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Emerging Issues and Trends


1. Planning Problems -Planning a project plan and proposal takes a lot of time and effort. So make sure you save and share your past work so your effort does not go to waste. Some proposals may not have been accepted, or maybe you never actually submitted them, but that
does not mean they are useless. Most proposal writers prefer to start working from an old proposal even if they plan on changing everything. Starting with an existing document to modify is often less stressful than starting completely from scratch.
2. Fear of rejection-It is normal to fear rejection. It is also quite likely you will be rejected at times. Even professional fundraisers face rejection on a regular basis. However, do not let this stop you from applying in the first place. If you never apply you will never win. Even if your proposal is rejected, there are still many steps you can take to increase your chances for next time. Always try to continue the relationship with the donor. Send them a thank-you letter and keep on trying!
3. Deadlines-Most people seem to hate deadlines. However, deadlines are essential for successful fundraising! It is quite common for organisations to view fundraising and proposal writing as something to do ‘when there is time.’ Organisations are usually busy with projects and meetings so there is rarely free time available. Having deadlines forces organisations to plan ahead and stop putting things off for later. Even the best fundraisers have missed a deadline or two (or more). While this is an unfortunate missed opportunity, it is not the end of the world. Most donors with competitive application processes re-open their opportunities every quarter or every year.
4. High donor expectations -Donors are acting more and more like shareholders in ventures, demanding more transparency, greater accountability, and better results in regard to their social investments.”
5. Confusing formats -There are as many proposal formats as there are several donors and each donor as a different format
6. The Donor Fatigue Phenomenon-Recent empirical data have indicated a decline in donor funding and the folding up of most projects due to donor fatigue phenomenon:
Reasons for Donor Fatigue
 Increased pressure on foreign aid budgets,
 Changes in funding policy,
 Over-reliance on single sources of funding,
 Increasing numbers of organisations competing for funds for similar projects.
 Low-quality proposal presented to them for funding e.g. “shopping list”, and not analytical and systematic.
 Some requests conflict with the national policy of donor countries
 Development projects not being sustainable to generate own income.
 The inability of partners in Africa to meet reporting requirements
 Improper management of funds leading to donor withdrawal.
1. The Cover Page
2. The Executive Summary
3. Introduction /Background
4. Statement of the Problem
5. Programme Objectives
6. Implementation Plan
7. Evaluation (Reporting included)
8. Sustainability
9. Budget
10.Risk Assessment and Management
11.Management and Staffing
12.Appendices /Supporting Documents
Also called the Title page, indicates:
 The project title
 The name of the lead organization
 The names of the other organizations collaborating with the lead organization, if any
 The date and place of the project preparation
 The name of the donor agency (or potential sponsoring agency) to whom the proposal will be sent to(use their Logos)
The Project Title:
 Should be short (not too long)
 Should be concise (not too general)
 Can refer to a certain key project result or leading project activity
 Should be able to tell the reader what to expect from the content of the proposal
Give Examples of Project Titles
Title #1 – The Systematic Development of a Local Initiative to Create a Learning
Center for Community Education
Title #2 – A Local Learning Center for Community Education
 Zero Hunger
 Waiting Mothers Shelter
 Determined, Resilient, Aids-Free, Mentored, Safe (DREAMS)
Proposals with more than 10 pages should have contents page, and should include:
 Table of Contents
 List of Figures (if any)
 List of Tables (if any)
 Acronyms (if any)
 The summary should include:
 The problem statement
 The project’s objectives
 The project methodology
 Implementing organizations
 Key project activities
 The project duration, and
 The total project budget
The Executive Summary is usually written after developing the proposal, and is often not more than two (2) pages. Could even be less than a page depending on the length of the proposal.
 History of the organization
 Organization’s Mission(purposes and goals, programmes and activities, and clients or constituents
 Legal Status and type of organization (School, Clinic, etc.)
 Key accomplishments and reputation
 Management structure (leadership)
 Visibility in the community
 Annual budget
 Other donors who partners with the organization
Describes the specific problem or problems the project is trying to solve Points out why a certain issue is a problem for the community or society as a whole Explains how the needs of the target group are a direct consequence of the described problem (s)
Priority needs:
Prioritize the identified needs
Explain the criteria or method used in prioritizing the needs identified
Proposed approach (methodology):
Describes the strategy or strategies chosen to deal with the problem (s) and how it will lead to improvement
For example, if the priority need is (improved access to safe water and sanitation) – approaches that can be used could include – (describe each approach): Provision of affordable and appropriate water facilities to the community; and Promotion of Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) for all households in the community.
Describes what the long term benefits to the target group are.
 Enables you to understand what the core problem is and why the project is important
 Main overall objective that project will achieve usually framed as a sustainable improvement in human conditions or well- being.
 Improving the quality of life in —— community
 Eradicating poverty and social injustice among women in ……(Location)
 Eliminating maternal mortality in …………(location)
 States in concrete terms the benefits to be received by the project beneficiaries or target group as a direct result of the project
 Provides a more detailed breakdown of the project goal
 Most projects usually have more than one objectives
 These are often changes in conditions/utilization/behavior/practices or household resources.
 SMARRRT: Specific, Measureable, Achievable, Results-Oriented, Relevant, Realistic, and Time bound
 Exercise -Objective or Not?
 To form farmers’ groups and networking as method of enhancing technology transfer in the community
The implementation/activity timeline is a way of visually describing the sequence of major program activities over time and should set clear benchmarks and timelines that can be used to track overall program progress.
 Describes in details activities and resource allocation.
 Who will implement the project activities?
 When will the project activities be implemented?
 Where will the project activities be implemented?
A project implementation can be divided into two:
Activity Plan
 Specific information and explanation of each of the planned project activities
 A clear statement of the duration of the project
 When will the project begin and end?
 Suggested format to present the activity plan:
 Simple activity table – that shows sub-activities, tasks, timing and responsibility
 Gantt Chart – that shows the dependence and sequence for each activity
 List all project activities.
 Break activities into manageable sub-activities, and then into tasks – avoid breaking activities into too many activities.
 Clarify sequence and dependence – by relating activities to each other to determine their sequence and dependence.
 Draw up a timeline for each task – by giving each task a start up date, a duration, and a completion date.
 Summarize the scheduling of main activities – by summarizing the timing of the entire main activity
 Use milestones – Milestones are key events that provide a measure of project progress and targets for the project team to aim for.
 Define expertise – The level of expertise needed should be decided for each task separately.
 Allocate tasks among the team – Distribute responsibilities in consultation with the members of the team.
Resource Plan
 Establish cost categories – e.g. Administrative, Capacity Building (or Training), Equipment, Operations (Overhead), etc.
 Summarize the cost information for budgeting
 Identify units, quantity per period, and estimated unit costs.
Calculate costs per period and total project costs
Project Results
Describes the services or products to be delivered to the target group directly from the project Should be measured through the use of objective indicators Percentage (%) of households that have gained access to safe water and sanitation in Ebulbul
community by 2021 Percentage (%) reduction of infection rates among children of Ebulbul community reduced by 2021.
This is both narrative and use of monitoring and evaluation tables (frameworks) Provide a brief narrative describing the method(s) of data collection and storage that will be utilized for the project. Describe how you will review data and monitor results to determine
whether desired results are being achieved and whether implementation is on track. Describe the systems that will be used to monitor and evaluate the project, to identify weaknesses and learn from them so as to reduce the chances that they will arise again.
 Monitoring – can be defined as the ongoing process by which stakeholders obtain regular feedback on the process being made towards achieving goals and objectives.
 Evaluation is a rigorous and independent assessment of either completed or ongoing activities to determine the extent to which they are achieving stated objectives and contributing to decision making.
Monitoring and Evaluation Plan
 Formulate clear indicators for each objective and result
 Indicate how and when to conduct monitoring and evaluation activities to determine project’s progress and outcome.
 State which methods will be used to monitor and evaluate the project.
 Identify who will carry out the project evaluation.
Example Narrative
A detailed M&E system will be developed during the first three months of the project, based on the agreed results framework and the baseline studies.
In order to create a specific space for reflection mid-way through the project , an internal midterm evaluation will be carried out. At the end of the programme, an external evaluation will be commissioned and shall give information on the achievements and impact of the programme and provide recommendations for the future. The Terms of Reference for this evaluation will be discussed with ———– (partners and Donors).
 Present the schedule of project progress and financial reporting in the proposal – usually this according to donor requirement.
 Reporting could be quarterly, six monthly, and annually. Terminal reporting is also usually required.
 Donors usually provide their own reporting format for narrative and financial reports.
 Reporting should not only be activity based, but also result and outcome based.
 Lessons, challenges and way forward should be included in the report.
 Qualitative and quantitative data should be used to develop the report.
Example Narrative
XXX will submit monthly narrative progress reports to as per the contractual agreement. These reports will provide updates on results achievement, challenges, mitigation measures and lessons learnt. Baseline, and End term project evaluation; End- term evaluation will be carried out in the last month of the implementation of the project. It will seek to assess the output and effect of project’s work in relation to its objectives. The evaluation will identify key challenges, lessons learnt and make recommendations for improving programming of a similar nature. The endterm evaluation will be the responsibility of XXXX
Sustainability can be defined as “the sustained ability by individuals, institutions to continue contributing to real and lasting change” after the programme has ended. Thus there is a need to aim for institutional sustainability for the partners, including financial sustainability;
programmatic sustainability and individual sustainability—— Economical/Financial sustainability-How to support the project without future grants. Institutional sustainability-Management capacity to continue with the established project
activities. Socio-cultural sustainability-Long-term acceptance of the project results by beneficiaries. Environmental sustainability-Direct or long-term impact on the environment or project dependency on a certain environmental concern.
Institutional and financial sustainability of XXXXX
One important factor which contributes to the effectiveness of the project is XXXX partnership with local organisations. XXXX collaborates with local organisations that have a far superior understanding of the context, in particular when it comes to culture
and social issues.
XXXX does not see this programme as an isolated intervention but as one part of a continuous long-term collaboration with stakeholders .Local partners will remain in the context also after the completion of the programme, thereby building the blocks of sustainability of results.
A budget is an itemized summary of an organization’s expected income and expenses over a period of time.
– Budget format vary from organization to organization and from donor to donor
– It is very necessary that an organization compiles strictly and punctually with its donor organization’s budgeting and reporting requirements
Two main costs are:
Direct costs – costs associated with direct project activities – (e.g. a training workshop). Operational costs – expenses related to internal activities of the organization and are considered fixed costs in the short term – (e.g. staff salaries, rent, utilities, etc.)
Units, Quantity per Period and Estimated Unit Costs – are used to calculate costs associated with direct and operational costs.
Project Risks are events or conditions that if it occurs have a negative or positive effect on projects objectives in terms of, cost, time, scope ,standards. These are pre-completion and operational risks Pre –completion risks –these are risks the affect the project reaching completion and being able to deliver the right results eg delays ,cost overruns —they are considered the highest area of risks and least manageable. Operational risks in project are such as poor design or build, rise in operation costs ——. In risk management: identify the risk, Determine severity of risk, allocate the risk to a party that can manage it and quantify /price the risk.
Risk Assessment Example Narrative
A summary of XXXX risk analysis is presented in annex X. The risk analysis has been done with input from stakeholders in XXXX. The table includes only the risks which were judged to be most important, based on the combined assessment of the probability
of the risk to occur and the impact of each risk on the programme results. The impact and probability have been assessed based on a three level scale; high/H – medium/M – low/L. The identified risks are divided into external, context related risks and internal, organisational risks.
 Describe the project personnel including the individual roles each will play.
 –Explain the communication mechanisms that exist between the positions.
 Other information such as CVs should be attached to the annexes
 Information on the implementing organizations (e.g. annual reports, success stories, brochures and other publications);
 Additional information on the project management structure and personnel (CVs for
the members of the project team);
 Maps of the location of the target area; and
 Project management procedures and forms (organizational charts, forms, etc.)
 Analysis related to the general context (e.g. a civil society sector assessment)
 Policy documents and strategic papers (e.g. a local environmental action plan)
Top Reasons Why Proposals Do Not Get Funded
• Funding source does not believe you understand the problem
• Funding source does not believe in your solution
• Funding source does not believe in your qualifications
• Funding source does not believe or trust your budget
• The proposal is not aligned to the interests of funding source
• The proposal budget exceeds the range of funds from the funding source
Before Writing a Proposal
Before you write a proposal, heed this advice: Do not start writing a funding proposal before you have done the necessary research, thinking and planning.
In addition to the above advice,
1. Research the problem and gather enough data/references about the topical issue/ subject; gather related and enough information about the problem.
2. Knowing your organization and assess your capability to seek funding. Thus, know yourself in terms of who you are (your organizational identity), what are your strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (a design for self-evaluation), and what is your track record (a demonstration of capability)
3. Plan the project to reflect the context (know the context and the circumstances that created the problem the project is addressing and what the problem is, that is, provide problem statement or rationale/reasons why the project has to be done, and description of the target community and direct project beneficiaries), objectives to be realized (be clear about your objectives before you write your proposal (strategies to be used to achieve the objectives) and the implementation process (the activities to be carried out under each strategy, what are the expected outputs, when will the activities and outputs happen- implementation plan, who will be involved – the management plan, how will progress be monitored and how will the project be evaluated – evaluation plan, what resources will be needed to carry out the activities- the budget plan). Remember that donors usually accept the most relevant and best written proposals before applying for funds, it is extremely important to research on:-
• Funding interests of the donor. Thus, make effort to know which donors in your area give money to the kind of projects you are selling. Therefore, you need to know:
• Set of priorities of the donor. Each donor has his/her own set of priorities which cannot be changed easily. Hence there is need to: know the profile of each donor, for example, mission, priority areas of funding etc. Each donor agency has its own way of operating. Therefore, it is important to get information about how the donor works.
• Special features, which are: financial year, yearly deadlines when proposals are accepted, when approved funds are released/received, endorsement. Is the application submitted directly or through some other organizations?
• Donor wants. Most donors want to: make an impact or a difference, acquire knowledge, understanding and information; share knowledge, understanding and information; increase their influence in addressing what they consider to be the problems in the world

