely; likely there are new distribution channels; there is emphasis on building brand loyalty; profit goes down ; market saturation is reached; the strategy is differentiation , diversification and to maintain market share and extend the product life.

4. Decline: in this stage, the approach is to reduce cost and to harvest it; profits diminish; the option may include to discontinue the product or to find new use for it.

Branding is the entire process involved in creating a unique brand for a product.
Brand is the identity of a product; it is a product’s personality. A name, sign, term, design, slogan, symbol or a combination these are forms of a brand. Through brand, a firm intends to identify its goods and services and differentiate itself and its product from those of other sellers. Brand connects target segment emotionally; it delivers the message clearly; it also confirms credibility; it motivates the buyer; it consolidates user loyalty. Let us define these two concepts: brand equity and brand evaluation. Brand equity is the positive differential effect that knowing the brand name has on customer response to the product. A measure of a brand’s equity is the extent to which customers are willing to pay more for the brand. Brand evaluation is the process of estimating the total financial value of a brand.

Major brand strategies
To build strong brand, here are major brand strategy decisions:
1. Brand positioning: focusing on attributes, benefits, beliefs, and values
2. Brand name selection: selection of the name; protection of the name
3. Brand sponsorship: it can be manufacture’s , private, licensing or co-branding

Service marketing
Service is defined as any activity or benefit that one party can offer to another that is essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything. Service marketing is influenced by the service characteristics which are listed below:
1. Intangibility , for example , the service of car repairers; doctors consulting
2. Variability : depending on various factors, the service quality car repairer varies
3. Inseparability: for example, the service of a haircut and a barber
4. Perishability: example, a service of a seat booked to fly to Mombasa tomorrow on local airlines, if not used will perish

Unlike the tangible product, service marketing also has a unique marketing mix. The service mix includes: the common 4Ps (product, price, promotion and place) and people, process, physical presence, and productivity.

6.2 Price
Price is the sum of the values that consumers exchange for the benefits of having or using the product or services.

Types of cost
Let us first look at the types of cost. Types of costs are fixed costs the type of costs which occur at the establishment of the organization and relatively not replenished routinely. The fixed costs are not affected with the production or sales level. Variable costs that type of costs which occur with each extra unit produce or sale. Variable costs are directly related with the level of production. Total costs are the sum of the fixed and variable costs.

Factors affecting pricing decision
These are the factors that affect pricing decision: Internal factors of the firm such as marketing objectives; marketing mix strategy; cost ; organizational consideration ; external factors such as the market ; demand; competition, and environment.

General pricing approaches
This can be cost -based price, cost-plus pricing, adding a standard markup to the cost of the product and breakeven pricing. The other approach is value -based pricing: setting price based n buyers perceptions of value rather than on the seller’s cost. There is also another approach: competition-based pricing. This is setting prices based on the prices that competitors charge for similar products.

New Product Pricing Strategies
This are market skimming pricing and market penetration pricing .Market skimming pricing is setting a high price for a new product to skim maximum revenues from the segments willing to pay the high price. Market penetration pricing is setting a low price for a new product in order to attract a large number of buyers and a large market share.

Product Mix Pricing Strategies
This includes product line pricing, optional product pricing, captive product pricing, and product bundle pricing

Price Adjustment Strategies
Discount and allowance pricing which includes cash discount for those customers who pay their bills punctually or in advance; quantity discount for those customers who purchases in bulk Quantity; functional discount for the member of the trade channel who performs certain function for seller, such as selling, storing, and record keeping; seasonal discount for those buyers, who purchase merchandise or services out of season; allowance , the promotional money paid by the manufacturers to the retailers against a performance or as per agreement.

Segmented pricing is selling a product or service at two or more prices, where the difference in prices is based on the differences in the environment of the segment. Another adjustment strategy is psychological pricing; price is based on the perceptions of the consumer for the product. Reference price is price that buyers carry in their minds and refer to when they look at a given Product

Promotional pricing is temporarily pricing products below the list price, and sometimes even below cost, to increase short-run sales.
Geographical Pricing is in which goods are placed free on board a carrier and the customer pays the actual freight from the factory to the destination. Uniform-delivered pricing is a geographical pricing strategy, in which the company charges the same price plus freight to all customers, regardless of their location. Zone zoning is a geographical pricing strategy, in which the firms divide their clients’ location in different zones as per distance with the production house and fix charges for each zone. All customers within a zone pay the same price.

