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Is an approach to the theory of management which emphasizes the individual workers need for satisfactory relationship with other members of his work group and his need to participate in decision that affect significantly his work

Ways of improving human relations

  • Creation of congenital work environment
  • Provide enlightened leadership and set examples
  • Democratic and permissive climate in the organization
  • Proper and speedy redress of staff grievances
  • Personal attention to staff problems
  • Well planned communication systems
  • Abundant opportunities for personal growth
  • Treat staff with dignity and respect
  • Recognize them, and praise them in public
  • Be sincerely interested in their subordinates

Importance or role of human relations

  • Improve people-organization relationship
  • High productivity due to high motivation
  • Reduce industrial arrest
  • Reduced resistance to changes
  • Enhance development of team work



Outline reasons why open plan offices are popular

  • They are economical in terms of space
  • Supervision is easy
  • They minimize staff movement
  • Economy of equipment
  • Economy of lighting
  • Promote transparency of operations

What are duties of the accounts departments

  • Preparations of the final accounts
  • Preparations of the budget
  • Budget control
  • Credit control
  • Payment of salaries
  • Payment of debts
  • Receiving payments

Outline ways of safeguarding files against unauthorized access

  • Lock them up in cabinets
  • Restrict access to non-registry staff

Outline the advantages of using office forms

  • Time saving
  • Limit responses
  • Ensure uniformity of details

Outline ways in which an office worker may build good relations with seniors

  • Complete work or schedule
  • Follow instructions
  • Report work related difficulties or problems promptly and accurately
  • Requests for assistance if needed
  • Help where appropriate
  • Be courteous
  • Give feedback to confirm understanding
  • Adhere to policies and regulations

What are the functions of  a research and development department

  • Develop new methods of manufacturing
  • Discover new products
  • Explore new markets
  • Find ways of improving existing products
  • Develop better packaging

Explain factors to be considered when choosing a filing system

  • It should be easily accessible
  • It should be suitable for the type of correspondence
  • It should cater for future expansion
  • It should be suitable to work with
  • It should allow quick reference
  • It should be able to safe guard documents/information

What are the measures to be taken to reduce delays in the distribution of mail

  • Assign staff for distribution
  • Establish clear channels for distributions
  • Establish specific time for distribution-classify collection point
  • Institute proper follow up systems and fix responsibilities
  • Maintain constant communication with departments

Outline various advantages of office automation

  • Saving on time taken to perform in certain functions
  • Less labor may be required
  • The staff experience less fatigue
  • Less monotony compared to manual
  • Reduce paper work
  • Encourages specialization
  • Improves efficiency

What are the benefits of an office to an organization

  • It is a center for communication
  • It safeguards an organizations assets
  • It provides a place where records are kept
  • Its a meeting place for the organizations departments or clients

Outline the desirable qualities of a receptionist

  • Interested in people
  • Good memory
  • Patient
  • Tactful
  • Well-dressed/groomed
  • Mastery of official languages

Name the details which may be obtained from a file absent card

  • Name of the borrower
  • Department of the borrower
  • Date borrowed
  • Date returned
  • Name and number of the file

Explain the methods of preparing a master for duplication

  • By electronic scanner
  • By using a thermal copier
  • By using a type writer
  • By hand writing
  • By photographic/electrostatic processes

Describe the responsibilities of an office supervisor

  • He coordinates the work in the department
  • Monitors work progress
  • Distributes work among staff
  • Identifies training needs
  • Solving work related problems
  • Deals with staff issues e.g. discipline

What are the advantages of reproducing documents Using computer printers

  • The copies are neat
  • Printers are very fast
  • Colorized production is possible
  • Easy to correct errors
  • No preparation of an intermediary device
  • Storage of data is easy e.g flash disk

Suggest measures to improve accuracy in filing

  • Ensure that every document filed has the mark releasing it for
  • Sort papers and group them before filling
  • Place correspondence in the correct file
  • Arrange correspondence in chronological order with the most recent on top
  • File daily
  • Use a cross reference where applicable
  • Seek guidance when in doubt

Suggest ways in which an organization may control the quantities of stationery used by departments

  • Monitor the quantities used by each department
  • Appoint somebody to be in charge of stationery requisition
  • Issue stationery only against a signed requisition
  • Store stationery under right conditions to avoid wastage through deterioration
  • Set minimum and maximum levels of stock to overstocking
  • Have set times for issuing stationery
  • Issuing relevant stationery to relevant departments

What are the benefits of having an effective stock control system

  • It prevents pilferage
  • It ensures that stock levels are maintained
  • It minimizes the amount of capital tied up in stock
  • It minimizes wastage of storage space

What are measures a manager could take in order to enhance human relations in his departments

  • Allow initiative from staff
  • Fair distribution of work
  • Equal treatment in disciplinary cases
  • Accept constructive criticism
  • Sensitivity to workers feelings

What are benefits of a public relations departments to a customer

  • Addresses customer queries
  • Deals with customer complaints
  • Organizes community assistance projects
  • Creates awareness of the organizations activities/products

What are the challenges that employees face in coping with challenging technology

  • High cost of retraining
  • Limited access to training facilities
  • Inadequate time for training
  • Reluctance to embrace new technology

What are ways in which poor grooming and dressing can negatively affect human relations in the office

  • Inappropriate dressing may elicit negative comments from colleagues which may strain relationship
  • Bad breath and odor may lead to isolation of a colleague
  • Unkempt appearance draws wrong conclusion and encourages gossip which stains relationship
  • Showily dressing may be interpreted as pride or evidence of superiority complex which may lead to isolation
  • Excessive use of perfumes and make up may cause irritation to colleagues

Suggest ways in which an organization may promote its image to customers

  • Prompt delivery of goods and services
  • Presentable and effective front office staff
  • Prompt response to customer queries/complaints
  • Periodic press releases
  • Partnership with community in charitable events
  • Fair pricing of products

What is the procedure for stock -requisition for a department

  1. Establish required items and quantities
  2. Compare with allocated quota
  • Fill in the requisition slip
  1. Get authorization
  2. Submit requisition to store
  3. Verification by store clerk
  • Issue of required items
  • Record received items
  1. Distribute to users

What are organizational factors that could promote good human relations

  • Provision of a good working environment communication
  • Clear tasks and responsibilities
  • Provision of adequate tools and equipment for the job

What are responsibilities of a purchasing department

  • Purchasing goods and materials
  • Preparation of orders
  • Maintaining stock records
  • Maintaining records of supplies
  • Sourcing for suppliers

What are the effects of poor human relations in an office

  • Poor quality of work/service
  • Sabotage
  • Absenteeism
  • Lack of team work
  • Conflicts among staff
  • Low staff morale
  • Staff lateness

Outline factors to be considered when deciding record retention policy

  • Space available for use
  • Frequency of reference
  • Legal requirements
  • Need to retain documents in original form as evidence in court
  • Availability of duplicates in other departments
  • Equipment available for storage
  • Need of retention for auditory purposes

Suggest measures that an organization may take to ensure effective use of stationery

  • Issue stationery in reams and packets
  • Ensure there is proper follow up of use e.g. cheek dustbins for wasteful use
  • Recycle/re use of used stationery where possible e.g. printing paper envelops
  • Carry out regular inspection on stock taking
  • Provide good quality stationery
  • Restrict the amount of stationery to be used