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Project Funding Proposal

A concept note is a summary of a proposal containing a brief description of the idea of the project and the objectives to be pursued. Concept notes are also submitted to donors without a formal call for proposals, who prefer to understand a project through a brief
summary rather than a full-fledged proposal document. The Concept Paper is typically a 10- to 30-page document that translates the project needs into clear, consistent requirements, actions and milestones. It clarifies and explains the purpose of the project in relation to business needs; it defines its scope (what the project is about), targets and delivery dates around milestones; and establishes the project management tools and methods.
It is a powerful tool that greatly increases the chances of success of any project, in particular the more complex ones. A good Concept Paper should align the organization to support the
project leader and the team responsible for the execution of a project. It is also a key activity to develop the project leader’s capability.

The Key Elements of the Concept Paper
The fundamental elements of a Concept Paper are project vision, project scope, project targets, timeline and milestones and project management.
1. Project Vision (purpose and objectives)

  • The first section of the Paper articulates the purpose and objectives of the project and defines the specific problem to be solved. It should define the strategic business issues involved and explain how the project will contribute to solving them (that’s why the project sponsor is often a senior manager
  • The project vision could begin with some background information and a brief history of the topic at hand, its relevance to the company, and the main reasons behind the new project based on current needs. It should contain the information necessary to get started.

2. Project Scope
The Concept Paper should next define the project scope, the specific flow of activities involved, the organizational boundaries as well as the end-to-end processes.

3. Project Targets
A few critical key performance indicators (KPIs) should be established, the current performance level defined whenever possible, together with the future performance level expected at a given time. KPIs should reflect the desired state for the project. This also includes

4. Timeline & Milestones
The project’s timeline (the cadence of the work) is defined by a number of key deliveries (milestones) – the fundamental steps in the process (they should be tied to specific dates) upon which the success of the project depends.

5.Project Management: methods and techniques, roles and responsibilities Concept Paper can detail how the project is going to be managed through different methods and techniques, as well as the final team, with roles and responsibilities laid out for each person
(including senior-management sponsors and key stakeholders, support functions personnel, etc).

6. Other possible key elements
Additional elements defined in the Concept Paper could include: major risks and challenges, connections with other company projects, specific assumptions and definitions about the business implications, or support-function requirements

A project proposal is a detailed description of a series of activities aimed at solving a certain problem. Generally, a project proposal contains a detailed presentation of the following:

  • Project Justification (why the project)
  • Project Goal and Objectives (what the project intends to achieve)
  • Project Methodology (how the project will be carried out)
  • Project Activities (what must be carried out)
  • Project Implementation Timeline
  • Human, Material and Financial Resources needed to execute the project
  • To secure outside funding
  • Donor needs a coherent plan to know your organization and what you are going to do with the funds

Types of Proposals
1. Solicited proposals
Proposals submitted in response to a specific call issued by a sponsor.
 Request for Proposals (RFP)
 Request for Quotations (RFQ) (usually have specific requirements for format and technical content, and may specify certain award terms and conditions.)
 Broad Agency Announcements (BAAs) are not considered formal solicitations.
i. Preproposals (EOI, LOI Concept Notes/Paper)
Preproposals are usually in the form of a letter of intent or brief abstract. After the preproposal is reviewed, the sponsor notifies the investigator if a full proposal is warranted.
ii. Continuation or non-competing proposals
These confirm the original proposal and funding requirements of a multi-year project which the sponsor has already provided funding for an initial period (normally one year).

2. Unsolicited Proposals (Grantee Initiated-Need+ Donor Interest)
Proposals submitted to a sponsor that has not issued a specific solicitation but is believed by the investigator to have an interest in the subject.
i. Renewal or competing proposals
Proposals which request continued support for an existing project that is about to end. These requests–from the sponsor’s viewpoint–generally have the same status as an unsolicited
ii. Supplemental project proposal is required when you need to ask for extra resources for a project (beyond those originally proposed). Meant to justify the extra resources and produce updated estimates of what the project will now take to complete. If the project’s scope is being increased to have a further reach then this will read as an extension of the original document with a focus on explaining the benefits of expanding the scope.

Effective Grant Proposal
1. Explains what the donor is actually funding
2. Explains how the project will fit in with other existing projects and programs
3. Clearly identifies and explains who will be the beneficiaries of the project
4. Explains how the project’s objectives meet clearly identified need/s – ‘who said it was a
need?’ – Evidence (refer to statistics, reports, etc.)
5. Effectively links objectives with overall goals/aims
6. Convinces the donor that the project is ‘value for money’ – cost/benefit relationship.
7. Convinces the donor that there is a high likelihood that the project will succeed within the specified timeframe.
8. Takes into account gender and environment issues and how the project will work with the community i.e. facilitates community participation.
9. Addresses issues of sustainability and impact-what effect will the project have in the short, medium and long-term and which of the projects outputs (achievements) will be sustainable after the project is completed.

Steps in Proposal Writing:
The following steps are provided to help the proposal writer understand the steps that go into preparing a proposal and to share some advice that others have found useful.
Step 1: Gather Intelligence
Intelligence gathering is the ongoing collection of information about donors, funding opportunities, other organisations and the political environment. This process will help your organisation:
1. Identify prospective donors.
2. Determine whether to compete for a call for proposals.
3. Monitor market trends, such as the diseases or technical areas donors are prioritizing.
4. Identify competitor organisations.
There are three steps to intelligence gathering:
 Scan: Cast a wide net to see what kinds of donors and/or proposal opportunities exist or are to be released in the future.
 Track: Identify the specific donors or opportunities the organisation would like to prioritize for closer consideration.
 Focus: Make a decision to engage a donor or pursue a proposal/grant application.
When selecting which opportunities to pursue, ensure they align with the vision and mission of the organisation.
There are various strategies an organisation can use to gather intelligence, many of which include:
 Researching donors, competitor organisations and solicitation on the Internet.
 Conducting market research studies
 Attending national/international sector conferences, summits or meetings.
 Participating in social networks, such as Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn.
Step 2: Complete Risk Assessment
This step will focus on how your organisation should determine whether to invest in a certain grant or proposal opportunity. Typically, donors issue a written request to solicit proposals in a competitive, transparent manner for interested and qualified parties (see example in step 1 above). These requests come out through different funding mechanisms including:
 Concept Paper /Expressions of Interest (EOI),
 Request for Proposals (RFP)
 Request for Applications (RFA)
 Request for Quotations (RFQ)
 Public Private Partnerships (PPP) and
 Annual Program Statement (APS
Your organisation should consider the following factors before pursuing a particular call for proposals
 The degree the call for proposal aligns with your organisation’s mission and vision.
 The degree of interest for your organisation in region/zone.
 The degree of interest in the technical area or approach
 The degree of interest in the donor
 The likelihood of successful implementation
 The likelihood of leading to other new opportunities
 The impact on other current and/or future projects
 The probability of success
While some call for proposals may be riskier investments than others, your organisation should weigh the costs and benefits to every announcement or call.

Step 3: Analyse A Call or Request for Proposals
Once a Call for Proposals has been released and your organisation has decided to respond to the call, the first step in developing a grant proposal is to critically read through the information provided in the call. Before even beginning to write a proposal, every person on the proposal development team should read through the call at least once. While reading through a call, make notes of the following information:
 The stated results that the donor is seeking
 The program components
 Any request for key personnel
 Available funding and project duration
 Deadline for submission
 Submission requirements
 Evaluation criteria
 Other key information and requirements
Many proposals are unsuccessful because organisations do not take time to read through the call details carefully resulting submission of proposals missing critical information. The best strategy is to develop an outline of the technical proposal while going through the call details to ensure that the proposal is responding directly to each criterion stated in the call.

Step 4: Manage the Proposal Process
Knowing how to properly manage a proposal process is almost equally as important as knowing how to develop a proposal.
a. The Development Team: The first step is to put together a proposal development team comprising of at least two people: one person responsible for the technical proposal and another in charge of creating the budget. Ideally, your organisation should have a larger proposal development team consisting of a finance officer, technical expert, human resource manager, and reviewer and proposal manager as outlined below:
 Proposal Manager: Coordinates the proposal development process and responsible for the submission of a responsive winning proposal on time.
 Budgeter: Collects budget assumptions from technical/program expert, proposal manager and others and then develops the proposal budget.
 Technical/Program Expert(s): Contributes to the design of the technical strategy and writes some of the technical content.
 Recruiter/Staffing Expert: Reviews staffing requirements of RFP, develops job descriptions, and identifies, interviews and recruits key personnel.
 Writer: Puts the proposal pieces together, edits the content; could also be a technical expert that contributes to the design of technical strategy
 Reviewer: Reviews proposal content; provides feedback and comments for improvement
If it is not possible to have a team, then your organisation need one person to take on the multiple roles described above during a proposal development process.

a. The Proposal Writing Calendar
This calendar should demonstrate key deadlines for each component of a proposal, such as the technical drafts, work plan and timeline, M and E plan, budget and more. When a proposal team develops a calendar, they should start with the formal proposal submission deadline and then work backwards to set all other deadlines. The proposal manager should be responsible for constantly updating the calendar during the proposal development process and ensuring that all members of the proposal development team have access to the calendar.

b. The Internal Proposal Review Process
Proposal managers should always ensure that the people who will be reviewing the proposal are not part of the proposal development team. Ideally, your organisation should have at least two proposal reviewers: one person from outside the organisation and a second within the organisation. Reviewers should be given the RFA/APS, as well as the proposal development calendar, and must be kept informed of when they will be receiving drafts and final versions of the proposal. In general, reviewers should be asking themselves the following questions when reviewing the technical and budget of the proposals:
⦁ Is the technical proposal responsive to donor priorities?
⦁ Is the vision, objectives of the project and the proposed strategies clear and coherent?
⦁ Does the proposal demonstrate depth and knowledge of the country and technical expertise area?
⦁ Is the proposed strategy innovative yet realistic for the situation?
⦁ Does the proposal demonstrate convincingly that the proposed team (partners and staff) is the winning team?
⦁ Does the management plan enable the team to achieve the strategy?
⦁ Format and style: Is the proposal clear, concise and compelling?
⦁ Do the costs look reasonable and realistic to achieve the project objectives?
⦁ Is the budget responsive to the procurement requirements?
⦁ Are there any discrepancies or omissions in the technical proposal?
⦁ Is the budget structured according to current funder’s requirements and trends?

c. The proposal production
The call for proposals will always include information on how eligible organisations should produce and submit a proposal. It is extremely important that your organisation adhere to the requirements listed in the call. Late submission or incorrect format can lead disqualification. Each proposal manager should develop a proposal production check list based on the call for proposal. The proposal manager should go through the checklist carefully before submitting a proposal.