Basing point pricing is a geographical pricing strategy in which the seller designates some city as a basing point and charges all customers the freight cost from that city to the customer location, regardless of the city far from the production house. Freight-absorption pricing is also a geographical pricing strategy in which the company absorbs all or part of the actual freight charges in order to get the business.

6.3 Promotion
Promotion refers to communicating with the public in an attempt to influence them toward buying a product. Promotion is also coordination of individual methods of promotions such as advertising, personal selling and sales promotion.

Promotion Mix
Promotion mix consists of these elements:
1. Advertising
2. Personal selling
3. Sales promotion
4. Public relations

Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor.
Advertisement is important for standardized products; products aimed at large markets; products that have easily communicated features; products low in price; and products sold through independent channel members and/or are new products.

Use of advertising is for promoting products or organizations; stimulating primary and selective demand; offsetting competitor advertising; making salespersons more effective; increasing use of product; reminding and reinforcing customers; and, reducing sales fluctuations.

Personal selling refers to personal presentation by the firm’s sales force for the purpose of making sales and building customer relationship.

Types of Advertising Agencies
The objective of advertising is to create awareness within a specific target audience during a specific period of time. Types of the advertising agencies that carry out the objectives of advertising are creative Agency; Media Buying Houses; Public Relation s; Off Line Advertising Agency and Production Houses

Personal selling
Personal selling is a persuasive communication between a representative of a firm and one or more potential buyer for a sale. It is a face to face communication with an aim to sell a product.

The advantages of personal selling are freedom to adjust a message to satisfy customers informational needs, dynamic; precision, enabling marketers to focus on most promising leads; give more information; two way flow of information, interactivity; Discover the strengths and weaknesses of new products and pass this information on to the marketing department. Its minus is high cost.

Forms of personal selling (types of sales persons): These are the types of sales persons: order taker seeks to have repeat sales; order getter identifies potential customers who will buy a product;

The sales management process
1. Sales plan formulation – setting the objectives; organizing sales force
2. Sales plan implementation – sales force recruitment, selection, training , motivation and compensation
3. Evaluation and control of the sales force , including quantitative and behavioral assessment

Sales plan formulation
1. Setting objectives – this is specifying what to achieve
2. Organizing the sales force – taking into consideration various organizing structure : geographical structure, customer structure, product structure,

Steps in personal selling process
Prospecting and qualifying: this identify potential customers and screening them
1. Pre-approach : learning about a customer before making a call
2. Approach : knowing how to meet the buyer
3. Presentation : showing the product benefits
4. Handling objections: overcoming buyer objections
5. Closing : ask the buyer for order
6. Follow-up : ensuring customer satisfaction and repeat business

Types of sales force structure
1. Territorial : in this case the sales force can have exclusive territory to sell the product line of the firm
2. Product : the sales force is structured along the product lines
3. Customer : the sales force is structured along the customers’ type
4. Complex : it can combine territory, product and customer

Sales promotion is defined as the short-term incentives, to encourage the purchase or sale of a product or service. Public Relations is building good relations with the firm’s various publics and corporate clients by publicity and interacting in favorable moods and media, as well as handling unfavorable rumors, stories and events are also the part of public relations. To achieve its objectives, public relations make use of methods that include the press conference, press release, event sponsorships, publicity event, letter to editor, media tours, articles

Steps to develop public relations strategy, to
1. Define objectives for publicity and media plan
2. Define the specific, measurable, actionable, realistic and time-bound objectives
3. Determine the target audience
4. Develop a schedule for public relations campaign
5. Develop plan of “attack”
6. Put to measure to track the results of the campaign

Direct marketing can also be understood as part of promotion mix. Direct marketing is communications with targeted individual consumer to obtain an immediate response and development of long-term relationship. Direct marketing involves direct communications with targeted individual consumers to achieve an immediate response and develop long lasting customer relationships. Direct marketing can be done through E-mail, Direct mail, Telephone, Catalogues, and Fax. That is, forms of Direct marketing includes face to face marketing; telemarketing; direct mail marketing; Catalog marketing; direct response television marketing and kiosk marketing.