Outline disadvantages of microfilming

  1. A reader is required in order to refer to the information
  2. Its difficult to locate the information required from the film
  • Poorly prepared film will not be readable
  1. It requires special equipment which is expensive
  2. Specialized knowledge is required to prepare the film and to refer
  3. Retrieval of information takes time

What are the ways in which staff can display good office etiquette

  • Time management -complete tasks on schedule observe official working hours
  • Response to different clients-handle them with tact, courtesy and diplomacy
  • Responsibility-show initiative, work without supervision

Discuss ways in which production department depends on the marketing department in an organization

  • It promotes the goods produced by the production department in an organization
  • It gives customers feedback to the production department
  • It trains the sales man and makes them knowledgeable about the different products produced by production department
  • It carries out market research and advises the production department in different product designs available in the market
  • It sells the goods produced by production department

Outline measures that the organization may take to enhance good public relations with its customers

  • Handling customers issues with urgency and concern
  • By providing official dress code
  • By providing suggestion boxes as a means of soliciting feedback from customers
  • By using appropriate communication with customers
  • By participating in charity events
  • By providing quality products

Outline services offered by an office to an organization

  • Filling documents
  • Storage of information and making the same available in future
  • Connecting the departments with customers ,suppliers etc
  • Circulating all necessary information to all concerned

What are benefits of using E-mail in office

  • Its a fast means of communication
  • The same message can be sent to many people simultaneously
  • Large amount of information can be sent inform of attachment
  • E-mail messages can be sent to the recipients mail box at any time at the senders convenience
  • Its cheap means of communication
  • Its a worldwide service

What are the reasons for filling documents

  • To preserve records for future reference
  • To protect records against damage
  • To provide evidence in case of any dispute e.g in a court of law
  • To keep the office tidy
  • Preserve documents from wear and tear

What are limitations of using carbon paper as a means of making copies of documents

  • Only few copies can be made at a time
  • Copies tend to fade with time
  • Confidentiality may be compromised
  • Copies may be untidy

What are the reasons for cross-referencing when filing documents

  • When more than one name is used by a person or company
  • When correspondence may be sought under more than one name
  • When firm is known by its initials
  • When the name has changed

What are the ways in which a worker can show consideration for others at work

  • Sharing resources and information fairly
  • Not making unnecessary noise
  • Taking up their work when colleagues are absent
  • Being sympathetic to their colleagues
  • Being respectful to colleagues
  • Listening to other peoples opinion

Outline the procedure used when handling outgoing mail

  • Mails should be collected from departments at a regular interval that are pre-arrangement
  • Clerks must ensure that letters are put into the correct envelops and all enclosures attached to relevant letters
  • Letter should be sorted according to the type of service required so that they can be weighed according to the category of service
  • Letters should then be stamped with the correct amount of postage
  • Where there is need to keep the record of the amount used on postage, the details of the mails should be recorded
  • Franked letters must be delivered at the post office counter and mails requiring special service, should be delivered at the post office and a receipt obtained

What are the reasons for choosing photocopying method to reproduce documents

  • Exact copies without loss of any details are obtained
  • Quicker than duplicating or printing as no need for the preparation of the master
  • Color copies can be obtained in some machines
  • Large sized documents can be reduced by some machines and smaller ones can be enlarged
  • There is no need to verify the number of copies as the quantity is preset before

What are the measures that should be taken to ensure that the forms designed are suitable

  • The writing surface, the style of print, the paper sequence of information and method of entry should be easy for rapid completion of the form
  • Good appearance and balanced arrangement of information of the form
  • Adequate space should be provided for the expected information
  • Every form should have an appropriate title
  • Should be cost effective
  • It should be easy to reproduce the form
  • The quality of paper and color must be appropriate

What are the factors/reasons that may discourage organization from using alphabetical filing method

  • In large systems it takes longer time to find papers
  • There is likely congestion under common names
  • It is difficult to forecast space requirement for different letters of the alphabet
  • There are possibilities of a document being filed under a different name due to differences in spellings

Highlight five measures that may be taken to minimize noise in an office

  • Carpets or rubber mats spread on the floor will reduce the sounds caused by the movements of the clerks and other people
  • Below the office machines which create noise in operation, felt pads can be placed which reduce noise
  • Calling bells can be replaced with buzzers
  • Telephone may be kept in sound-proof booths to reduce the sound
  • Clerks must be instructed to maintain calmness
  • Workers must be engaged fully during the office hours so that they don’t waste time over idle gossip
  • Banging or creaking doors should be fitted with rubber or felt steps to reduce sound

As an office manager you were asked by your boss to assess the best place to locate a new office. Discuss the factors you would consider while deciding about a new office site

  • Office premises should be located in a good area with good reputation
  • It should be located in those area where necessary facilities e.g. electricity, water, telephone etc.
  • Office premises should be close enough to those businesses or other concerned persons with whom your organization is required to deal in most of the cases
  • The office site must be suitable from the point of view of natural lighting temperature, cleanliness, safety etc.
  • It should be located in such a way that there must be no problem for future expansion
  • The cost of obtaining office premises must be reasonable and within the financial resources of the business

Outline the principles of office layout

  • The arrangement should allow for a smooth flow of work with minimum of staff movement
  • The floor space should be as free as possible to permit free movement
  • For the benefit of easy supervision of staff’ good and efficient appearance of the office, desks should arranged in a standard plan
  • All equipment e.g. filling cabinet, telephone etc. likely to be used by everybody in the office should be so sited that within easy reach of those who should use it.This reduces movements of staff and disturbance of work
  • The number and location of gangways should be allowed in such a way that each employee should be able to leave and reach his desk without having to disturb others.
  • The arrangement of furniture should not obstruct natural light and ventilation by placing them in front of windows
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CHAPTER ELEVEN  various aspects of office stationery and furniture


 various aspects of office stationery and furniture

Definition office stationery- is a general term referring to all writing materials used in the office e.g. papers, envelops, rubber, ribbon, stencil, correcting fluid, stamp pad etc.

It’s necessary to maintain effective control on use of stationery projects the correct image of the company

Stationery control

  • The stationery should be bought centrally and in bulk to secure quantity discount but overstocking should be avoided.
  • The issuing system must be planned properly to eliminate wasteful consumption as far as possible
  • The proper control over the use of stationery must be included in the duties of office supervision
  • The stock must be maintained as little as possible
  • The good quantity paper must be used for important documents to customer so as to maintain the company’s goodwill
  • The possible re-use of stationery items should be explored
  • The stationery storage must be arranges so as to prevent deterioration and to save space,lighting and heating
  • Stock levels must be set out to avoid running out of items of stationery or overstocking
  • Purchasing of stationery
  • Receipt of stationery
  • Bin card
  • Issue
  • Stock verification

Discuss the aspects of office furniture

Definition office furniture consists of tables, chairs, desks and tools, storage and filing equipment like filing racks and cabinets, cupboard, lockers, safes etc.