Step 5: Write A Proposal
Grant proposal writing should begin once every person on the proposal development team has read through the call and created the draft technical outline.

Writing a Proposal
Since most religious organisations and projects depend on donor or government funding, knowing how to write a good project proposal can secure funding for your organisation or project.
In this section, we look at how to write a proposal to seek for funds. All funding proposals should be based on an organisation or project’s strategic plan. Before you start you must be clear about the following:
1. Be clear about the goals and purpose of the organisation and the specific objectives of the project (funding a proposal must be based on strategic plan).
2. What exact service you will provide (who is the target team/beneficiaries)
3. What activities do you need to implement and what resources do you need
Besides the above points, here are additional general suggestions:
• Write as simply and clearly as possible. Avoid using slang or phrases that are not commonly understood or that could be easily misunderstood.
• Keep the proposal as short as possible while still maintaining the substance. Remember to try to match your interests with those of foundation.
• Avoid broad or sweeping statements. Issues, problems and needs should be stated as accurately and factually as possible.
• Test the proposal on others not familiar with it before submission.
• Be prepared to rethink and rewrite the proposal.

The overall objective of the Course in Resource Mobilization and Proposal Writing is to enable the learner to mobilize a diverse range of financial and non-financial resources for their organization.
1. It can help you secure funding
Raising capital is an important first step for any type of business, but if your business is smaller in size, your business proposal will likely play a bigger role in helping you attract investors or secure outside funding. Writing a well-researched business proposal will help you demonstrate to prospective investors how investing in your business could benefit them, what makes your ideas or concepts unique, and why people will want to buy from you.
2. Project Understanding
A project proposal outlines the purpose and scope of a project. This is helpful before a project takes place since it ensures both parties agree about what the project itself will include. It states to the decision-maker or stakeholder that the service provider understands the scope of the project. This helps establish trust between the parties to facilitate a transactional agreement.
3. Guide project Implementation – The proposal serves as a key management tool for the implementation of projects. The proposal and budget should follow a clear logic, and provide adequate description of activities and expected outputs to help a project manager implement the project. It also assists with identifying staff required to carry out project activities. The expected outputs and outcomes must be clear and achievable.
4. Establish Credibility
A project proposal should be seen as a sales tool that helps establish credibility. It should communicate to the decision-maker or stakeholder that the service provider is capable of completing the project and fulfilling expectations. This is done by detailing how the project will be completed. The project proposal may also include potential risks or complications and how the service provider would overcome those challenges.
5. Propose an Estimated Timeline & Budget
A project proposal also proposes a timeline and budget for the project. While this document is not a formal contract, it provides stakeholders enough information about budget, timeline, and outcomes to determine whether or not to move forward with a project and, if so, to make an informed contractor or vendor decision.
6. Set Expectations
A project proposal also sets expectations for the client relationship. This includes having a mutual understanding of deliverables, timelines, and budget. While the project proposal is not a contractual agreement, it does set a preliminary agreement that the details in the project proposal will be put into the contract if the project moves forward.
7. Accountability – The proposal is the document that will be used to hold organisations accountable against in terms of what has delivered. The project manager will need to report against what is stated in the proposal, so it is critical that the content is feasible programmatically and financially, and achievable within the approved time frame.

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Fundraising Plan

A fundraising plan is a document that organizes all of your fundraising activities over a certain period of time (usually 1-year). These strategic plans generally include campaign dates and strategies, donor-tracking plans, special event details, and a targeted communication schedule.
A fundraising plan is meant to keep you focused and on-task throughout the year.
Makes it is possible for organisations to:
 Prioritize funding needs
 Identify staffing roles and responsibilities
 Develop plans for restricted and unrestricted fundraising activities
 Select appropriate grant funding opportunities for specific needs
 Plan grant writing well in advance
 Develop and implement an appropriate record keeping and reporting system
 Build and maintain relationships with funders
1. Assemble the Fundraising Team
When creating a fundraising plan, you definitely need all hands on deck. Figure out who needs to be involved in the planning process. After all, your development team may be in charge of fundraising, but it takes the entire organization to produce consistent results. Larger
organizations that have many departments should focus on creating this plan with top-down support. Therefore, it is best to include the leadership team, the development department, and those working with communications.
2. Taking stock of your organization’s strengths and assets
This puts you in a position to represent your organization to funders in the best possible way. What does your organization do well? What skills and expertise make your group so important in your community? What do you still need to improve upon?
3. Set Your Fundraising Goals
Your fundraising goals should be based on what funds you need to keep the organization operating. It is best to start with what your costs were during the last 3 fiscal years. If that data isn’t available or you are a start-up, look to your estimated budget or check out the stats
of similar organizations.
4.Align With Your Mission
You’ve got the right team in place and a basic idea of the goals you need to meet. Now it is time to make sure these goals align with your mission Organizational mission statement should answer these questions:
1. Why is your organization in operation?
2. What types of change are you making in the world?.
3. Base your fundraising plan on how these dollars are helping put your mission into action.
5. Determine the Methods for fundraising
After you’ve aligned your goals and mission, it is time to describe exactly how you will be raising those funds. You want your fundraising plan to be so detailed that even those outside of the development world will be able to understand it!List the types of fundraising techniques you will be using. Include strategies such as: Crowdfunding campaigns, Face-to-face asks, Phone calls, Mail campaigns, Email campaigns, Fundraising events, Grants and matching gifts, Corporate giving and partnership development, Recurring donation campaigns, Month-long focus on endowments.
6. Align with the Strategic Plan
Does your organization have a strategic plan? If so, you’ll want to make that your fundraising plan aligns with it. Creating 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year plans is a best practice in the non-profit world, and you can do this with your fundraising plan as well. Your 1-year fundraising plan should be very specific. Detail every fundraising activity you will engage in over the course of the year. Your 3 and 5-year plans can be much more broad.
Highlight key activities for each month, as well as your ultimate goals. If you see your organization growing and needing additional resources in 5 years, then outline a basic schedule that includes the steps you need to take in order to meet this demand.
7. Diversifying your funding mix
This means building a base of support from individuals, the government, foundations, and business. These four groups comprise much of the funding landscape.
8. Draw out Your Calendar
You’ve written down all of your fundraising plan information in a document. Your team has come to an agreement on appropriate financial goals, aligned those with your mission, described your fundraising techniques in detail, and then put this information into in 1, 3, and 5-year plans.
Mark down your hard deadlines, action deadlines, communication schedule and your donor retention strategy schedule. Viewing these dates as inflexible will keep you on-task, even if you have to make adjustments here and there.
9.Document your progress so that if you are struggling, the bells start ringing early enough to change tack. Establish an evaluation strategy.
Participatory fundraising is the strategy of using dozens, hundreds, or thousands of people, participating in a single even or campaign, to raise money for an organization. Things like walk-a-thons, collecting change (Operation Rice Bowl), and restaurant weeks where a number of eateries all donate a percentage of profits to a charity are all examples of participatory fundraising. Participatory fundraising is definitely hard work, and is always an organizational challenge Participatory fundraising events can be challenging to start and take lots of time to get rolling, but within a few years, many organizations have been able to make mass fundraising events an integral part of their fundraising plans.
Participatory Fundraising planning involves
1. Being Creative!
There is any number of ways to set up a participatory fundraising campaign for your organization. Some common examples include:
1. “A-Thons,” like walk-a-thons, read-a-thons, dance-a-thons, and bike-a-thons.
2. Retail Fundraising – Where a chain of stores, or a number of independent stores, all collect money for you, or donate a percentage of sales to your non-profit
These are just a few examples… in reality, the opportunities are limited only by your imagination.
2. Set up a Program
Don’t approach your participatory fundraising efforts willy-nilly. Set up a real program that you want people, or companies, to be involved with. Create a list of benefits that participants will receive and recognition/awards that you will offer, professionally designed marketing
materials, and a small booklet that tells interested prospects how to participate (where the walka-thon will be, how to run their own small event, etc.) The best participatory fundraising efforts are run as professionally as possible.
3. Market Your Opportunity
Once you have set up your program, you will need to aggressively market your fundraising opportunity to possible participants. The first year you run your program, it may be hard to find people or companies to be involved. Each succeeding year, it will become easier and easier. As you market your participatory fundraising event year after year, you will hopefully see similar growth.
The best ways to market your opportunity are by appealing to your current supporters, board, and staff, as well as past event participants, and to develop a prospect list of individuals and companies with whom your non-profit has a connection, and approach them and ask for their help for your mission.
Fundraising options
Fundraising options include:
 Grants – federal, state or local government, philanthropic and corporate grants. Use Our Community’s Easy Grants newsletter and database
 Sponsorship – Identify possible major and minor sponsorship arrangements your group could pursue. This could range from naming rights arrangements to sponsorships for
projects and programs.
 Membership fees – Tiered and differing levels of membership; each with corresponding fees, are a good way to recognise donors and encourage people to pay up and join up.
 Bequests – Provide general information or personal approaches to long-time benefactors and supporters about how they can provide an ongoing gift for your organisation.
 In-kind support – This can be in the form of goods, services or resources.
 Donations – set up your organisation to receive online donations. Pursue personal donations, general appeals, direct mail, appeals to your email database of all former players, members and supporters, etc.
 Special events – There are a huge variety of fundraising opportunities that fall under this heading – functions, dinners, awards nights, fetes, fairs, grand openings, launches, walkathons, rideathons, laughathons, etc.
 Sales/merchandising- sell your goods and services, or products carrying your name and logo