Developing effective communication
To facilitate the objectives of the promotion, effective communication needs to be developed.
To develop effective communication,
Identify the target audience
Define objective
Design a message
Determine message contents
Determine message structure
Choose Media
Decide on personal communication channel
Decide on non-personal communication channel
Select the message source.

Sales Promotion
Sales promotion is the short-term incentives to encourage the purchase or sale of a product or service for a limited time period. The main objective of sales promotion is to build relationship between consumer and the brand as well as creating short term sales or temporary brand witching. To carry out the objectives of sales promotion, the salesperson is a representative of a firm, who performs one or more works in terms of vision, communicating, servicing, and information gathering.

Sales promotion tools
The salesperson has various sales promotion tools such as consumer promotion tools ; sample – small amount of a product offers free to the consumer for trial; coupon; cash refund offer; price pack; premium; advertising specialties – items printed with an advertiser’s name, given as a gift to consumers; patronage reward; point of purchase display of products; contests and games.

Promotion Mix Strategies
There are push strategy and pull strategy
Push strategy is a promotion strategy in which the seller pushes the product through distribution channels to final consumer.
Pull strategy is in which the seller directly hit the final consumer to induce them to buy the product. Consumer will demand the product from channel members, if the pull strategy effect successfully.

Public Relations
Public relations is building good relations with the company’s various publics and corporate clients by publicity and interacting in favorable moods and media, as well as handling unfavorable rumors, stories and events . The tools of public relations use: press release; product publicity; public affairs; lobbying and investors.

Place (Distribution channels)
Place , which is also known as the distribution channels, is a set of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption by the consumer or business user. The distribution channels can be

  • Direct channel ( from producer to a consumer)
  • Indirect channel ( from producer through intermediaries to a consumer)

Through distribution producer’s (manufacture’s) product can pass to a wholesaler, then to a retailer before finally reaching a consumer. Or it may go first to a retailer finally to reach a consumer. In these cases, there are intermediaries between the producer and the finally consumer. But the producer can sell directly to the final consumer. In this case, there is no an intermediary. The intermediaries may be short or long. It is long, for instance, when the product passes through an agent, a wholesaler, retailer, and short when it only passes through a retailer to reach a consumer. Intermediaries, such as retailers and wholesalers, tend to add efficiency because they can do specialized tasks better than the consumer or the manufacturer.

Intermediaries add efficiency by
1. Breaking bulk – the final consumer buys only the small quantity; quantities are gradually broken down to reach a consumer
2. Intermediaries move goods efficiently
3. Consolidation and distribution – the final consumer can access a product easily as in the supermarket
4. Carrying inventory less costly to the holding of inventory
5. Financing – wholesaler and retailer may negotiate for lower prices

Determining on need and the nature of distribution channel involves making decisions on location of the consumer, cost of distribution, type of product and the strategy of distribution.

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Marketing strategy is a plan which determines the firm’s marketing goals; marketing strategy explains how the goals will be achieved within a stated framework. It also determines the choice of target market segment, positioning, marketing mix and allocation of resources. A clear understanding of marketing management philosophies of choice, the marketing environment, Consumer behavior and extent of the use of the marketing information systems affects the nature and quality of marketing strategy.

Marketing strategy can be undifferentiated marketing strategy, or a differentiated marketing strategy. Undifferentiated marketing strategy refers to the process of not dividing the market of consumers into groups based on one or more shared internal or external characteristics. An undifferentiated targeting strategy is used when a firm decides to communicate the benefits of its product by sending the same promotional message to everyone. For an undifferentiated strategy to be successful, the product must be readily available and affordable and must provide the same benefits to all consumers. The differentiated marketing strategy refers to the process of dividing the market of consumers into groups based one or more shared internal or external characteristics. The differentiated marketing is a market segmentation strategy.