Basic principles in selecting the furniture

  1. Suitability
  2. Comfort design
  1. Weight
  2. Space
  3. Cost
  • Hygiene
  • Usefulness appearance

Types of furniture

  1. Executive furniture

High officials have different tastes for furniture and the executive furniture is purchased according to their tastes

This is mainly to impress the visitors and it should add prestige of the person using it and the prestige of the firm

  1. Built in furniture

In the present period, buildings are constructed in space-saving method. Cupboards are mainly built  in the walls of the rooms

Thus expenditure is reduced and space is also saved. The cleaning job becomes easy because only the front portion needs to be cleaned

  1. General furniture

General furniture is designed to facilitate the work of clerks. The size of a table depends upon the nature of the work to be performed. Different clerks may be doing different types of work. The clerk who works on the ledgers requires a big table and chair according to the requirements

Guidelines or principles to be considered when purchasing furniture

  • Only required furniture should be purchased and its cost should be within reasonable limits
  • Multi-purpose use should be considered while planning the purchase of furniture
  • The furniture should use the space economically
  • The design of the furniture should be aimed as maximum comfort and convenience of the users
  • The top of the table will be adequate to work with
  • The drawers should slide in and out smoothly
  • The edges of the furniture must be rounded off
  • The back of the chair should be adjustable
  • Clerks should not be placed face to face because it encourages conversation
  • The furniture should be adaptable, simple, durable etc.


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CHAPTER TEN Organization and methods (o &m)


Organization and methods (o &m)

O&M refers to the systematic attempt on the part of an enterprise to improve and maintain office at a high level of efficiency.

It is through O&M that office operations and procedures are continuously improved. Work simplification is possible and better communication and economy are achieved

Objectives of O&M

  • Eliminate waste of time, human energy, space, equipment, stores and stationery
  • Improvement in output and quality of work
  • Improvement in office services
  • Making the staff efficiency conscious

Functions of organization and methods

  • Defining precisely objectives of different functions and operations
  • Drawing up a plan of work indicating the general and specific purposes of the tasks involved, nature of the information to be procured and the sources of information to be tapped
  • Making a thorough examination of the existing procedures
  • Making detailed study of the sources of information
  • Examination of all relevant facts gathered in the course of investigation and study and suggesting new or modified procedures if found necessary
  • Once the suggestions of the O&M department are accepted helping the administration and staff in implementing the suggestions

Outline the principles which guide O&M

  • All unnecessary operations should be eliminated
  • all operations which can, with advantages, be combined should be so combined
  • all operations should be in their correct sequence to avoid back tracking
  • all necessary operations should be as simple as possible
  • the shorter the office work cycle the higher will be the overall productivity
  • the work flow should not only be fast but also have an even tempo

What are steps in conducting O&M assignment

O&M functions should be a continuous process, but sometimes the O&M officer may be asked by higher management or a particular department manager to conduct a survey and make recommendations for improvement

In a particular area of operation

In conducting the assignment the O &M officer and the team will have to take the following steps

  1. Determine the objective
  2. Planning the assignment
  • Preparatory meeting
  1. Collecting the facts
  2. Analyzing the facts
  3. Submitting proposals for change
  • Helping in the implementation

What are the advantages and disadvantages of O&M?


  • Improves general efficiency of the office
  • Reduces the clerical and paper work and ultimately reduces wastage
  • Out down since unnecessary steps requiring clerical labor and documents are eliminated


  • It tends to have an adverse effect on staff morale
  • Work simplification is carried out theoretically which could not be workable when put in practice
  • It requires constant training on staff, so as to enable staff to cope with the introduced systems
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7.0 Introduction
Report writing is the last step in the research process. After data have been collected, analysed and interpreted, the researcher has to prepare a report of the findings of the study. It may be seen unscientific and even unfair, but a poor report or presentation can destroy a study.

7.1 Role of the Research Report
The main role of the research report is to communicate the findings of the research project. The project should answer the questions raised in the statement of objectives of the study. The researcher should be clearly aware of the purpose of the research when preparing the report. A research project can bring out a lot of information but much of this information may not be relevant to the problem initially defined. Only information that is likely to be useful to the decision maker in decision making should be included in the report. The researcher will need to use his own judgement in deciding what information should be omitted. For the report to be of maximum use to the decision maker, it must be objective. The researcher should therefore have the courage to present and defend their results as long as they are convinced that they are valid. They should also clearly indicate any limitations of the study.

7.2 Research Report Criteria
The main criteria by which research reports are evaluated are communication with the reader. The report is prepared for a specific purpose and for a specific type of audience. It should therefore communicate effectively with the intended audience. The report should be written with due consideration for the readers, their level of interest in the subject, understanding of technical terms and what they will make of the report. In order to tailor the report to meet the needs of the readers, the researcher should understand the readers’ preferences. One may find that different readers have different preferences and this may at times bring conflicts. Some readers may want to have the basic information only while others prefer to have the technical details clearly brought out in the report. One way to reconcile these conflicting interests is to prepare a basic report with a minimum detail and to have appendices that give the technical details. Again, in some cases, the researcher may indicate that certainly details have been omitted but are available upon request.

Another point to consider regarding the report’s ability to communicate with the intended reader is whether the reader has to keep referring to the dictionary as this may seriously interfere with the flow of information and thus affect communication.

7.3 Writing Criteria
A report should satisfy the following criteria to improve its chances of communicating effectively with the reader:

  1. Completeness.
  2. Accuracy
  3. Clarity
  4. Conciseness

Let us now discuss how each of these criteria enhances communication.

1. Completeness
A report should provide all the information that readers need in a language they understand. This means that the writer should continually ask himself whether all the issues in the research objectives have been addressed. The report should not be too long as to include findings that are not relevant to the study. Yet, it should not be too short as to omit necessary definitions and explanations.
The abilities and interests of readers should be considered in determining completeness.

2. Accuracy
The preceding steps in the research process provide the basic input for the report. This means that the data generated at the data collection and analysis steps should be accurate in order for the report to be accurate.

3. Clarity
Writing clearly is not easy. Clarity is achieved by clear logical thinking and precision of expression. The way the report is organised may contribute to clarity or affect it negatively.

Some principles of writing clearly are:

  • Use short and simple sentences.
  • Use simple words which the reader is familiar with.
  • Ensure that words and phrases express exactly what the writer means to say.
  • Avoid grammatical errors.
  • Use uniform style and format. It may help to write a first draft and then have another person review it before preparing the final report.

The criteria of completeness should not be complemented by conciseness. The writer should be concise in his writing and selective with regard to what to include in the report. The report should be brief and to the point – this means that the report should not include everything that has been found but only what is relevant to the study. The writing style should render itself to conciseness. The findings should be expressed completely and clearly in the fewest words possible.

7.4 Report Format
The organisation of the report influences its ability to meet all the criteria of report writing. There is no format that is appropriate for all reports. A report should use a format that best fits the needs of its readers. The following format may be used for most types of reports. It should be seen as flexible and open to changes and adjustments depending with needs of the reader.
1. Title page
2. Table of contents
3. Summary/Abstract/Executive Summary
4. Problem statement
5. Statement of objectives
6. Background
7. Research methodology

  • Research design
  • Data collection method
  • Sampling
  • Fieldwork
  • Analysis and interpretation

8. Limitations of the study
9. Findings of the study
10. Summary and conclusions
11. Recommendations
12. Appendix

  • Copies of data collection instruments.
  • Details of sample size determination.
  • Tables not included in the findings.

4. Bibliography.
Let us briefly discuss each of these terms.

1. Title Page
The title page should indicate the subject of the report, the name of the organisation for whom the report is prepared, the name of organisation or person who prepared it and the date the report is prepared.
If the report is done by employees of the company, then the names of the people or departments
preparing the report are given.

2. Table of Contents
As a rough guide, any report of several sections that totals more than 6 to 10 pages should have a table of contents. This shows in order of appearance the topics and subtopics of the report with page references. It also includes tables and charts and pages where they may be found.