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Event Organisation


1. Meaning of event organizing
2. Importance of organizing event
3. Process
4. Principles in event organization
5. Challenges in organization an event
Event management is the application of project management to the creation and development of small and/or large-scale personal or corporate events such as festivals, conferences, ceremonies, weddings, formal parties, concerts, or conventions
Definition According to Philip Kotler,
Events are defined as “Occurrences designed to communicate particular messages to target audience”. Events can also be defined as something noteworthy that happens according to a set plan involving networking of a multimedia package thereby achieving the client’s objective and justifying their need of associating with events.
A comprehensive multimedia definition states that an event is a multimedia package carried out with a pre-conceived concept, customized or modified to achieve the clients’ objective of reaching out and suitably influencing the sharply defined, specially gathered target audience by providing a complete sensual experience and an avenue for two-way interaction. It is evident, therefore, that an event is a package so organized to provide reach and live interaction between the target audience and the company.
E – Entertainment (Event includes entertainment involving fun, games and information)
V – Venue (Place for conducting the event successfully)
E – Equipment (Technical and non-technical equipment used to run the show successfully
N – News (News about the new product, movies, activities and offers which are going to take place)
T – Team (Event is a teamwork, group of individuals taking different responsibility to make it successful)
S – Strategy (different strategy used like financial, marketing, technical and human resources)
Tracing the history of events would entail the history of mankind, an event in its universal and literal form means an occasion when something happens or something needs to be done to organize the same. Events are attracting worldwide attention and at the same time getting corporatized. Events have proved to be a versatile marketing communication tool since they can be customized to cater to the needs of the industry and form an integral part of the modern-day marketing. However, there are events that aim at spreading awareness or events that do not carry a financial or marketing motive. Meaning The term events synonyms are occurrences, happening, incident,
occasion and experience. All these terms signify that events are occasions that occur on its own. At times, events can also be termed as a planned activity directed towards attainment of a defined goal or objective. Implications
● An event is an observable occurrence.
● It can be designed to achieve certain goals.
● It can also be termed as experiential marketing.
● It is objective oriented.
● It provides an avenue for interaction.
● Events are a worldwide phenomenon.
● Events are gaining worldwide attention and recognition
. ● The objective of events may not always be profit generation.
Characteristics of Events
1. Events offer a “once in a life” experience as the events entail a unique experience.
2. Events are aimed at fulfilment of certain aims and objectives.
3. As compared to projects, events generally have a shorter life span as they are specific occurrences designed to meet certain objectives.
4. Events involve a substantial and a huge requirement of funds and management of the scarce resources.
5. It requires judicious planning of activities, people and other resources.
6. Undoubtedly, events involve facing an environment of risks and uncertainties.
7. Events involve the important managerial functions such as planning, organizing, coordination, staffing, reporting, budgeting, forecasting and direction
Categories of Events
The competitive threats posed by globalization are forcing business owners to engage in innovative ways to engage their customers. In fact, there are very few events that cannot be used for a marketing purpose, as all communicate something to the target audience. Events can be used to perform a number of marketing functions; for example, communication, relationship and loyalty building, database compilation, targeting, brand enhancement, and promotion.
Following are the categories of events.
Political Events
Political events include a function initiated and organized by a political organization or political candidate exclusively to advance and promote political purposes or political candidate. A “political rally” is a gathering at which people of similar political beliefs listen to speakers or musicians. Political rallies are often high energy events that are used to raise morale and support.
Religious Events
Religious events are conducted to provoke the religious sentiments of the people and reinforce the belief systems and mark solidarity towards one’s very own religion and religious practices, handed over by the ancestors.
Social Events
Man is a social being. Social gatherings have been in vogue from time immemorial. In a world of texting, instant messaging, and emailing, the tradition of holiday gatherings fall by the wayside. A social gathering is generally a large gathering organized to celebrate major life events and religious ceremonies. Common social events include: anniversaries, weddings, birthdays, and bar/bat mitzvahs. However, the advantages of social gatherings are numerous and still hold value. Weddings, anniversaries, and other social gatherings are popular in Indian society. A
social gathering or party, sometimes of a ceremonial nature, can be classified as a social event. A gala is a large-scale dinner gathering or party that often includes entertainment and/or awards ceremonies following dinner. Receptions are often informal, and attendees will usually stand up and socialize rather than sit down at a table. Weddings and other social events, receptions are informal celebrations or gatherings that follow a more formal ceremony.
Networking Events
Networking is the process of intentionally meeting people, making contacts, and forming relationships in the hope of gaining access to such business-related benefits as career advice, job leads, business referrals, useful information and ideas, and emotional support. For example, a small business owner’s network might include clients, vendors, fellow members of trade or professional associations, bankers, accountants, professors at a local business school, friends who are employed in similar industries, and other small business owners. Ideally, networks serve both social and business functions and are mutually beneficial for their members. The relationships formed in networking help people create a larger world for themselves, with a variety of new relationships, opportunities, and resources. Networking events can run from informal schmooze and booze affairs at a local bar to full fledged galas complete with an open bar. It aims at attempting to build one or more relationships; for self-actualization or for establishing a connect for enlarging business activities. Its an event where exchange of ideas takes place. An example is the business networking event organized in a community by its
chamber of commerce. Networking events are common practice within professional organizations, which may also link up with other bodies to stage a joint event. Business networking has received a tremendous boost in the recent times. There are networking sites
such as LinkedIn. However, an event creates a different and a unique impact informing long lasting relationships. Entertainment Events There are many forms of entertainment. One could watch a movie or visit a mall. However, Entertainment industry conducts its events on a large scale and invites word wide attention. Ultimately, though it is the viewers that will determine what constitutes an event on television and its viewership, after all there is only one Oscar telecast, one Grammy Awards Show and one Golden Globes.
Awareness Causing Events Certain events are indented to create awareness among the general public. They may be in the form of mass campaigns or drives and are intended for the common good of the people. A good example of social responsibility could be the Go Green Events, etc.
Crafts and Creativity Events
A fair is a trade show or expo organized for the purpose of exhibiting arts and crafts, industrial products and agricultural products, but more local and on a smaller scale. At times, these events are also used to sell products designed and made by the physically challenged. It helps you discover unique, one-of-a-kind merchandise that can be marketed for a social cause. Such events, features a blend of contemporary, traditional and unique Rocky Mountain Regional artwork including jewellery, woodworking, pottery, glass, paintings, metalwork and much more.
Sports Events
An event conducted to promote the sports activities which include cricket, hockey, football, basket ball, karate, etc. is called a sports event. It improves the relationship between nations as countries participate in international sports meet. Sports events cause high viewership and also aid in improving and strengthening political relationships amongst nations. Trade activities receive a makeover and the countries are able to generate revenue through such events. The increasing popularity of sports have caused a rich culmination and interchange of culture, lifestyle and resources.
Educative/Academic Events
This is an event where students, academics and representatives from companies meet and discuss topics related to education. The goal is to approach the positions of the three stakeholders in education through the exchange of opinions and experience. Seminars for career
counseling, mentoring programs and higher educational programs have gained significant importance. A graduation program at colleges can be an example of such events
Business Events
A variety of events are hosted by the corporate too. Corporate generally host events in the form of meetings, conventions, workshops, seminars, presentations, etc. While the term “Board Meeting” technically means a gathering of a company or organization’s board of director, it is also a gathering of decision makers. At such gatherings, important facts are presented and decisions are made as to the best course of action to be taken in the future. At a convention or conference, breakout sessions are meetings (workshops, seminars, or presentations) intended for small groups are conducted. These meetings can be held in smaller meeting rooms within a convention center or hotel as well as off-site meeting and boardrooms. Formal celebrations are organized by a company or organization to celebrate achievements within the organization and to boost employee and member morale. They may be in the form of business dinners or
International Events
International events draw national and international audience. International events aid in improving relationships among nations. Our country has started getting more media coverage and recognition abroad. Mega events are organized in collaboration with event managers of other countries. This has greatly improved the scope for people engaged in the event management industry to try their luck in international market. Professionals in this field also get the opportunity to showcase their talent at international events where delegates from our country participate in cultural festivals and exchange programs, trade shows, conferences, exhibitions, corporate events and so on.
Promotional Events
Promotional events can help elevate your business above your competitors. Your promotional event’s creative theme and the fact that you’re holding an event set your business apart from your competitors. Introducing a new product in the market, advertising, etc. would require promotional campaigns. Nowadays, more companies resort to conducting events for creating awareness and popularizing their products and services. Modern-day business houses do not rely on traditional media for generating publicity as much as they depend on events to establish business relationships with their clients through live interface and communication Prior to planning for events, the event activities have to be analyzed and classified for effective management and effective performance.
The aim of analysis is to understand the various important elements of events in order to avoid pitfalls and problems that may occur at the later stages. Before start-up, the event manager popularly known as event organizer has to study these specific areas:
1. Objective: Since events are tailor-made to suit the needs of the customer, it is essential to ascertain the main objective of the event. It is essential because the success of the event lies in the fact that the objective has been accomplished.
2. Competitors: Competitor analysis is a must. There is a possibility that the competitor event could also be scheduled around the same dates. This could reduce the footfall in the event leading to non-accomplishment of objective. Before starting up with event planning, it is
essential to look at the timing, duration, of similar events running in the vicinity that may pose a threat to the others.
3. Skills: Before taking up an event, it is also essential to do a careful self-analysis to find out if you are equipped enough to handle the particular type of events. A sports event preparation is entirely different from an arrangement for cultural events. Event organizers should ensure that they possess relevant expertise to handle events otherwise it is advisable to let go to another to handle.
4. Community Impact: The impact of an event on the local or wider community and others is a major consideration of the planning stage. Because local lobby groups can create extreme difficulties for the unprepared event organizer, it is essential that the community benefits are explained and other impacts are considered as part of the event proposal.
5. Budget: The budget of the client should be known at the very onset of any event activity. Budget is the basis for all other planning and decision making. The Budgeted income and expenditure should form the basis of all other arrangements involved in the conduct of the
6. Rules and Regulations: A wide range of rules and regulations govern the hosting of events.
An international event to be hosted in the country requires the approval of the government and various other regulations and procedures must be adhered to.
7. Risks and Uncertainties: A careful planning of the risks and uncertainties that surround the event should be chalked out and alternative plan of action in case of deviations should be chalked out to prevent and manage any foreseen and unforeseen incidents.
8. Cash Flows: An estimate of the cash inflows and outflows should be prepared. This statement can serve as a tool for cost control in all circumstances and to ensure that there are no deviations from the standards.
9. Media: The costs of media as well as the mode of transmission of information should be planned so that the event reaches the masses in the way it is intended to. Media plays an important role in publicity and brand building especially in case of business events.
10. Security: Another important aspect of the event is the security arrangements for the events.
Nowadays, we hear of various field accidents, such as stampedes, which dislodge the successful conduct of the event.
Functional Areas in Event Management
An organization that is into event management business offers numerous functional positions.
The following are some of the departments in a typical event managing company:
● Public Relations: Managing a vast gamut of people ranging from clients, artists, stage performers, government officials, and public and so on.
● Promotion and Marketing: For promoting the sale of products and services of the organization and marketing to achieve highest turnover.
● Brand Development: A talent pool that is responsible for managing client requirements pertaining to brand restructuring and brand repositioning.
● Designing: Team of creative people who visualize and then prepare design layouts for the stage, costumes, accessories and layout.
● Administration: Team that is responsible for back office and general administrative tasks.
● Media: Team comprising of media professionals who manage the production and editing of audio video related media.
● Printing: Department that takes care of printing all sorts of marketing collaterals and promotional items.
● Logistics: Team that takes care of the logistics for the event.
● Financial team: Team that monitors and handles the flow of cash for the event
Essential Skills include for organizing events include :
● Public Relations: To manage clients, their agents and a vast gamut of professionals you would meet in the line of your profession.
● Creativity: From the initiation of a concept to management and to its final delivery.
● Marketing skills: To sell your idea to your clients in order to make their events memorable.
● Analytic ability: One must have the ability to analyse and solve all sorts of problems and even have the foresight to anticipate unforeseen issues.
● Organizational skills: To carefully plan for tasks for self and for the entire team.
● Networking skills: This industry thrives on the shoulders of personal networking and you must have the ability to utilize it and expand it in your favour.
● Management skills: Ability to plan, organize, staff, direct, supervise and control.
● Leadership skills: An event manager should essentially be a leader who can plan and coordinate all the activities to successful carry out an event
● Negotiation skills: Events require negotiation with several vendors and the event manager should possess the ability to negotiate deals arising in the course of its activities.
1.To raise money
The first and often most important reason to run a special event is to generate income. In many cases, a fundraising special event is designed or even timed to provide a significant boost to your organisation’s coffers so it can undertake a new project or continue operations in the coming year.
2. To get publicity