5.1 Market segmentation
The division of a market into different homogeneous groups of consumers is known as market segmentation. Market segmentation is an adaptive strategy. The application of market segmentation serves the purpose of developing competitive scope, which can have an effect on competitive advantage.

A viability of market segment is based on these criteria:
1. The segment is measurable
2. The segment is accessible or reachable by communication and distribution channels
3. The segment is stable or durable, not changing quickly
4. The segment is substantial in size to be profitable
5. The segment is unique or differentiable needs to serve

Market segmentation can be divided into consumer market segmentation and business market segmentation. Business Market Segmentation is when segmentation is applied to businesses and organizations on the bases of the following:

Geography: the regional variables such as regional economic growth, and customer concentration, for example, in Nairobi or in Mombasa
Customer type: for example, the size of the organization, and the industry
Buyer behavior: for example, usage patterns, and order size

5.2 Bases of consumer market segmentation
There are four primary bases to segment the consumer market:
1. Geographic segmentation
2. Demographic segmentation
3. Psychographic segmentation
4. Behavioral segmentation

1. Geographic segmentation
In geographical segmentation, market is divided into different geographical units like:

  • Regions (by country, nation, state, neighborhood)
  • Population density (urban, suburban, rural)
  • City size (size of area, population size and growth rate)
  • Climate (regions having similar climate pattern)

A firm, either serving a few or all geographic segments, needs to put attention on variability of geographic needs and wants. After segmenting consumer market on geographic bases, companies localize their marketing efforts (product, advertising, promotion and sales efforts).

2. Demographic segmentation
In demographic segmentation, market is divided into small segments based on demographic variables like:

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Income
  • Occupation
  • Education
  • Social class
  • Generation
  • Family size
  • Family life cycle
  • Home ownership
  • Religion
  • Ethnic group/race
  • Nationality

Demographic factors are most important factors for segmenting the customers groups. Consumer needs, wants, usage rate these all depend upon demographic variables. So, considering demographic factors, while defining marketing strategy, is crucial.

3. Psychographic segmentation
In Psychographic Segmentation, segments are defined on the basis of social class, lifestyle and personality characteristics. Psychographic variables include:

  • Interests
  • Opinions
  • Personality
  • Self Image
  • Activities
  • Values
  • Attitudes

A segment having demographically grouped consumers may have different psychographic characteristics.

4. Behavioral segmentation
In this segmentation market is divided into segments based on consumer knowledge, attitude, use or response to product. Behavioral variables include:

  • Usage rate
  • Product benefits
  • Brand loyalty
  • Price consciousness
  • Occasions (like holidays )
  • User Status (first time, regular or irregular)

5.3 Target marketing and positioning strategy
As part of adaptive strategy, after segmentation, what can follow is target marketing and positioning . Figure 6 illustrates the interrelationship.

Figure 6. Relationship of segmentation, targeting and positioning strategies Segmentation, targeting and positioning strategies are differentiated strategy.

Target marketing
Target marketing is defined as the identification of the market segments that are identified as being the most likely buyers of a firm’s product.

The advantages of target marketing include:
1. Marketing opportunities and unfilled ‘gaps’ in a market may be more accurately appraised and identified. Such gaps can be real or they can be illusionary in terms of the way people want to view the product
2. Market and product appeals through manipulation of the marketing mix can be more delicately tuned to the needs of the potential customer
3. Marketing effort can be concentrated on the market segment which offer the greatest potential for the company to achieve its goals

Positioning strategy
Positioning refers to how the firm wants its consumers to see its product. And a positioning strategy results in the image the firm wants to draw in the mind of it customers, the picture it wants the customers to visualize of the firm’s offer, in relation to the market situation, and any competition that the firm may have.