3. Summary/Abstract
Some authors consider the summary to be the most important part of the report. This is mainly because most executives read only the summary or they us it to guide them on what areas of the report to give more attention. It should contain the necessary background information as well as the important findings and conclusions. Two pages are generally sufficient for executive summaries. Write this section after the rest of the report is finished.

4. Problem Statement
It contains the need for the research project. The problem is usually represented by research question(s). It is followed by a more detailed set of objectives.

5. Statement of Objectives
This states the objectives of the study and should clearly indicate the purpose of the study and what the report tries to answer.

6. Background
Background material may be of two types. It may be preliminary results of exploration from an experience survey, focus group, or another source. Alternatively, it could be secondary data from the literature review.

7. Research Methodology
This section describes the research procedures or methods used. It should indicate the research design, sampling procedures, data collection and data analysis procedures used. This section provides information on the manner in which the findings reported were gathered, analysed and interpreted.

8. Limitations of the Study
This topic is often handled with ambivalence. Some people wish to ignore the matter, feeling that mentioning limitations detracts from the impact of the study. This attitude is unprofessional and possibly unethical. Every research project has limitations and the research should call the readers attention to them. This gives the reader a more accurate picture of the study and helps him to interprete the findings more objectively.

9. Findings of the Study
In this section which makes the bulk of the report, the results of the study are presented. The specific objectives of the study should be kept in mind and the results should be presented in a logical manner. Only information that contributes to answering the questions posed in the study objectives should be reported. Tables, charts and figures should be presented in a logical manner
to facilitate flow of thought and appreciation.

10. Summary and Conclusions
The summary is a brief statement of the essential findings. Sectional summaries may be used if there are many specific findings. They may be combined into an overall summary. In simple, descriptive research, a summary may complete the report, because conclusions and recommendations may not be required. Findings state facts, conclusions represent inferences drawn from the findings. Conclusions should be drawn with reference to the objectives of the study. The researcher should show the step by step development of conclusions and state them with some detail. Conclusions may be presented in a tabular form for easy reading and reference.
If for some reason the study does not obtain adequate data on which to make conclusions, this should be acknowledged.

11. Recommendations
There are usually a few ideas about corrective actions. In academic research, the recommendations are often further study suggestions that broaden or test understanding of the subject area. In applied research the recommendations will usually be for managerial action
rather than research action. The writer may offer several alternatives with justifications. It is therefore, not always possible or necessary to make recommendations. However, in some cases, the researcher may be asked to make recommendations. In this case, he will need further information on the background of the organisation and its policies.

The appendix provides a place for material that does not fit in the other parts of the research report. This may be because its too detailed, technical or specialized, or is not absolutely necessary for the text. The appendix normally contains details on sample design and sample size determination, an exhibit copy of the data collection instrument; maps used to draw up the sample; detailed statistical tables and figures. The appendix helps those interested in the technical details to find them easily.

7.5 Presentation of Statistics
The presentation of statistics in research reports is a special challenge for writers. Four basic ways to present such data are in (1) a text paragraph, (2) semitabular form, (3) tables, or (4) graphics.

1. Text Presentation

This is probably the most common when there are only a few statistics. The writer can direct the reader’s attention to certain numbers or comparisons and emphasize specific points. The drawback is that the statistics are submerged in the text, requiring the reader to scan the entire paragraph to extract the meaning. The following material has a few simple comparisons but becomes more complicated when text and statistics are combined. A comparison of the three aerospace and defense companies from the high-tech stratum of the
Forbes 500 sample show that Sundstrand had the best sales growth record over the years 1988- 1989. Its growth was 8.0 percent – with sales significantly lower than the other two firms in the sample. This compares to sales growth for Rockwell International of 3.3 percent, and AlliedSignal was third at only 0.8 percent sales increase. Rockwell International generated the most profits in 1989 among the three companies. Rockwell’s net profits were $720.7 million as compared to $528 million for Allied-Signal and $120.8 million for Sundstrand.

2. Semitabular Presentation
When there are just a few figures, they may be taken from the text and listed. Lists of quantitative comparisons are much easier to read and understand than embedded statistics.
An example of semitabular presentation is shown below: A comparison of the three aerospace-defense companies in the Forbes 500 sample shows that Sundstrand showed the best sales growth between 1988 and 1989. Rockwell International generated the highest net profits for the year 1989.

3. Tabular Presentation
Tables are generally superior to text for presenting statistics, although they should be accompanied by comments directing the reader’s attention to important figures. Tables facilitate quantitative comparisons and provide a concise, efficient way to present numerical data. Tables are either general or summary in nature. General tables tend to be large, complex and detailed. They serve as the repository for the statistical findings of the study and are usually in the appendix of a research report.

Summary tables contain only a few key pieces of data closely related to a specific finding. To make them inviting to the reader (who often skips them), the table designer should omit unimportant details and collapse multiple classifications into composite measures that may be sustained for the original data. Any table should contain enough information for the reader to understand its contents. The title should explain the subject of the table, how the data are classified, the time period, or other related matters. A subtitle is sometimes included under the title to explain something about the table; most often this is a statement of the measurement units in which data are expressed. The contents of the columns should be clearly identified by the column heads, and the contents of the
stub should do the same for the rows. The body of the table contains the data, while the footnotes contain any needed explanations. Footnotes should be identified by letters or symbols such as asterisks, rather than by numbers, to avoid confusion with data values. Finally, there should be a source note if the data do not come from your original research.

4. Graphics
Compared with tables, graphs show less information and often only approximate values. However, they are more often read and remembered than tables. Their great advantage is that they convey quantitative values and comparisons more readily than tables. With personal computer charting programs, you can easily turn a set of numbers into a chart or graph.

7.6 Oral Presentations
Researchers often present their findings orally. These presentations, sometimes called briefings, have some unique characteristics that distinguish them from most other kinds of public speaking: Only a small group of people is involved; statistics normally constitute an important portion of the topic; the audience members are usually managers with an interest in the topic, but they want to hear only the critical elements; speaking time will often be as short as 20 minutes but may run longer than an hour; and the presentation is normally followed by questions and discussion.

A successful briefing typically requires condensing a lengthy and complex body of information. Since speaking rates should not exceed 100 to 150 words per minute, a 20-minute presentation limits you to about 2,000 to 2,500 words. If you are to communicate effectively under such conditions, you must plan carefully. Begin by asking two questions. First, how long should you plan to talk? Usually there is an indication of the acceptable presentation length. It may be the custom in an organisation to take a given allotted time for a briefing. If the time is severely limited, then the need for topical priorities is obvious. This leads to the second question: What are the purposes of the briefing? Is it to raise concern about problems that have been uncovered? Is it to add to the knowledge of audience members? Is it to give them conclusions and recommendations for their decision making? Questions such as these illustrate the general objectives of the report. After answering these questions, you should develop a detailed outline of what you are going to say. Such an outline should contain the following major parts:

1. Opening. A brief statement, probably not more than 10 percent of the allottted time, sets the stage for the body of the report. The opening should be direct, get attention, and introduce the nature of the discussion that follows. It should explain the nature of the project, how it came about, and what it attempted to do.
2. Findings and Conclusions. The conclusions may be stated immediately after the opening remarks, with each conclusion followed by the findings that support it.
3. Recommendations. Where appropriate, these are stated in the third stage; each recommendation may be followed by references to the conclusions leading to it. Presented in this manner, they provide a natural climax to the report. At the end of the presentation, it
may be appropriate to call for questions from the audience.