Staging a successful and noteworthy special event can also attract positive publicity for your group. That publicity, if used well, can then be turned into more money for your group.
3. To raise awareness
A well-run and well-publicised special event can raise awareness for your cause that in turn will help you attract more members, supporters and donors.
4. To improve reputation
A well-run special event can add to your reputation as an efficient, effective, well-organised group. Again, this can help your future fundraising efforts.
5. To say thanks
Special events can give you the opportunity to recognise staff, volunteers or supporters who have made a significant contribution, or to mark particular organisational successes or milestones.
Whatever your reason for staging a special event, it’s important to be clear about one major point: If your event is supposed to raise money, make sure it makes money.
1. Develop Your Event Goal and Objectives
Setting a goal with quantifiable metrics of success will make it easier for your team to ensure that you reach them.
2.Organize your Team
Any event takes a concerted team effort to handle all the details. Consider identifying one key
Event Manager or Event Chair as well as individual Chairpersons for subcommittees, such as:
 venue management;
 speakers;
 entertainment;
 publicity;
 sponsors;
 and volunteer management.
3. Establish Your Budget
Establishing your event’s budget is one of the most important parts of planning an event. I’ve seen many great ideas fall by the wayside because the team who originally came up with it forgot to take their budget into consideration before beginning to plan. Some of the critical expenses
you need to include in your budget are:
 Venue: This cost should encompass the rental as well as any insurance you need to purchase.
 Food and Drink: This field is pretty self-explanatory. However, remember that the amount you can afford here might also dictate the number of tickets you’re able to sell.
 Entertainment: This field can be customized however you need it to be — whether it’s allocated for speakers, a DJ, or even a talking pig, make sure you have wiggle room for travel and accommodation costs as well as any compensation.
 Décor: what décor will you use
Establishing your event’s budget is one of the most important parts of planning an event. I’ve seen many great ideas fall by the wayside because the team who originally came up with it forgot to take their budget into consideration before beginning to plan.
5.Create an Event Master Plan
Once you have a good idea of all the costs and the timeline associated with your event, it’s time to start the real plan! Creating your event master plan will allow you to ensure every aspect remains on track, as well as making it easier to coordinate with volunteers and event committee members.
Your event master plan should encompass all aspects of the event, including:
 Venue, logistics, & catering management (contracts, permits, insurance, etc.)
 Speakers and presenters (identifying, confirming, logistics & management)
 Activities and entertainment
 Publicity and promotion (online & off-line, such as web page & online promotion; events calendars; printed programs; media relations; signage; social media, etc.)
 Registration (online sign-up, payment and tracking; on-site sign-in, etc.)
 Sponsor and partner management
 Volunteer management and responsibilities
 While planning your event, consider also creating a detailed timeline, so that everything moves smoothly. Include when any permits or insurance policies need to be submitted, when registration ends, and a detailed timeline of the day-of.
6.Set the Date
The date might already be pre-set for a recurring event, but if this is a new event, be sure to consider the following before firming up your date:
 Give yourself enough time! Ideally, you should have 4-6 months to plan, if not more (depending on the nature of your event)
 Be aware of statutory and religious holidays
 Avoid school holiday time periods (winter, spring and summer holidays)
 Check dates with key participants – speakers, presenters, VIP guests, etc.
Once you’ve set the date (and have already outlined your budget), you can start booking any external staff (such as caterers) you need right away.
7.Book Your Venue
Some things to consider when picking a venue for your event are:
 Accessibility. Does the venue have accessible entrances and elevators? Are there all-gender washrooms? Will you have space for interpreters? This and many other factors go into choosing a space that all participants will feel comfortable in.
 Size. An event for 50 people will need a very different space than one for 500. Additionally, consider whether or not you’ll need separate rooms for breakout sessions or the like.
 Parking. Is there a parking lot, or is it easy to access via public transit?
 Insurance. Will you need to purchase separate insurance? What are their liability rules?
 Audio Video. If your event needs speakers and microphones, make sure it’s easy to set them up in the space that’s available. The same goes for Wi-Fi access (and cell phone connection!), or any other technological needs your event has.
 Costs. How much of a deposit is the venue asking for? Will there be additional costs? How much will you get back if you (heaven forbid) need to cancel?
8 .Branding the event
If you want your event to stand out, you need to choose a timely and compelling theme that sets you apart from your competition. This means that you need to come up with a dynamic overall theme and you need to take great care with the actual name since it can be a key
attention-getter, especially in online media.
 Brainstorm names: When you are brainstorming the event name, think about:
o How is your event different from other events in your sector?
o What are you hoping to convey through this event?
o What are the main components of your event?
 Create a tagline: Once you’ve come up with a name, also try to craft a tagline – a short, memorable branding slogan that describes the event.
 Design a logo: The final step will be having a logo created to represent your event. A logo can be an effective branding tool – offering immediate recognition of your event in all your publicity and promo items (such as t-shirts, water bottles, bags, and more).
 Once you have your name, tagline, and logo, use it in all your marketing collateral so that people who are unfamiliar with your organization will start recognizing your brand – and remember that the event is happening!
 Create a hashtag for all your marketing materials and for attendees to use when talking about your event on social media.
9.Identify and Establish Partnerships & Sponsors
Seeking corporate sponsors to fund a portion of the event. This can range from national organizations that might want to sponsor a dinner, offer a door prize or a key silent auction item, to local businesses that might be able to provide goods or services, such as flowers for the tables, gift bag items, etc. Partnering with community organizations who might be able to offer a venue and/or assistance with organizing or staffing an event.
10.Create a Publicity Plan
Event promotion starts with the initial notice or page on your website, note in your newsletter or email to save the date, and then builds to include online and off-line publicity, media relations and on-going outreach to encourage registration.
Some components you might want to include in your plan are:
 Web page announcement
 Social media
 Email blasts
 Press and media connections
 Printed materials
Finally, no promotional plan is complete without the post-event thank-you’s, sponsor acknowledgements and articles about the event’s key messages or fundraising success.
11.Determine Day-Of Processes
To ensure you’re prepared for anything, prepare an agenda that will walk you through the whole day from set-up to clean -up. Including every detail, no matter how small, will help you feel like you have it all under control!
12.Post-Event Review
A survey/research should be conducted to get the views of attendees for future improvements
Once you’ve gotten back your attendee survey and talked to your staff, a few questions to ask yourself are:
 How did we perform against forecast? This can be your attendee number forecast, your budget, or any other prediction you made about the event. If you ended up on target, great! But
if not, review what you could do better for next time.
 What was attendee feedback like? Some one-off comments can be written off, but if there are some points that come up several times whether positive or negative, they’re worth taking into consideration.
 How did our team perform? You can use your event as a great feedback generator for everyone else who helped you with it – as well as earmarking volunteers for particular tasks in the future.
 How did our marketing do? Which activities provided the most Return On Investment? Whether it was creating an event on Facebook or talking to the local press, determining which one performed best will help you decide which route to take next time.
1. Detailed Planning – Planning is critical to event management and production. As the event manager you should be knowledgeable about all aspects, tasks, goals, and timelines of your event. This type of planning is more than a list of tasks to complete. This type of planning
requires a detailed timeline of events, outline of responsibilities, easy to read schedules, and how each plan is interconnected with all others in the production schedule. When done, this document will be your detailed map of your event.
2. Know Your Audience – While these principles apply to every type of event – Concert, Meeting, Convention, Etc. – it is critical to know why you’re producing the event. Know who your customer is and why you’re producing the event. This will drive programming, venue selection, marketing, etc. Attendees will know right away if you have planned an event that isn’t for them. They will vote with their feet and their wallets. Events can be designed for education, entertainment, engagement, championships, and celebration to name a few.
3. Know That Something Will Go Wrong – Great job planning every detail of your event.
Now, expect something to either pop up that you weren’t expecting or something to go wrong. You will encounter situations that you either may have planned for and someone dropped the ball or situations that you could not have planned for. Either of these scenarios should be budgeted for and planned for. You made need more electrical, tables, tents, or other equipment you may not have planned for. You may experience and emergency. You must have clear instructions for incident command, purchasing/procurement, security, and other pop up issues. Create an Emergency Operations Plan for every event and for every venue.
4. Trust but Verify – We all lean on others’ expertise. We all rely on vendors to enhance our customer’s experience. Build relationships with vendors and use local organizations if producing and event in a new city (Convention and Visitors Bureaus (CVBs) are great
resources to liaise with the local business community. Sometimes you will need a deposit or the vendor may need a deposit from you. Create supplier communication plan to include on-site contacts, decision makers, and cell phone numbers. Ask for photos of equipment, ask for references, utilize the internet, and over-communicate. If the vendor finds that bothersome, another vendor will happily take your business.
5. Evaluate – How do you know where to go if you don’t know where you’ve been? Evaluations are critical to your success. Identify areas for improvement or edits during your event. Event planners and managers must have, as part of their event gear, a notebook and pen. It can get hectic but there is no replacing looking at something in real time and identifying a way to make it better for your customer. You know where the weak links of your event live, make sure you are following those areas closely and take notes as to what happened and what you could have done to make it better. Schedule pre-event meetings, during event catch up quick meetings, and post event evaluation meetings. Get as many of your stakeholders into the room as possible. Utilize surveys to gain insights from your best stakeholder – the paying customer.
1. Lack of real world work experience can be an event challenge
This is not a cheap shot at beginning event planners. In fact, arming yourself with this knowledge now might actually save you headaches in the future. Because let’s face it – you’re not going to know what to do in every scenario. But here are some ways you can figure it out
on the job:
 Have a go-to resource for event planning news, trends, and education that you can quickly search within for advice as needed.
 Assign one or two unofficial mentors to yourself. Anyone who has event planning experience or is good at improvising solutions to problems can be very helpful when things go wrong. Have their number (or email) on speed dial and make sure you ask for
their permission ahead of time.
 Spend your time between events acquiring or refreshing your event planning certifications so that you are as prepared as possible when your next project begins.
2.Having more guests or attendees than you planned for is an event mistake.
 Your event is at capacity – time to celebrate! But not before you figure out how they heck you’re going to organize/feed/seat everyone. It’s a best case scenario practically no one plans for (except for you now) but it does happen.
 Whether or not you sell out tickets or fill up on registrations ahead of time, experts note that there are plenty of ways to anticipate this major event planning problem, as long as you know what to look for.
 Keep a close eye on event forums, social media mentions, and activity on your event app.
If the number of people engaging with your event on these platforms is higher than the number of people you were expecting to attend, make sure you adjust your plans accordingly.
3. Not having a structured event management process can be a challenge.
Streamlined workflow, centralized communication, and a scalable event planning process aren’t just buzzwords. They’re the tools you need to maximize your productivity and, ultimately, the success of your event. The good news is there are plenty of free event planning software and tools out there.
4. Forgetting to create an attendee engagement plan for before, during, and after the event is a challenge.
So you’ve planned a perfect event. That’s great! But what about your attendees? If they’re not engaged, then what’s the point?There are 4 main types of attendee engagement you need to touch on for any event you plan:
o Content involving exhibitions, speakers, and other event activities.
o Connections between attendees and sponsors in genuinely creative and authentic ways.
o Communication regarding event logistics and any questions/comments that come up.
o Engagement between attendees through online forums, in person networking, and community management.
5.Over-programming your event schedule is a problem.
No matter how cool your schedule line up is, everyone needs a little down time here and there.
Make sure that your event schedule has plenty of the following:
o Designated free periods where there are no events, activities, or keynotes going on.
o Clearly stated or suggested program lunch breaks.
o Down time that is completely separate from networking events, where your more introverted guests can take a breather.
o Early wrap up times at the end of multi-day events so attendees don’t burn out.
7. Not confirming your vendors can be an event mistake.
This event planning mistake is more common than you might think. In addition to paying your deposit, looping them in on relevant email chains, and confirming your venue set up times, you need to get one final confirmation within 48 hours of the event.
8. Not having a backup plan for bad weather is an event problem.
Extreme weather (think hail storms, tornadoes, and hurricanes) has increased in both frequency and intensity this past decade. Which is why it’s good to err on the side of caution when preparing for your event, even if it’s in beautiful, sunny Southern California during its best weather months.
Whether you need to disaster-proof your outdoor wedding venue or come up with a plan just in case your company cocktail garden party gets rained out, here are some tips for dealing with an unexpected drop-in from Mother Nature:
o Always have a second venue in mind. One that lets you book last minute, is located nearby, and isn’t in high demand this time of year.
o Consider purchasing event or weather insurance in case the event gets postponed or cancelled. This is especially important if your event is selling tickets because guests will need to be refunded. Create event plans B, C, D, and E.
o 8. Forgetting to track schedule or budget changes it an avoidable event problem.
You should feel empowered to approve or reject unforeseen schedule or budget changes as they come up. And when you do approve anything, you have to make sure you follow through and adjust your plans accordingly.
This means following up with key stakeholders, keeping communication to one centralized and accessible platform, and organizing your event project notes so that nothing slips between the cracks.
Experts also suggest using a formal change tracking process when event planning. Having a repeatable system in place lets your clients or company know that no matter what happens they’ll always be kept in the loop and they can trust that you’ll make sure it all works out. 10.Budgeting is the number one most challenging aspect of event planning, according
to experienced event professionals in recent surveys. Because lots of little things change or unexpectedly come up during the event planning process, it’s best to keep your expenses modest. Compare previous event budgets and assess what you can do better this It’s also important to make sure that you assess all requests for event-related changes through the lens of how it those changes will affect your budget and your timeline. Even if the person making the request is above you, kindly let them know that the event as a whole will be affected and you’ll need to double check all the numbers, just in case.