There are different positioning themes:

Attribute positioning: The message highlights one or two of the attributes of the product
Benefit positioning: The message highlights one or two of the benefits to the customer
Use/application positioning: Claim the product as best for some application
User positioning: Claim the product as best for a group of users
Competitor positioning: Claim that the product is better than a competitor
Product category positioning: Claim as the best in a product category
Quality/Price positioning: Claim best value for price

5.4 Niche market strategy and Generic Marketing strategy

Niche market strategy
A niche market strategy is a strategy that focuses on addressing a need for a product that is not being addressed by mainstream providers. It is a strategy that targets a small but profitable portion of a market. The strategy targets buyers who are interested in the type of product being offered. A niche product, by its mere nature, might be not the one that has a broad-based appeal. With this in mind, a marketing niche strategy needs to seek out interested parties where they might be.

Generic marketing strategy
Within the context of market segmentation, there is another marketing strategy called Generic marketing strategy. The Generic marketing strategy aims at giving competitive advantages to the firms. The most common generic marketing strategy is the one based on the model developed by Porter. According to this model, there is segmentation strategy, differentiation strategy and cost leadership strategy that gives firms competitive advantages. Figure 7 presents the model:

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4.1 Defining Consumer Behaviour

Consumer behavior is the decision processes an individual or group involving evaluating, acquiring, using or consuming goods and services. A firm needs to analyze buying behavior for:

  1. Buyers reactions to a firms marketing strategy has a great impact on the firms success
  2. The marketing concept stresses that a firm should create a marketing mix that satisfies customers, therefore need to analyze the what, where, when and how consumers buy
  3. Marketers can better predict how consumers will respond to marketing strategies of they understand the buying behavior

To understand, the buyer decision-making process, the general model of the buyer decision process serves as a tool. This model consists of these five steps or stages, including the postpurchase step or stage:
1. Problem recognition
2. Information search
3. Evaluation of alternatives
4. Purchase decision and purchase
5. Post-purchase behavior

4.2 Models of the buyer decision process
Figure 5 shows the common general model of the decision process.

Let us briefly look at the steps, as they are also called stages, of the model. Actual purchasing is only one stage of the process. Not all decision processes lead to a purchase.

All consumer decisions do not always include all stages.
1. Problem Recognition: the first step is to recognize that there is a need, for instance, the need for food since the buyer feels hungry; and hunger stimulates the need to eat. That again triggers the need to search information for food.
2. Information search: information search leads to internal search, from memory or to the external search (from media, friends, shopping, internet, etc.,), or from both internal and external search. This stage may lead the stage of evaluating the alternatives. Which type of food to eat? At what price? Where? And when? And how?
3. Evaluation of Alternatives: depending on criteria for evaluation and features the buyer wants or does not want, the buyer chooses the food to buy.
4. Purchase decision : the purchase decision includes product, package, store, method of purchase and timing
5. Purchase: purchase may differ from decision, for instance, time of purchase and product availability.
6. Post-Purchase behavior: this may be satisfaction or dissatisfaction after purchase. There is a concept called Cognitive Dissonance- the situation of doubt about whether the right decision to purchase was made. This can be reduced by warranties, after sales communication and supportive measures.

4.3 Factors affecting the consumer behavior
The factors that affect the characteristics of consumer behavior:
1. Cultural factors
2. Social factors
3. Personal factors
4. Psychological factors

1. Cultural Factors
Consumer behavior is deeply influenced by cultural factors such as: buyer culture, subculture, and social class.

• Culture
Basically, culture is the part of every society and is the important cause of person wants and behavior. The influence of culture on buying behavior varies from country to country therefore marketers have to be very careful in analyzing the culture of different groups, regions or even countries.
• Subculture
Each culture contains different subcultures such as religions, nationalities, geographic regions, racial groups etc. Firms can use these groups by segmenting the market into various small portions, for example, by designing products according to the needs of a particular geographic group.
• Social Class
Every society possesses some form of social class which is important , because the buying behavior of people in a given social class is similar. In this way marketing activities could be tailored according to different social classes. Here we should note that social class is not only determined by income but there are various other factors as well such as: wealth, education, occupation etc.

2. Social Factors
Social factors also impact the buying behavior of consumers. The important social factors are: reference groups, family, role and status.