Early in the planning stage you need to make two further decisions. The first concerns the type of audiovisuals (AV) that will be used and the role they will play in the presentation. AV decisions are important enough that they are often made before the briefing outline and text are developed.

Then you must decide on the type of presentation. Will you give a memorized speech, read from your manuscript, or give an extemporaneous presentation? We rule out the impromptu briefing as an option because impromptu speaking does not involve preparation. Your reputation and the research effort should not be jeopardized by ‘winging it’.

Memorization is a risky and time-consuming course to follow. Any memory slip during the presentation can be a catastrophe, and the delivery sound stilted and distant. Memorization virtually precludes establishing rapport with the audience and adapting to their reactions while you speak. It produces a self or speaker-centered approach and is not recommended. Reading a manuscript is also not advisable even though many professors seem to reward students who do so (perhaps because they themselves get away with it at professional meetings). The delivery sounds dull and lifeless because most people are not trained to read aloud and therefore
do it badly. They become focused on the manuscript to the exclusion of the audience. This head-down preoccupation with the text is clearly inappropriate for management presentations.

The extemporaneous presentation is audience centered and made from minimal notes or an outline. This mode permits the speaker to be natural, conversational, and flexible. Clearly, it is the best choice for an organisational setting. Preparation consists of writing a draft along with a complete sentence outline and converting the main points to notes. In this way, you can try lines of argument, experiment with various ways of expressing thoughts, and develop phraseology. Along the way, the main points are fixed sequentially in your mind, and supporting connections are made.

Audiences accept notes, and their presence does wonders in allaying speaker fears. Even if you never use them, they are there for psychological support. Many prefer to use 5-by-8 inch cards for their briefing notes because they hold more information and so require less shuffling than the smaller 3-by-5 size. Card contents vary widely, but here are some general guidelines for their design:
• Place title and preliminary remarks on the first card.
• Use each of the remaining cards to carry a major section of the presenttion. The amount of detail depends on the need for precision and the speaker’s desire for supporting information.
• Include key phrases, illustrations, statistics, dates and pronunciation guides for difficult words. Include also quotations and ideas that bear repeating.
• Along the margin, place instructions and cues, such as SLOW, FAST, EMPHASIZE, TRANSPARENCY A, TURN CHART, and GO BACK TO CHART 3.

While the content is the chief concern, the speaker’s delivery is also important. A polished presentation adds to the receptiveness of the audience, but there is some danger that the presentation may overpower the message. Fortunately, the typical research audience knows why it is assembled, has a high level of interest, and does not need to be entertained. Even so, the speaker faces a real challenge in communicating effectively. The delivery should be restrained. Demeanor, posture, dress, and total appearance should be appropriate for the occasion. Speed of speech, clarity of enunciation, pauses, and gestures all play their part. Voice pitch, tone quality, and inflections are proper subjects for concern. There is little time for anecdotes and other rapport-developing techniques, yet the speaker must get and hold audience attention.

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CHAPTER NINE Office correspondence


Office correspondence

They  also  called mails. mailing which is the process of receiving and sending letters in any organization

Mails may be divided into three parts

  1. incoming mails
  2. outgoing mails
  3. interdepartmental mails


  • Incoming mails

Incoming mails section handles all correspondence coming to an organization

The following points provide a general guideline for dealing with incoming mails

Collecting mail

Mails in most cases collected by the messengers

There are fixed times for collection of mails usually in the morning and once in the afternoon

All the mails collected by the messenger should be brought to the office in a locked briefcase to be opened in the mail office

Opening mail

Registered mails must be signed for and dealt with immediately

Mails should be opened at least by two clerks in the presence of a supervisor or other senior official

Open all letters except those marked private, personal or confidential. Those will be opened by those they are addressed to

If a letter states having enclosures, there should be checked and securely affixed to the letters concerned to eliminate possibility of them getting misplaced

Re check envelops for contents before dis carding to make sure that they are really empty

Recording incoming mail

In small departments, amok may be kept to record all incoming mails but record at least all those letters that enclose cash or cheque etc. That are received by registered or forwarding mails to departments steps include

  1. Read through all the mails and sort into files urgent, important and routine
  2. Get files for any relevant or previous correspondence and clip letters to files
  • Distribute mails as quickly as possible after it has been received and sort out as delays may prove expensive
  1. Personal and confidential letters should be forward un-opened
  2. Mails finally are handed over to the boss sorted out e.g. routine, general, important, personal, confidential, registered mail etc.
  3. Those mails intended for more than one department should be dealt with accordingly
  • For very urgent letter  of immediate attention ⚠  of several officers, photocopies should be made out of such letters and sent to all of them thereby saving time
  • Outgoing mails

Delivering mails to mail office

Clear responsibility as to who would take outgoing mail from various departments to the mail office

There should be fixed timing for delivery of mail to mail office

Places i.e. out-trays should be known where to find letters

Mails should be sent to the mail office open not sealed except the confidential one

If any envelop is to be given special attention e.g to be sent by registered or express mail etc.a suitable note in the pencil should be made at the top of the envelop for guidance of the mail office staff

Preparing mail for dispatch

  • All letters received in the mail office should be checked
  • Letters should be matched to their correct corresponding envelope
  • Letters should be folded and then put in the envelops and sealed
  • Some firms use window envelops for outgoing mail to ensure that letters are not put in the wrong envelopes
  • They are then weighed for correct postage and the amount noted
  • Stamp the letters or parcels. This is done by hand or by the franking machine

Recording outgoing mails

The book records brief details three of the addressee, nature of the document and postage

If is a franking machine is used letters must be delivered to a post office

Registered and express mail should be taken to the post office and proper receipts and acknowledgements obtained

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6.0 Analysis and Presentation of Data
Once the data begin to flow in, attention turns to data analysis. The steps followed in data collection influence the choice of data analysis techniques. The main preliminary steps that are common to many studies are:

  • Editing
  • Coding and
  • Tabulation

Editing involves checking the raw data to eliminate errors or points of confusion in data. The main purpose of editing is to set quality standards on the raw data, so that the analysis can take place with minimum of confusion. In other words, editing detects errors and omissions, corrects them when possible and certifies that minimum data quality standards are achieved. The editor’s purpose is to guarantee that data are:
• Accurate
• Consistent with other information
• Uniformly entered
• Complete and
• Arranged to simplify coding and tabulation.

In the following questions asked of military officers, one respondent checked two categories, indicating that he was in the reserves and currently serving on active duty.

The editor’s responsibility is to decide which of the responses is consistent with the intent of the question or other information in the survey and is most accurate for this individual respondent.
There are two stages in editing:

  • the field edit
  • the central office edit

The Field Edit

Field edit is the preliminary edit whose main purpose is to detect the obvious inaccuracies and omissions in the data. This also helps the researcher to control the fieldworkers and to clear misunderstandings of the procedures and of specific questions.
The best arrangement is to have the field edit conducted soon after the data collection form has been administered. The following items are checked in the field edit:

  • Completeness: Checking the data form to ensure that all the questions have been answered. The respondent may refuse to answer some questions or may just not notice them.
  • Legibility: A questionnaire may be difficult to read owing to the interviewer’s handwriting or the uses of abbreviations not understood by respondents.
  • Clarity: A response may be difficult for others to comprehend but the interviewer can easily clarify it, if asked in good time.
  • Consistency: The responses provided may also lack consistency. These can be corrected by the fieldworker if detected early.