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Donor Support

A donor in general is a person, organization or government which donates something
A person or institution who gives assets to another person or institution, either directly or through a trust. Under most circumstances, donors can deduct the value (or depreciated value) of the assets given from their taxable income. While many donors give out of the goodness of their hearts, many do so in order to avoid taxes, especially when donating through a trust.
As set out in the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness (OECD, 2005b), effective aid requires the mutual commitment that partner countries exercise leadership in developing and implementing national development strategies through broad-based consultative processes and that donors respect country leadership and help strengthen their capacity to exercise it. In promoting the pro-poor growth agenda, donors should focus on assisting partner countries to develop and implement nationally owned poverty reduction strategies suited to the local context through processes that strengthen the social contract in favour of pro-poor growth. Donors may help support the policy making process at various levels and by building capacity to:
i) Identify the binding constraints to pro-poor growth;
ii) Undertake broad based dialogue;
iii) Innovate to find context-specific solutions;
iv) Make informed and evidence-based policy choices such as by carrying out ex ante poverty impact assessments;
v) Manage for development results and ensure accountability.
To successfully build and maintain relationships with donors, it is very important to get into their shoes and understand their perspective.
Donors are human. Donors just like you and me, have their own ideas, their own lives as well as their own likes and dislikes. Donors typically respond best to people who share their interest in changing the world rather than people who clearly have their own agenda.
Donors give money for a reason. Donors are not required to give, but do so of their own volition. Donors want to accomplish something with their funding. Understanding what motivates each donor and what they want to accomplish is key in structuring your approach.
Donors often have their own goals and you need to make sure your goals and the goals of the donor align.
Donors are busy. Donors sometimes have hundreds or even thousands of people asking for support, and as such they cannot give their full attention to all of them.
Donors have their own way of doing things. Donors typically manage multiple grants at once and so like to have some consistency in the way applications are submitted, how accounts are kept, how monitoring and evaluation is run. Donors have requirements to meet.
Donors may have to make reports to their government, tax authority, accountants, board members, the public etc. Donors are often expected to be transparent, show improvement and maintain a good public image. Because of this, many donors are very risk-adverse, maintain high due diligence requirements and set high reporting standards. While this can make donors very bureaucratic, slow and at times difficult to work with, it is important to understand why these steps are in place and try to be as honest and helpful as possible.
Donors can give more than just money. Funding is only a part of what good donors can offer you. Many donors are field experts and
can advise you on current trends as well as on the technical aspects of running a project.
Donors care about the results.
Donors care about making a change or improving the lives of the beneficiaries, and your organisation is just the vehicle for these results.
Criteria as you identify your potential supporters
1. Does the call for proposals fit within the strategic plans? This question guides organisations in determining whether potential funders’ priorities are aligned with the areas of programmatic work.
2. What is the time period for the funding? While perusing a call for proposals the staff member needs to familiarise himself/herself with the potential donor’s funding time frames and funding cycle.
3. What percentage of the project budget would the grant cover? This entails identifying the proportion of the total project cost that might be acquired through the grant.
4. What is the level of complexity of the grant application and administration procedures, and what are the implications for the organisation? This includes becoming acquainted
with the reporting systems of the potential donor, and whether the grant is worthwhile relative to the burden of administering it.
5. What is the future sustainability of the project beyond the proposed funding period? This requires the organisation to assess the viability of the project in the immediate, medium and long terms.
6. Is there a value fit between the donor and the organisation? This is linked closely to whether the donors’ priorities and values align with the vision and mission of the organisation.
 Helping organizations strengthen their financial management and use funds effectively
 Donor support reduces inequality and poverty Aid is far more effective for poor people – and cost effective too
 Donor support empowers poor women and men to realise their rights, and reduces poverty and inequality
 Donor support has helped empower citizens to improve the development process in their own countries
A philanthropist is a person who donates time, money, experience, skills or talent to help create a better world. Anyone can be a philanthropist, regardless of status or net worth. Philanthropy is the giving of money to people who need it, without wanting anything in
return. Philanthropy involves charitable giving to worthy causes on a large scale. Philanthropy must be more than just a charitable donation. It is an effort an individual or organization undertakes based on an altruistic desire to improve human welfare. Wealthy individuals sometimes establish foundations to facilitate their philanthropic efforts.
 Philanthropy refers to charitable acts or other good works that help others or society as a whole.
 Philanthropy can include donating money to a worthy cause, or volunteering time, effort, or other forms of altruism.
 In modern times, philanthropy is often undertaken by those seeking tax breaks, in addition to feeling good and helping others.
Grabbing a donor’s attention is the very first psychological step that a supporter takes during a potentially lifelong journey that they take with a charity. This is the step where donors become aware of the existence of a giving opportunity. To give money, people need to then be satisfied with the ways that organizations treat them as supporters. They need to trust the organization to best achieve what they would like to achieve with their limited funds. They need to commit to supporting the organizations in such a way that the commitment itself is meaningful to them as individuals. The psychological transformation from paying attention to giving money is the process of integrating that cause from the external world into one’s most inner sense of who they are.
Common motivations among philanthropists.
Believing in the mission
Unsurprisingly, people who have a vested interest in an organisation’s work will donate because they share the same mission and values. According to a “believing in the mission of the organization” as a primary motivation for donating. Donors who are passionate about an
organisation’s mission can be some of its most consistent supporters because they feel devoted to the organization’s work and success.
Making a difference
Believing that their gift can make a difference is a principal motivating factor for giving to a organisations donors often desire a sense of connection and purpose in life. Therefore, giving money, time, and energy are ways individuals strive to find meaning.
Feeling personal satisfaction
“Experiencing personal satisfaction, enjoyment, or fulfilment” as a central motivation for donating. Altruism is selflessness, whereas experiencing fulfilment after donating involves a degree of self-interest. Many human beings naturally want to be connected and helpful, so warm-glow motivations should not be written off as selfish.
Being asked to donate
In fact, researchers have found that around 85 percent of charitable donations come after donors are directly asked to give. This effect does not necessarily stem from peer pressure. Instead, it reinforces the fundraising principle that donor asks should be as direct and
personalized as possible. Direct asks for support ensure that individuals feel personally invited to contribute and that their donation is needed.
Tax benefits
The narrative that individuals give because they need a tax break is widely believed. However, while limiting taxes is a consideration in wealth management, one “cannot legally structure a charitable gift so that the donor receives a net increase in their wealth.” Donors will still have less wealth after a donation than if they had forgone the donation and resulting tax deduction.
Volunteering and having a personal connection
Volunteers are more likely to become personally invested in the organization’s mission and, thus, more interested in seeing it succeed.
Example philanthropists Kenya
1. Manilal Premchand Chandaria
2. Alibhai Mulla Jeevanjee
3. Sarah Onyango Obama
a. Legitimacy: Different countries have different terms and requirements for recognizing the legal existence of organisations. But however diverse these requirements are across the
region; each state still exercises a degree of control over the incorporation of non-profit organisations. Only those that have been established according to their country’s civil laws and traditions are considered to be legitimate. Such organisations are more likely to gain
donor support because they have achieved some level of compliance with government standards, and are less likely to be suspected of being fronts for underground political movements or “fly-by-night” operations.
b. Transparency: This refers to open communication with internal and external stakeholders regarding an organisation’s financial and management health, and is a characteristic of organisations that disclose information about their programs, activities, and even financial transactions and investments to stakeholders and anyone who wishes to know more about the organisation. It is a criterion that is highly regarded by prospective donors and partners, as transparency assures them of an organisation’s trustworthiness and commitment to its constituents.
c. Accountability: This refers to an organisation’s ability to stand up for its mission, and to be guided by sound management and financial principles. An accountable organisation is one that responsibly services its community, properly manages its resources, and is able to report back to donors regarding the use of donated funds. Such organisations are also likely to gain public support, as quite a number of donors now expect to be updated on how their funds have been used by their beneficiary organisations. Moreover, it is not uncommon for donors to request visits to project sites to be sure that their monies are being used in the best way possible. If there is only one message to take home from this chapter it is this: In building a base of donors, the focus is less on resource mobilization, more on friend raising. The funds come as a by-product of the relationship, and not so much as an end in itself.
Whilst aid is succeeding in contributing to human development, dependency on foreign aid can be more problematic. This is not, as is sometimes argued, because aid dependency inhibits economic development or mobilisation of domestic resources. But it undercuts countries’ ability to chart their own development strategies, which is what is needed if development is to really take root. It does this by reducing developing countries policy autonomy, undermining recipient governments’ accountability to their own citizens, and making it harder for them to plan development programmes due to its unpredictability. So it is good news that, over the last
decade, even while aid has increased, aid dependency has fallen by a third in the poorest countries.
Loss of policy autonomy
Aid dependent governments can lose the space to design and implement their own homegrown development policies. This can occur as a direct consequence of aid, because donors insist, for instance, on recipient countries implementing the donors’ policy priorities. Or, an
indirect consequence, because countries are so busy engaging with donors that they fail to develop their own alternative policies, or because aid distorts government spending towards a particular sector.
Undermining accountability and responsiveness to national citizens
When services are funded in considerable part by aid, this undermines the normal relationship whereby citizens hold their own governments accountable for delivering “Aid is only a means to an end. Indeed, if aid is truly effective, it will progressively do itself out of a job.
Undermining delivery of services by government
This is because governments focus their attention on relations with aid donors rather than with their own people, and citizens focus attention on provision of services by donors or organisations . As a result, there may be less pressure for budgets to be transparent and accountable. Undermining predictability of government spending and therefore long-term planning
The volatility of aid flows (which is much greater than that of domestically-generated budget revenue, but less volatile than foreign direct investment), persistent large shortfalls compared to pledges, and the lack of transparent reporting on them by donors to government, can make it impossible for governments and their citizens to plan long-term and sustainable spending.