• Reference Groups
Reference groups have potential in forming a person attitude or behavior. The impact of reference groups varies across products and brands. For example if the product is visible such as dress, shoes, car etc then the influence of reference groups will be high. Reference groups also include opinion leader (a person who influences other because of his special skill, knowledge or other characteristics).
• Family
Buyer behavior is strongly influenced by the member of a family. Therefore marketers are trying to find the roles and influence of the husband, wife and children. If the buying decision of a particular product is influenced by wife then the marketers will try to target the women in their advertisement. Here we should note that buying roles change with change in consumer lifestyles.
• Roles and Status
Each person possesses different roles and status in the society depending upon the groups, clubs, family, organization etc. to which he belongs. For example a woman is working in an organization as finance manager. Now she is playing two roles, one of finance manager and other of mother. Therefore her buying decisions will be influenced by her role and status.

3. Personal Factors
Personal factors can also affect the consumer behavior. Some of the important personal factors that influence the buying behavior are: lifestyle, economic situation, occupation, age, personality and self concept.

• Age
Age and life-cycle have potential impact on the consumer buying behavior. It is obvious that the consumers change the purchase of goods and services with the passage of time. Family life-cycle consists of different stages such young singles, married couples, unmarried couples etc which help marketers to develop appropriate products for each stage.
• Occupation
The occupation of a person has significant impact on his buying behavior. For example a marketing manager of an organization will try to purchase business suits, whereas a low level worker in the same organization will purchase rugged work clothes.
• Economic Situation
Consumer economic situation has great influence on his buying behavior. If the income and savings of a customer is high then he will purchase more expensive products. On the other hand, a person with low income and savings will purchase inexpensive products.
• Lifestyle
Lifestyle of customers is another import factor affecting the consumer buying behavior. Lifestyle refers to the way a person lives in a society and is expressed by the things in his/her surroundings. It is determined by customer interests, opinions, activities etc and shapes his whole pattern of acting and interacting in the world.
• Personality
Personality changes from person to person, time to time and place to place. Therefore it can greatly influence the buying behavior of customers. Actually, Personality is not what one wears; rather it is the totality of behavior of a man in different circumstances. It has different characteristics such as: dominance, aggressiveness, self-confidence etc which can be useful to determine the consumer behavior for particular product or service.

4. Psychological Factors
There are four important psychological factors affecting the consumer buying behavior. These are: perception, motivation, learning, beliefs and attitudes.
• Motivation
The level of motivation also affects the buying behavior of customers. Every person has different needs such as physiological needs, biological needs, social needs etc. The nature of the needs is that, some of them are most pressing while others are least pressing. Therefore a need becomes a motive when it is more pressing to direct the person to seek satisfaction.
• Perception
Selecting, organizing and interpreting information in a way to produce a meaningful experience of the world is called perception. There are three different perceptual processes which are selective attention, selective distortion and selective retention. In case of selective attention, marketers try to attract the customer attention. Whereas, in case of selective distortion, customers try to interpret the information in a way that will support what the customers already believe. Similarly, in case of selective retention, marketers try to retain information that supports their beliefs.
• Beliefs and Attitudes
Customer possesses specific belief and attitude towards various products. Since such beliefs and attitudes make up brand image and affect consumer buying behavior therefore marketers are interested in them. Marketers can change the beliefs and attitudes of customers by launching special campaigns in this regard.

4.4 Types of consumer buying behavior
Types of consumer buying behavior are determined by:

  • Level of Involvement in purchase decision, importance and intensity of interest in a product in a particular situation
  • Buyers level of involvement determines the reasons for motivation to seek information about a certain products and brands but virtually ignores others

The four type of consumer buying behavior are:

  • Routine response/programmed behavior: buying low involvement frequently purchased low cost items; need very little search and decision effort; purchased almost automatically. Examples include soft drinks, and milk.
  • Limited decision making: buying product occasionally. Requires a moderate amount of time for information gathering. Examples include clothes to know product class but not the brand.
  • Extensive decision making/complex high involvement, unfamiliar, expensive and/or infrequently bought products. High degree of economic/performance/psychological risk. Examples include cars, homes, and education. It involves a lot of time seeking information and deciding
  • Impulse buying, no conscious planning. The purchase of the same product does not always elicit the same buying behavior. Product can shift from one category to the next.