In large projects, field editing review is a responsibility of the field supervisor. It, too, should be done soon after the data have been gathered. A second important control function of the field supervisor is to validate the field results. This normally means s/he will re-interview some percentage of the respondent, at least on some questions.

Central Editing
This comes after the field edit. At this point, data should get a thorough editing. Sometimes it is obvious that an entry is incorrect, is entered in the wrong place or states time in months when it was requested in weeks. A more difficult problem concerns faking; Arm chair interviewing is difficult to spot, but the editor is in the best position to do so. One approach is to check responses to open-ended questions. These are the most difficult to fake. Distinctive response patterns in other questions will often emerge if faking is occuring. To uncover this, the editor must analyse the instruments used by each interviewer.

2. Coding
It involves assigning numbers or other symbols to answers so the responses can be grouped into a limited number of classes or categories. The classifying of data into limited categories sacrifices some data detail but is necessary for efficient analysis. Instead of requesting the work male or female in response to a question that asks for the identification of one’s gender, we could use the codes ‘M’ or ‘F’. Normally, this variable would be coded 1 for male and 2 for female or 0 and 1. Coding helps the researcher to reduce several thousand replies to a few categories containing the critical information needed for analysis.

The first step involves the attempt to determine the appropriate categories into which the responses are to be placed. Since multiple choice and dichotomous questionnaire have specified alternative responses, coding the responses of such questions is easy. It simply involves assigning a different numerical code to each different response category.

Open questions present different kinds of problems for the editors. The editor has to categorise the responses first and then each question is reviewed to identify the category into which it is to be placed. There is a problem in that there can be a very wide range of responses, some of which are not anticipated at all. To ensure consistency in coding, the task of coding should be apportioned by questions and not by questionnaires. That is, one person may handle question one to six, in all the questionnaires instead of dividing the coding exercise by questionnaires.

The next step involves assigning the code numbers to the established categories. For example, a question may demand that a respondent lists the factors s/he considers when buying a pair of shoes. The respondent is free to indicate anything s/he thinks of. The responses may range from colour, size, comfort, price, materials, quality, durability, style, uniqueness and manufacturer among others. The response may have to be coded into just three or four categories and each response has to be placed within a specific category and coded as such. The ‘don’t know’ (DK) response presents special problems for data preparation. When the DK
response group is small, it is not troublesome. But there are times when it is of mjaor concern, and it may even be the most frequent response received. Does this mean the question that elicited this response is useless? It all depends. But the best way to deal with undesired DK answer is to design better questions at the beginning.

3. Tabulation
This consists of counting the number of responses that fit in each category. The tabulation may take the form of simple tabulation or cross tabulation.
• Simple tabulation involves counting a single variable. This may be done for each of the variables of the study. Each variable is independent of the others.
• In gross tabulation two or more variables are handled simultaneously. This may be done by hand or machine.

Where hand tabulation is used, a tally sheet is used. For example, if the question read: How many cigarettes do you smoke in a day?
The tally for a sample of size 35 would look like this:

The cross tabulations indicate for example, that all the respondents smoking more than 5 cigarettes a day are in the 36 and over years of age category. This kind of tabulation is only useful in very simple studies involving a few questions and a limited number of responses. Most studies involve large numbers of respondents and many items to be analysed and these generally rely on computer tabulation. There are many packaged programmes for studies in the social sciences.

A note on the use of summary statistics
Researchers frequently use summary statistics to present survey findings. The most commonly used summary statistics include:
Measures of central tendency (mean median and mode).
Measures of dispersion (variance, standard deviation, range, interquartile range).
Measures of shape (skewness and kurtosis).
We can also use percentages.

These are all summary statistics that are only substitutes for more detailed data. They enable the researchers to generalise about the sample of study objects. It should be noted that these summary statistics are only helpful if they accurately represented the sample.
One can also use some useful techniques for displaying the data. These include frequency tables, bar charts, and piecharts, etc.

6.1 Hypothesis Testing
There are two approaches to hypothesis testing. The more established is the classical or sampling theory approach; the second is known as the Bayesian approach. Classical statistics are found in all of the major statistics books and are widely used in research applications. This approach represents an objective view of probability in which the decision making rests totally on an analysis of available sampling data. A hypothesis is established, it is rejected or fails to be rejected, based on the sample data collected.
In classical tests of significance, two kinds of hypothesis are used:

  • The null hypothesis denoted Ho; is a statement that no difference exists between the parameter and the statistic being compared.
  • The alternative hypothesis denoted H1; is the logical opposite of the null hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis – denoted (H1) may take several forms, depending on the objective of the researchers. The H1 may be of the ‘not the same’ form (nondirectional).  A second variety may be of the ‘greater than’ or ‘less than’ form (directional).

A type I error is committed when a true hypothesis is rejected and a type II error is committed when one fails to reject a false null hypothesis.
Statistical Testing Procedures:

  • State the null hypothesis.
  • Choose the statistical test.
  • Select the desired level of significance. ∝ 0.05 ∝ 0.01.
  • Compute the calculated difference value.
  • Obtain the critical test value, ie, t, z, or x2
  • Make the decision. For most tests if the calculated value is larger than critical value, we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the alternative hypothesis is supported (although it is by no means proved).

A Note on Tests of Significance
There are two general classes of significance tests, parametric and nonparametric.
• Parametric tests are more powerful because their data are derived from interval and ratio measurements.
• Nonparametric tests are used to test hypothesis with nominal and ordinal data.

Parametric Tests
The Z or t test is used to determine the statistical significance between a sample distribution mean and a parameter. The Z distribution and t distribution differ (the latter is used for large samples, ie, greater than 30). But when sample sizes approach 120, the sample standard deviation becomes a very good estimate of the population standard deviation; beyond 120, the t and Z distributions are virtually identical.

One-Sample Tests:
These are used when we have a single sample and wish to test the hypothesis that it comes from a specified population. In this case, we encounter questions such as these:

  • Is there a difference between observed frequencies and the frequencies we would expect, based on some theory?
  • Is there a difference between observed and expected proportions?
  • Is it reasonable to conclude that a sample is drawn from a population with some specified distribution (normal, poison, and so forth)?
  • Is there significant difference between some measure of central tendency (x) and its population parameter (u)?


  • It is important to realise that if the null hypothesis is accepted, this is not proof that the assumed population mean is correct. Testing a hypothesis may only show that an assumed value is probably false.
  • It will be apparent from the two examples that the 1% level of significance is a more severe test than the 5% level. The greater the level of significance, the greater the probability of making a Type I error.

Non-Parametric Tests
Probably the most widely used non-parametric test of significance is the chi-square (x2) test.
This test does not make any assumption about the distribution from which the sample is taken. The x2 test is an important extention of hypothesis testing and is used when it is wished to compare an actual, observed distribution with a hypothesised or expected distribution. It is often referred to as a ‘goodness of fit’ test.

Where O = the observed frequency of any value.
E = the expected frequency of any value.

1. Null hypothesis Ho : O = E
H1: O ≠ E
2. Statistical test: Use the one-sample x2
to compare the observed distribution to a hypothesized distribution.
3. Significance level: ∝ = 0.05 or 0.01.
4. Calculated value:

5. Critical test value: Locate the table critical values of x2
6. Decision: If the calculated value is greater than (less than) the critical value, reject null hypothesis (accept Ho).