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Elements necessary for the running of an organization. These elements are materials, money, human (man and woman), means and time are that are used by group, organization and individuals to fulfil their objectives.
This entails efforts of pooling together resources.
Resource Mobilization
Resource mobilization is a process whereby resources both financial and non- financial resources are mobilized either externally or internally to support organization activities. Refers to ways and means of reaching out to actual or potential sources of inputs required for
project implementation. Resource mobilization is the process of getting resource from resource provider, using different mechanisms, to implement the organization‘s work for achieving the pre-determined organizational goals.
Resource mobilization may be defined as “a management process that involves identifying people who share the same values as your organization, and taking steps to manage that relationship”.
Features of Resource Mobilisation
 Resource identification
 Identification of Resource Provider
 Identification of mechanism to receive resource
 Expansion of relations with the Resource Provider
 Right use of resource
 Knowledge and skills to Resource Mobilization
 Human skills, service, information, equipment
 Seeking out new resource
 Thought of institutional sustainability
 Lower financial risk
Resources is a very broad term, it is basically anything that can be considered a valuable addition.
The two broad types of resources – natural resources and man-made resources.
Natural resources-Anything and everything that is available naturally on earth is a natural resource. We can further divide them into:
Biotic & Abiotic
Any life form that lives within nature is a Biotic Resource, like humans, animals, plants, etc. In contrast, an abiotic resource is that which is available in nature but has no life; like metals, rocks, and stones. Both biotic and abiotic resources can be renewable or non-renewable.
Renewable & Non-renewable
Renewable resources are almost all elements of nature which can renew themselves. For e.g. sunlight, wind, water, forests and likewise. While, non-renewable resources, are limited in their quantity. Like fossil fuels and minerals. Though these resources take millions of years to form, they would eventually get over within our lifetime if we use continuously..
Potential, Developed, and Stock Resources
Natural elements which are already easily available but humans are yet to discover their real power are Potential resources. For example, solar and wind energy are two natural resources, which have a high potential for human life. Though we are using it, we can use these even more in the future once we understand their true potential.
In contrast, a developed resource is that which humans have discovered and developed over a long time. Most of the water, fossil fuel, minerals, plants and animals that we use for our need today, are developed resources.
There are some resources present in nature, which have enough potential, but we do not have adequate knowledge or technology to develop it. As a result, these remain in nature as stock resources. For example, Hydrogen and Oxygen gases can be used as rich sources of energy but we still do not know how.
Man-Made Resources
When humans use natural things to make something new that provides utility and value to our lives, it is called human-made resources. For instance, when we use metals, wood, cement, sand, and solar energy to make buildings, machinery, vehicles, bridges, roads, etc. they become man made resources. Likewise, technology is also a man-made resource. Man-made resources are mostly renewable. One can re-build a building or fixed a broken machine, because humans have the skills, intelligence, and knowledge, and use technology to transform a natural resource into usable and valuable things, they themselves become a resource. That is what we know as Human
Resource Conservation
All human-made resources are dependent on the availability of the natural resource/s. We need to understand the value of each natural element and then need to conserve those resource/s.
Because we should be able to use them throughout our lifetime and also save them for our future generations.
Resources for Project Management
Money/Cash: (Financial resources such as capital)
Wealth/Cash is essential in order to run the existing programs, pay cost of goods and salary and to carry out new works. Wealth/Cash can be increased through various means like membership fees, grant received as per or without request, local fund, donations and various
other sources such as NGO or external funding.
Technical Assistance/Cooperation:
Every Organization will not have people essential for carrying out various types of activities, project and programs. Apart from that, every organization may not have the necessary fund to appoint essential efficient employees. Technical cooperation can be made by any Organization by providing the amount essential for appointing such efficient employees for a special project or the efficient employee helping for a fixed timeframe. Some organizations provide technical cooperation through trainings.
Human Resources:
Every type of Organization will require people/personnel to ensure that the Organizational role and works are fulfilled. For essential human resources, the Organization will make different provisions. The Organization can appoint some permanent employees while the
remaining appointments are made as per requirement. The permanent employees are taken as internal resources of the Organization while employees appointed for a specific time period are regarded as external resources. Many Organisations utilize dedicated and regular
volunteer groups in order to fulfil the need of human resource.
Physical Goods (Man-made resources)
They are physical goods resources. For example, the Organization’s activities or availability of the project are taken ahead together by the tools. It is essential for the Organization to spend on such goods in order to train on main activities of the project/organization. Examples of resources like office tools, furniture, training tools and raw goods, vehicles and other machines
have been classified under the Physical Goods.
Free Service and Facilities/Information technology resources
Non-profit-making Organization gives many physical goods, service and facilities only in minimum cost. As a result, provisions for free services in the Project/Organization should be made through community support. Apart from this, other Organizations provide the non profit-making Organizations to use these facilities (Eg. Computer, Telephone, Photocopy Machine and Internet). Which is a form of free facility. The kinds of resources could differ and change as per the various phases of the project. For example, in the preliminary phases, active participation from all the organizations is essential for leadership and management of the organization. Maintenance service and resources to make it sustainable is essential. This condition or need has a big impact on the kind of human resource and accordingly on assisting tools and equipments.
Natural resources
Natural resources are natural assets (raw materials) occurring in nature that can be used for economic production or consumption. The naturally occurring assets that provide use benefits through the provision of raw materials and energy used in economic activity (or that
may provide such benefits one day) and that are subject primarily to quantitative depletion through human use. They are subdivided into four categories: mineral and energy resources, soil resources, water resources and biological resources.
Time timely decision and capitalising on opportunities and prioritising needs
 To diversify and expand resources.
 Resource Mobilization helps to formulate an independent budget. To break the tradition of running the specific programs of any donor agencies only.
 To spend in the program of the Organization’s liking.
 To decrease dependency on others.
 To save oneself the chance of becoming contractors of foreign donor agencies.
 For sustainability of the Organization and program.
 For maximum use of domestic capital and skills.
 To expand deep relations with the stakeholder and community.
 To clean the image of the Organization and expand relations.
 To fulfil responsibilities towards the community.
 To run programs based on the genuine needs of the community.
 To disseminate the good practices of the Organization.
 To develop new thinking and challenge the old traditions.
 To enhance the dignity of one’s Organization
Partnerships are voluntary and collaborative relationships between the organisation and one or several other partners from different sectors of society.
In a partnership, all participants agree to work together to pursue a common objective or undertake a specific task and to share risks, responsibilities, resources, competencies and benefits to achieve their own objectives, the objectives of their partner(s), and the overall
objective of the partnership.
Resource mobilization is a coordinated process of identifying programmatic areas within the organisations approved programme for which voluntary contributions (money and in-kind contributions) are needed, initiating and maintaining appropriate contacts with the relevant donor(s), and planning, carrying out and managing resource mobilization activities, including outreach activities needed for the resource mobilization efforts, all with the aim of closing the funding gap by means of building new and enhancing existing relationships with donors.
1. Laws of the land
-fundraising is always subject to the laws of the land e.g the constitution of Kenya 2010 stipulates some does and don’ts in regard to fundraising. Besides the constitution there are so many other laws that govern fundraising e.g. Public civil servants should not participate in fundraising Those campaigning for elective seats can’t campaign within a set period of time
.QUIZ-Which chapter of Kenya constitution deals with the issue of fundraising and what does it say?
2. Percentage Compensation
Professionals who aid in fundraising may seek compensation. The seeking or acceptances of charity revenue should not result on the personal benefits of any employees, contacts of representative of charity organisation. The purpose of these issues is to ensure that these
individual or entities engage in the fundraising sector are compensated for their experience expertise the value of the product delivered and the work they perform on behalf of the charitable organisation that employ their services and not for work done by others
3. Incentive Compensation (Incentive compensation is such as bonus)
Its compensation based on the accomplishment mutually agreed upon .Pre-established overall goals related to members responsibility as an employee or a service or product provides .This must meet the following conditions to be acceptable
1. Members of organisation must have a policy that awards performance based
2. The policy must have the approval of the organisation governing body
3. It must include the members’ area of responsibility
4. The criteria for determining eligibility for such amount of such compensation excludes any consideration of a percentage contribution.
5. Criteria is restricted to mutually agreed upon predetermined overall goals
4 .Finder’s Fee Finders is a fee for bringing a donor or revenue in any form to a non-profit organisation
5. Conflict of Interest
A typical conflict exist whenever a member or someone in that members immediate family has relationship with actual/prospective donors or an interest in a firm that is an actual or potential vendor to the member
Other examples of conflict interest include
 Failing to report once employer, knowledge of being a beneficiary of a donor
 Holding an ownership interest in a vendor firm to once employer without reporting such interest
6. Donor Information
Information on the donor should remain confidential and should be shared with other if the donor so requires
7. Use of Funds
It is unethical to use money from a restricted gift for a purpose other than the one solicited for.
You should advice your institution that such a use would violate the principal of honouring donor intent and would be a violation of ethics
N/B Legal documents which must be read by project managers
1. Constitution of Kenya 2010
2. BBI Report
3. County Governments Act
4. EMCA[environmental management and coordination act]
5. Occupational safety and health act
6. Employment act
7. Procurement act 2015
8. The NGO act
Internal Challenges
1. Capacity Limitation within Organizations
There is significant capacity limitation in terms of human resource and due to having insufficient staff then to pursuing appropriate funding or resources remains elusive to many
2. Accountability and Transparency Many organizations fail in the two central pillars of good governance that is transparency and Accountability
3. Founder Syndrome Many local organizations’ leadership face this syndrome. This is whereby the founder or founders tend to control and manage the affairs of the organization with minimal participation from other members
4. Inadequate Strategic and Operational Plans No strategic plans that guide the organization to know what the objectives are and enable the organization identify the resources needed. Most strategic plans developed are for donor purposes only and do not reflect the actual needs to be addressed by the communities.
5. Inadequate Networking Skills Networking is a common term frequently used by Organisations sector in many African countries, but rarely practiced. Many organisations lack networking skills and instead are seen competing for resources than working together towards common interest. Many donors are currently looking to fund organizations that are in networks or working together.
6. Inadequate Awareness on Available Opportunities There are windows of opportunities that exist within countries that sometimes organisations fail to exploit due to lack of awareness that the opportunities exist.
7. Minimal Communication and Branding Many organisations are not able to communicate effectively who they are, what they do, and their achievements. This inability to communicate means the visibility of the organization is poor and they are not able to effectively market their programs. This eventually affects their capacity to mobilize resources many at times organizations lose the opportunity to get resources as donors or stakeholders are not aware of the presence of the organization within the area, sector or country.
External Challenges
8. Donor Country Priorities Changing Many at times organisations face dictation of priorities from donors hence organizations shift focus or are not eligible to apply for the funds as they are not meeting the donor priorities.
9. Criteria being Used/Applied to Organizations Donor’s preferences have continued to change and they have become increasingly selective. One notes that different donors apply different conditions on aid, for example specify projects that can be supported
within their budget, working in partnership or collaboration with others, geographic cover, sector and a properly constituted organization
10.Donors Conditional Ties In the donor world the funding trends are changing. We see donors are using basket funding or sometimes shift in funding from organisations to focus on government institutions and hence the Organisations end up competing
for the same funds with the government institutions that have resources and capacity to mobilize for resources.
11.Political Interference Government policies and political climate increase bureaucratic red tape for organisations mobilizing resources externally. Where there is political instability donors will either not release funds or they reduce or enforce stringent
12.Rules and Regulations within a Country for Accessing Government Funds The rules and regulations that govern accessing and applying for government funds and resources make it difficult for organizations to access resources
13.Donor Prejudices Organizations that have a good track record can easily access resources. Cases of funds or resource embezzlements are very serious and donors talk on who has done what and good track record is important.
14.Natural and Manmade Occurrence e.g. Floods, Earthquakes, Wars. Countries that are experiencing conflict experience a decrease in resources
Factors that influence the success of Resource Mobilization include:
(a) Clarity and commitment to the vision and mission;
(b) Availability of competent staff
(c) Having programmes with the potential to yield results;
(d) Good previous achievements;
(e) Evidence of effective management and leadership;
(f) Having in place financial systems to manage the resources raised;
(g) Having a good reputation and credibility;
(h) Demonstrating mutual respect and knowledge sharing with stakeholders and
(i) Ability to attract, create, and sustain new resources.
(j) Having or establishing an evidence base that supports the requirement and process for the intended change.
Some Mechanisms of Resource Mobilization:
1. Submitting grant proposals: This mentions the response of the request of proposals made by various organisations , Government, National and International Organizations.
2. Organizing special events: These events are ways of receiving money which will be carried out by organisations relating to the field or community. These occasions will be held in order to celebrate any special festival. The occasions may or may not be related to the programs. For example of events related to the program, organize rallies related to the program and examples of events not related to the program would be cultural events, exhibition for assistance, exhibition.
3. Applying for donations: This type of mechanism of Resource Mobilization requests for donation, fund handover or any precious things from various organizations like cottage industry, Trade and Individuals (both national and international) and private institutions.
4. Publishing the history of the Organization: Publishing good practices and achievements which will have an impact on the Resource Provider. Resource Mobilization is a courageous work. Anyone will not provide resources easily. In this connection, it is said that instead of hoping for anyone giving you resources, you need to fully prepare yourself for receiving resources. Rather than thinking of getting resources by begging for it, resources can be received by selling your Organization’s good practices, work, history etc.
6. Personal meetings: Receiving resource is to receive a friend. So, personal meetings plays an important role in receiving resources. So, for Resource Mobilization, you have to hold personal meetings with friends and resource providers, invite them to social occasions and accept their invitation as well.
7. Membership Campaign: Membership campaign in one important mechanism of Resource
Mobilization. By increasing its membership, the organization can expand its relations with membership from people with different capacities, and can mobilize every resource with them for the mission of the organization. For example, give membership to the businessmen of the district. Distribute members to representatives of the various sectors of the society.
8. Partnership: Partnership is another mechanism of Resource Mobilization. Partnership will help exchange the resources between two or more organizations.
Specially, if new or small organizations join hands with similar organizations there will be possibility of extensive mobilization of the resources at the local level and international resources.
Many types of resources will be mobilized if partnership is forged between the private sectorand Organisations or among various sectors.
9. By raising fees: An Organization can raise fees by selling its technical skill, expertise to other organization, like becoming resource person of a training, raising fees from visitors to your Organization for the time given, and raising fees from individuals or organizations coming to you Organization for research. The Organization can spend such resources as per its wish. This is specially a very effective mechanism to gather and mobilize resources but for this the Organization need to have with it experts and resource persons specializing in various issues. Another opportunity to raise fees would be for the organisation to carry out social works like constructing canals, public resting place, roads, school, temple, monastery etc. and the local
body pay back .
10. Internal Mobilization: Those in possession of mediums like Hall, equipment (photocopy, telephone, fax ) etc. can give them on rent and make appropriate use of the available resources. Similarly, many organisations sell their training package while some sell software package in cheap price to other organisations.
11. Producing audio visual materials: Many organisations have been carrying out Resource Mobilization by developing information, education and communications materials as per the requirements of other organisations . Such organization publish the report, guidelines, posters, leaflets and visual materials for other organizations.
12. Organisations can give its building on rent and gather resource.
Similarly, many organization purchase the handicrafts prepared by their targeted groups and sell it in the market with some profit.
13. Self Contribution: The most effective tool of resource mobilization is self contribution. Before collecting resources from other organization, it would be good for every organization to start some work from self-contributions. An organization beginning with self-contribution can win the trust of the resource providers quickly. So, it would be appropriate to leave the tradition of starting any work after receiving resources from others and begin with self-contribution. Even if there is absence of big source or skills, organizations should begin programs to mobilize the community to run small programs (observing various occasions) and raising awareness/advocacy.
14. Formal party: Personal contact and get-together is an effective mechanism of resource mobilization. The organization looking for resources can host special tea party (in Kenya there is the popular ‘goat-eating’) for local and external resource providers on the occasion of a special event/festival of the place or country. Such occasions will be of a big help in expanding relations and contact. In such functions, the resource providers should be felicitated or provided small gifts from locally distinguished person. But if such functions are held frequently then their utility will gradually disappear.
15. Provision of advisors and ambassadors: For resource mobilization, people with access to resources or individuals with experience in the sector should be appointed as advisors or ambassadors. Such individuals will facilitate access to resources within and outside the country and help collect resources by advocating the organization.
Such individuals may be individual with technical skills (like: proposal writing, expanding of relations) in resource mobilization and also may be people renowned in the national and international level. For example, celebrities have been made Ambassadors.
16. Income Generation: Among the various mechanisms of resource mobilization, income generation is also one important mechanism. Every organization should adopt every measures for income generation as per the its policy and regulations. Such schemes of local income generation would be sustainable and would to some extent help the organization to stop itself from becoming a parasite. For income generation, the organization can carry out various activities.
17. Network building/participation: The world today relies on relations, contact and mutual support. Information and communications network has been established. In this context, organizations small or big established in any part of the work cannot isolate itself and if anyone tries to do so, it is almost impossible. Organizations and countries can help one another through such networks. So one of the most important mechanism of resource mobilization is to build network or participate in the already existing network and exchange information and resources.