6.2 Introduction Comments on Correlation and Regression Analysis
Correlation and regression analysis are complex mathematical techniques for studying the relationship between two or more variables. Correlation analysis involves measuring the closeness of the relationship between two or more variables. Regression analysis refers to techniques used to derive an equation that relates the dependent variable to one or more independent variables. The dependent variable here refers to the variable being predicted. The independent variables are those that form the basis of the prediction – they are also called predictor variables

Correlation and regression techniques may be used in situations where both the dependent and independent variables are of the continuous type. When a survey data consists of a continuous dependent variable and one or more continuous independent variables, researchers may use the techniques of correlation and regression analysis.

A straight line is fundamentally the best way to model the relationship between two continuous variables. The bivariate linear regression may be expressed as: Y = β0 + β0XI Where the value of the dependent variable Y is a linear function of the corresponding value of the independent variable (X)

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CHAPTER EIGHT Reprographic services


Reprographic services

1 Photocopying

Is a process of obtaining a copy of a document directly from the original with photographic details

Is only used when few copies are required or when on exact photographic reproduction is necessary


  • Exact copies without losses of only detail are obtained
  • When only a few copies are required its the cheapest form of duplicating
  • Color copies can be obtained in some machines
  • Large sized documents can be reduced by some machines
  • It can be operated by a junior as compared with typing which requires a skilled typist
  • Quicker than duplicating or printing as no need for the preparation of the master


  • Too expensive for large number of copies
  • Photocopies tend to fade after some time
  • Some machines don’t photocopy colors

2 Duplicating

This is the process whereby a master copy is prepared from which are obtained a large number of other copies

There are two basic methods of duplicating documents;

  1. stencil
  2. spirit duplicating
  3. Stencil duplicating

This process involves the use of a thin fibrous sheet called stencil which is covered with a chemical coating through which ink cannot pass .They are not  easy to write on but straight forward to type


  • If more copies are required then this method is quite cheap
  • The errors can be corrected by using the fluid
  • The copies obtained are more clear and can be used permanently
  • The copies can be reproduced by using electronic stencil
  • Stencils can be used several times if stored properly


  • This method is expensive if only few copies are required
  • Its not suitable for color production
  • More time is required to prepare a stencil than photocopying
  • Its not suitable for attractive printing material like sales promotion literature because the paper used isn’t of high quality
  1. Spirit duplicating

In this process the master copy consists of a sheet of art paper that has a special carbon on its reverse side. This method of duplicating involves two parts, the preparation of the master and the production of copies from this master


  • Preparation a master is easy and quick
  • Color can be duplicated simultaneously
  • Its suitable for producing hard within work for diagrams, maps, charts etc.


  • Difficult to correct mistakes
  • Quite expensive can give only 200-300 copies from each master
  • The image becomes weaker as the carbon deposit is used
  • The quality of work reproduced resemble carbon copies unlike stencil duplicating

3 Printing

This is a special type of duplicating used in most large offices where thousands of copies eg 50,000 are required and their high quality printing is important

Its master copy is a metal plate or paper plate which is typed using a special type writer


  • The quality of reproduction is best of all processes
  • It’s a very economical if large quantities are needed
  • It’s speedy because up to 5,000 copies an hour can be produced
  • Any paper can be used
  • Plates can be stored and re used again
  • Different color printing and typefaces or sizes can be used


  • It’s expensive if only few copies are required
  • It needs specialized and trained operations
  • Separate runs are required for different colors
  • Additional office space required for duplicating and stores for materials

What are factors to be considered when deciding on the appropriate duplicating process

  • Number of copies required
  • Frequency of demand i.e. how often the machine will be used
  • Number of colors required
  • How urgently are copies needed
  • Who would receive the document, this would decide whether type written or printed. Type set appearance is preferred
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CHAPTER SEVEN Office forms


Office forms

Objectives of forms control

  • To introduce forms which are really necessary and ensure clerical work don’t become confusing due to many forms
  • Ensure forms so designed as render best possible use at minimum cost
  • To produce forms by the most appropriate and economical method
  • To supply copies of forms only to those who are to use them
  • To study whether introducing new forms proposed on review of old forms is essential
  • To review all forms periodically so as to determine their utility
  • To evaluate forms design on the basis of the time required to use forms

Essentials of a good office forms

  • The writing surface, the style of print, the paper sequence of information and method of entry should be easy for rapid completion of the form
  • Good appearance and balanced arrangement of information of the form
  • Adequate space should be provided for the expected information
  • Every form should be provided for the expected information
  • Every form should have an appropriate title
  • Should be cost effective
  • It should be easy to reproduce the form
  • The quality of papers and color must be appropriate


Advantages of forms control

  • It economizes time, paper costs etc. by using the correct forms
  • The work is simplified as the only required information is provided
  • It helps to reduce errors
  • Less frustration to workers as they will be knowing what is required
  • It improves the overall efficiency of the office work
  • It helps in faster processing because only the relevant information is obtained

What are common faults in forms

  • Insufficient horizontal space allowed for the expected information
  • Too much printed information such as publicity slogans printed on the form
  • Lack of distinction between forms e.g. pro-forma invoices and invoices ,credit and debit notes
  • Inadequate margins (at least 25mm) should be allowed at the left hand side of the form, for filling purpose and some space on top and the bottom for insertion into a type writer
  • The space for a signature placed too near the bottom edge of the paper
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Outline the purposes maintaining business records.

  • To measure the progress of the business overtime.
  • Proper study of the position of the of the firm.
  • Comparison of businesses.
  • In case of dispute
  • Past records, events, progress etc. are very necessary to decide policies and plans.
  • Certain records are kept for a number of years from the legal point of view.
  • Records are good evidence in court of law in case of suits.
  • For general use.

Give a classification of a business records

  • Personal records
  • Correspondence records.
  • Accounting records..
  • Other business records.
  • Legal records

Outline the principles of record management.

  • Verification-Records can be verified whenever needed
  • Classification-Records must be classified according to their use.
  • Records must be maintained for some justified reasons.
  • Information-The require information must be a available whenever needed.
  • Record system must be elastic in capacity so that expansion or contraction of records is possible,
  • Reasonable cost. The cost of record management must be  a reasonable one.

What is filling?

Is a process of classifying and arranging the records so that they can obtain without delay.

What are the advantages (importance) of filling

  1. Serves the purpose of ready reference.
  2. They saves time and increase efficiency
  • Safeguard the documents against loss.
  1. Files serve as reliable basis for future planning and action.
  2. Past records are good evidence in case of dispute.
  3. A proper control is facilitated


What are the characteristics of a good filing system

  1. Compactness-Should take up too much space especially floor space for filing cabinet
  2. Accessibility
  3. Simplicity
  4. Simple
  5. Elasticity
  6. Cross-reference

Give the procedure of keeping documents

  1. They are first classified under headings like orders invoices correspondences etc.
  2. After this, they are filed in respective filed on the basis of classification system followed by the organization.
  3. The documents are kept for a specific period say , 5 years based on the retention policy of the organization.
  4. After this period these documents re destroyed.

What are advantages and disadvantages of centralized and departmental filing

Centralized filling

  • Leads to development of specialist filing staff.
  • All files are controlled in one room.
  • More supervision and control files is possible.
  • It ensures that all correspondence about the same subjects are filed together.
  • A Uniform system of filing can be established throughout the organization.

Departmental filling

  • Files are quickly made available as they are not too many.
  • As every department keeps its files within, they are readily available.
  • The filing system is not so large and therefore easier to handle.
  • It doesn’t need a specialist staff for filing and this reduces costs.
  • Its more suitable for confidential documents as they aren’t open to every member or the filing department.