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 A Quality Management Approach describes how quality will be managed during the project. This includes the specific processes, procedures, techniques, standards, and responsibilities to be applied. A template is usually provided by the organization and only needs minor changes.
A quality management system (QMS) is defined as a formalized system that documents processes, procedures, and responsibilities for achieving quality policies and objectives. A QMS helps coordinate and direct an organization‟s activities to meet customer and regulatory requirements and improve its effectiveness and efficiency on a continuous basis. ISO 9001:2015, the international standard specifying requirements for quality management systems, is the most prominent approach to quality management systems. While some use the term “QMS” to describe the ISO 9001 standard or the group of documents detailing the QMS, it actually refers to the entirety of the system. The documents only serve to describe the system.
Quality management activities
Quality management is the act of overseeing different activities and tasks within an organization to ensure that products and services offered, as well as the means used to provide them are consistent. It helps to achieve and maintain a
desired level of quality within the organization.
Quality management is the act of overseeing all activities and tasks needed to maintain a desired level of excellence.
Quality management helps in the determination of a quality policy, creating and implementing quality planning and assurance, and quality control and
quality improvement.
Ensures that all stakeholders in a business work together to improve processes, products, services and the culture of the company itself.
Importance of continuous improvement on project quality
1. Increased productivity
2. Improved quality
3. Lowered costs
4. Decreased delivery times
5. Improved employee satisfaction/morale
6. Reduced employee turnover rate
Quality assurance Surveillance Plan
The Quality Assurance Surveillance Plan (QASP) is the document government personnel use to assess contractor performance. … The QASP should be a “living” document and reviewed as performance warrants.
The purpose of the QASP is to describe the systematic methods used to measure performance and to identify the reports required and the resources to be employed.
The QASP provides a means for evaluating whether the contractor is meeting the performance standards identified in the PWS
The QASP provides a means for evaluating whether the contractor is meeting the performance standards/quality levels identified in the Performance Work Statement (PWS) and the contractor’s quality control plan (QCP), and to ensure that the government
pays only for the level of services received.
The purpose of the QASP is to describe the systematic methods used to measure performance and to identify the reports required and the resources to be employed. The QASP provides a means for evaluating whether the contractor is meeting the performance standards identified in the PWS.
Purpose of QASP
 QASP is designed to define roles and responsibilities.
 Identify the performance objectives
 Define the methodologies used to monitor and evaluate the contractor’s performance
 Describe quality assurance reporting, and describe the analysis of quality assurance monitoring

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Definition and meaning
Quality improvement refers to the combined and unceasing efforts of everybody in a company to make everything about it, especially its production process, better. It is a systematic approach to the elimination or reduction of rework, waste, and losses in the production process.
Put simply, quality improvement (QI) refers to methods to improve the production process. It requires getting rid of or changing parts of the process that do not function optimally.
Quality improvement or QI focuses on improving the production process.
However, the target could be any part of an organization. There are several different methods for quality improvement. They cover:
 People-based improvement,
 Process improvement, and
 Product improvement.
Product improvement
Product improvement is the process of making meaningful product changes that result in new customers or increased benefits realized by existing customers.
The two most popular ways to make product improvements are to add new product features or improve existing ones.
Quality improvement process
1. PDCA cycle. The cycle promotes continuous improvement and should be thought of as a spiral, not a circle.
P= Plan
D= Do
C= Check
A= Act

PROFIT . Another popular quality improvement process is the six-step
PROFIT model in which the acronym stands for:
P = Problem definition.
R = Root cause identification and analysis.
O = Optimal solution based on root cause(s).
F = Finalize how the corrective action will be implemented.
I = Implement the plan.
T = Track the effectiveness of the implementation and verify that the
desired results are met.
3. Seven simple tools can be used by any professional to ease the quality improvement process are: flowcharts, check sheets, Pareto diagrams, cause and effect diagrams, histograms, scatter diagrams, and control charts.
Quality Improvement Methods
Quality improvement methods comprise three components: product improvement, process improvement, and people-based improvement.
There are numerous methods of quality management and techniques that can be utilized. They include Kaizen, Zero Defect Programs, Six Sigma, Quality Circle,
Taguchi Methods, the Toyota Production System, Kansei Engineering, TRIZ, BPR,
OQRM, ISO, and Top Down & Bottom Up approaches among others.
1. Zero defects is a way of thinking and doing that reinforces the notion that efects are not acceptable, and that everyone should “do things right the first time.
2. Six Sigma is a quality program that, when all is said and done, improves your customer‟s experience, lowers your costs, and builds better leaders.
The two main Six Sigma methodologies are DMAIC and DMADV.
 DMAIC is a data-driven method used to improve existing products or services for better customer satisfaction. It is the acronym for the five
phases: D – Define, M – Measure, A – Analyse, I – Improve, C – Control.
DMAIC is applied in the manufacturing of a product or delivery of a service.
 DMADV is a part of the Design for Six Sigma process used to design or redesign different processes of product manufacturing or service delivery.
The five phases of DMADV are: D – Define, M – Measure, A – Analyze, D –
Design, V – Validate. DMADV is employed when existing processes do not meet customer conditions, even after optimization, or when it is required to develop new methods.
3. ISO 9001 is the international standard for a quality management system
(“QMS”). In order to be certified to the ISO 9001 standard, a company must follow the requirements set forth in the ISO 9001 Standard. The standard is used by organizations to demonstrate their ability to consistently provide products and services that meet customer and
regulatory requirements and to demonstrate continuous improvement
Role of standardization
 Facilitates the creation of standards and promotes their use
 Tests and certifies products
 Assesses management systems
 Inspects commodities
 Helps businesses to be commercially viable. Producing standard products, or products assembled from standard parts, makes sense to
manufacturers and service providers because standardized products and parts reduce design, production, warehousing and distribution costs.
 Is reassuring. Because when goods conform to certain standards in order to be put on sale, consumers know they can believe the claims that producers make for them.
 Is protective. The standardization process gives a high priority to health and safety. Standardization assures safety, offers consumers assurance, and helps to create a cleaner environment (through environmental standards).
 Helps businesses to be cost effective and time efficient. Creating a standard is relatively straightforward because BSI has tried and tested processes for doing it.
Challenges of quality improvement in projects
Challenge 1: Convincing people that there is a problem.
Use hard data to demonstrate the extent of the problem and patient stories and voices to secure emotional engagement. Use peer-led debate and discussion.
Challenge 2: Convincing people that the solution chosen is the right one.
Come prepared with clear facts and figures, have convincing measures of impact, and be able to demonstrate the advantages of your solution. Involve respected senior figures.
Challenge 3: Getting data collection and monitoring systems right
This always takes much more time and energy than anyone anticipates. It‟s worth investing heavily in data from the outset. External support may be required. Assess local systems, train people, and have quality assurance.
Challenge 4: Excess ambitions and ‘projectness’
Over-ambitious goals and too much talk of „transformation‟ can alienate staff if they feel the change is impossible. Instead, match goals and ambitions to what is realistically achievable and focus on bringing everyone along with you. Avoid giving the impression that the improvement activity is unlikely to survive the time span of the project.
Challenge 5: The organizational context, culture and capacities
Staff may not understand the full demands of improvement when they sign up, and team instability can be very disruptive. Explain requirements to people and then provide ongoing support. Make sure improvement goals are aligned with the wider goals of the organisation, so people don‟t feel pulled in too many directions. It is important that the organizational culture supports learning and
Challenge 6: Tribalism and lack of staff engagement
Overcoming a perceived lack of ownership and professional or disciplinary boundaries can be very difficult. Clarify who owns the problem and solution, agree roles and responsibilities at the outset, work to common goals and use shared language. Intermediaries, such as training staff, are likely to have a role here. Protected staff time may help to secure engagement.
Challenge 7: Leadership
Getting leadership for quality improvement right requires a delicate combination of setting out a vision and sensitivity to the views of others. „Quieter‟ leadership, oriented towards inclusion, explanation and gentle persuasion, may be more effective. This may require additional training.
Challenge 8: Balancing carrots and sticks – harnessing commitment through incentives and potential sanctions
Relying on the intrinsic motivations of staff for quality improvement can take you a long way, especially if „carrots‟ in the form of incentives are provided – but they may not always be enough. It is important to have „harder edges‟ (sticks) to encourage change, but these must be used judiciously and are likely to require the support of senior executives, professional bodies and those designing
reward structures.
Challenge 9: Securing sustainability
Sustainability can be vulnerable when efforts are seen as „projects‟ or when they rely on particular individuals. From an early stage, projects need to identify future funding sources, or identify ways to use resources more efficiently in order to sustain improvements. Successful outcomes should be written into standards, guidelines and procedures to ensure they are embedded in routine activities.
Challenge 10: Considering the side effects of change It‟s not uncommon to successfully target one issue but also cause new problems
elsewhere. This can cause people to lose faith. Be vigilant about detecting unwanted consequences and be willing to learn and adapt

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Quality control (QC) is a process through which a business seeks to ensure that product quality is maintained or improved.
It is the process done to make sure that the rules are being following and that the expected quality is being met

Corrective actions in quality control
Corrective action is an aspect of quality management that aims to rectify a task, process, product, or even a person‟s behavior when any of these factors produce errors or have deviated from an intended plan.
Corrective actions can apply to an entire project when the deliverables, whether tangible or service, deviate from the required output.
The corrective action process includes clear identification of a problem and thorough documentation of the resources and steps required to mitigate the immediate symptoms. Its primary goal, though, is to find and solve the root cause of the problem. Corrective action addresses only critical problems and recurring issues.