Explain various filing classification, giving their advantages and disadvantages

  1. Alphabetical.

-Documents are filed according to the first letter of either name of the sender or subject.

-Similar to words in English dictionary or telephone directory.


  • Convenience of grouping paper by name of the company etc.
  • Direct filing with no need for index i.e. the first letter will tell you where the document is located
  • Simple and easy to understand even explaining to new staff
  • Its possible to open one file for miscellaneous papers which can’t make up their own files



  • In large systems it takes longer time to find papers
  • Congestion under common names
  • For large organizations ,papers may be reasonably be filed under different headings
  • It’s difficult to forecast space requirement for different letters of the alphabet.
  • There are possibilities of a document being filed under a different name due to differences in spelling etc.
  1. Numerical

Correspondence are arranged according to numbers rather than letters

This system is useful for filling orders or other items kept in numerical sequence

An index is necessary for locating the correct file


  • They have unlimited possibilities for expansion
  • Highly accurate system
  • Cross referencing is simpler than with other systems
  • The file number can be used as a reference for correspondence
  • The filling index may be used for other purposes e.g mailing lists as well


  • It takes longer to free material as it involves two operations i.e the recording of paper on the card index and the filling of the document
  • Filing and finding in indirect
  • A separate index must be provided
  • It takes time for a new employee to fully understand the system etc
  1. Geographical

Files are divided according to their places of origin eg countries or by provinces in a country

File   within each group are arranged alphabetically


  • Suitable for companies that have several branches spread over different parts of the world ,country ,county etc.
  • Convenience of reference where the location is known
  • pDirect access for filling purposes


  • Possibility of error where knowledge of geography is weak
  • Geographical location must be known in addition to the correspondents name
  • Index is necessary for occasional reference
  1. Chronological

All documents are filed in order of their dates of receipt


  • Useful if dates are known
  • It provides for unlimited scope of expansion


  • It is not always suitable
  • Incoming letters might become separated from outgoing ones .
  • Subject classification-files are classified according to subject headings or topics


  • All documents referring to a particular subject are kept together in one place
  • The files can easily be expanded or contracted by simply adding or subtracting old ones


  • Determining the list of divisions is difficult and requires someone with a knowledge of the business and its files
  • Determining under which subject heading it should be filed, requires a trained and careful employee

What is filing equipment and what purposes do they serve

  • These are equipment designed for storage of information in an organization and consists of covers, folders filing cabinets etc.
  • They serve the following purposes
  • protection of documents  against loss, damage and deterioration
  • prevention of theft or unauthorized use
  • insertion, location and extraction of documents must take less time or effort

Discuss the various aspects of filing cabinets

  • A file is a collection of papers or documents dealing with one person or topic
  • The equipment in which they are kept is known as a file cover or binder
  • Filing equipment includes file cover and filing cabinets.
  • These are different types of file covers
  1. Box files

These have a solid box like construction and spring loaded compression pad which holds down the filled material firmly

Box files may be used to keep letters, leaflets, catalogues etc.

  1. Lever arch files

These contain metal devices opened and closed in the center of the folder operated by the lever

  1. Concerting files

These are made up of a number of succession pockets into which similar documents can be collected readily for processing like petty cash vouchers and such documents which don’t need to be punched e.g. certificate etc.

  1. Ring binders

These are made of hard covers and two or more rings which open to allow the insertion and removal of documents

Explain various types of filing methods

This refers to how file covers or binders are kept in the filing cabinets

  1. Vertical filing

This is the keeping of files within the drawers, racks or in the shelves when one is on top of another

They lie horizontally i.e. east to west

  1. Suspension filing

The files stand in vertical positions, but in order to prevent them from falling off from the filing cabinets, two metals are fixed on the sides of a filling cabinet’s drawer

  1. Lateral filing

This is where the files are stored on a shelf or in pockets suspended side by side from frames

This method saves space because of great height


  1. What is indexing?
  2. Outline the importance of indexing?
  3. What are the different types of indexing?
  4. Briefly explain what is meant by cross reference?


An index is a device for finding the position of a document or file in a system quickly and easily

Filing index helps the location of any letter, record, files etc. Thus it provides quick reference which is essential of a good filing system

Classification and indexing are not the same.

Classification-is a method of filing and the manner in which the files of different subjects are arranged.

Indexing-is a method of making reference to the files

Importance of indexing

  • Indexing is an essential part of a good filing system as it is a guide
  • It provides a ready reference
  • It facilitates easy location of files
  • Even if the files are arranged in self-indexing methods, index will further speed the work.
  • It possesses minimum information

Types of indexing

  1. Page index

This is when the contents of a particular folder or cabinet are summarized on a piece of paper together with their position and placed at either the front or back of the folder e.g. one found at the back of a text book

  1. Loose card indexes

This is a small cards showing the names of all correspondents and the files where their information is filed,

The cards are kept together and whenever a file or documents is required, reference is first made to the it is located.

  1. Visible card index

They are filed together with the documents and overlap so that one line of entry on each card projects and is visible thus forming one line index.

  1. Strip index

The cards stand upright in cabinet drawer boxes. The name and other identifying features are exposed to view. The cards are sub divided into section using letters of alphabet with projecting guide cards.

This system is useful where correspondence is removed frequently for reference.


Strip index

It’s the method of recording information on a strip of paper for quick reference. The strips are bound together one on top of the other with a position of each one being visible

This system is useful where correspondence is removed frequently for reference.


  1. Punched card index

A series of holes are punched in the edge of each card, each hole represents on item of information such as department, age, gender etc.


It’s possible for a correspondence to be filed in 2 or 3 different files but only one file is available.

A good cross reference system is needed .Its a form of a card or folder directing a person to where a document which can be filed under more than one is found.


E.g. A letter Akola-Okubu might be filed under Akola-okuba file or in Okubu-Akola file

Where a letter from Akola-Okubu is filed under Okubu-Akola file a cross reference card is put under Akol-Okubu file to direct where its located’






In big firms where a photocopying machine is available, several copies are made and filed in all relevant files reach bearing the information on where the original is.


Importance of cross referencing

  • when more than one name is used by a person or company
  • when correspondence may be sought under more than one name
  • when firm is known by its initials
  • when the name has changed


Marking absent files (out card)

If a file is likely to be removed for a couple of days marked folders should be inserted in the place to collect any paper referring to the absent file.


What is micro filming? 

Is a method of retaining or keeping information by photographic records to reproduce when needed.

The record are micro-photographed and kept either on roll film, micro-fiche, aperture card or jacket

-When needed for reference the negative is shown on a screen or a copy is made.

-Micro filming is only important only when a great multiple of permanent records must be kept e.g. office of register of births etc.



  • Save space and weight .Bulky files are replaced by compact cartons of films.
  • Documents can be sent abroad -Micro filming reduces cost of postage if information has to be sent by expensive air mail.
  • There is little risk of misplacing.
  • There is saving of filling equipment as well as floor space.
  • A film can be enlarged on a paper thus providing quick and accurate duplicate copies of the original documents.
  • A film is more durable than paper and provides a much more permanent record. A film is more wear resistant than paper.


  • A reader is required in order to refer to the inform action
  • Its difficult to locate the information required from the film
  • Poorly prepared film will not be readable
  • It requires special equipment which is expensive
  • Specialized knowledge is required to prepare the film and to refer
  • Retrieval of information takes time