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Emerging Issues and Trends in Project Management

PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Objectives:
By the end of the chapter the student should be able to:
(i) Define the term project
(ii) Explain the project management activities
(iii) Draw a project network diagram
(iv) Draw a project Gantt chart
Introduction
A project is an interrelated set of activities with a definite starting and ending point, which results in a unique outcome for a specific allocation of resources. The complexity of the project will increase with the size and number of activities within the project. Extensive planning and co-ordination activities are required for larger projects to ensure that the project aims are met. Examples of projects include installing an IT system, building a bridge or introducing a new service or product to the market.
Project Management Activities
The project management processincludesthe following main elements:
(i) Feasibility Analysis: Thisstep involves evaluating the expected cost of resources needed to execute the project and compare these to expected benefits. At the start of the project a plan of the resources required to undertake the project activities is constructed. If there is a limit on the amount of resources available then the project completion date may have to be set to ensure the resources are not overloaded.
This is a resource-constrained approach. Alternatively the need to complete the project by a specific date may take precedence. In this case an alternative source of resources may have to be found, using sub- contractors for example, to ensure timely project completion. This is called a time-constrained approach.
(ii) Plan: This stage estimate sthe amount and timing of resources needed to achieve the project objectives.
The project management method uses a systems approach to dealing with a complex task in that the components of the project are broken down repeatedly into smaller tasks until a manageable chunk is defined. Each task is given its own cost, time and quality objectives. It is then essential that responsibility is assigned to achieving these objectives for each particular task. This procedure should produce a work breakdown structure (WBS) which shows the hierarchical relationship between the project tasks.
(iii) Control: This stage involves the monitoring the progress of the project as it executes over time. This is important so that any deviations from the plan can be addressed before it is too near the project completion date to take corrective action. The point at which the project progress is assessed is termed a Milestone. The two main methods of reporting the progress of a project are by written reports and verbally at meetings of the project team. It is important that a formal statement of progress is made in written form, preferably in a standard report format, to ensure that everyone is aware of the current project situation. This is particularly important when changes to specifications are made during the project.Inordertofacilitatetwo-waycommunicationbetweenteammembersandteam management, regular meetings should be arranged by the project manager. These meetings can increase the commitment of team members by allowing discussion of points of interest and dissemination of information on how each team‟s effort is contributing to the overall progression of the project.
Network Analysis
Network analysis/Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) is a method to analyze the involved tasks in completing a given project, especially the time needed to complete each task, and to identify the minimum time needed to complete the total project. PERT was developed primarily to simplify the planning and scheduling of large and complex projects. It was developed for the U.S. Navy Special Projects Office in 1957 to support the U.S. Navy’s Polaris nuclear submarine project. It was able to incorporate uncertainty by making it possible to schedule a project while not knowing precisely the details and durations of all the activities. It is more of an event-oriented technique rather than start- and completion-oriented, and is used more in projects where time is the major factor rather than cost. It is applied to very large-scale, one time, complex, non-routine infrastructure and Research and Development projects
Terminology
PERT event: a point that marks the start or completion of one or more activities. It consumes no time and uses no resources. When it marks the completion of one or more activities, it is not “reached” (does not occur) until all of the activities leading to that event
have been completed. predecessor event: an event that immediately precedes some other event without any other events intervening. An event can have multiple predecessor events and can be the predecessor of multiple events. successor event: an event that immediately follows some other event without any other intervening events. An event can have multiple successor events and can be the successor of
multiple events.
PERT activity: the actual performance of a task which consumes time and requires resources (such as labor, materials, space, machinery). It can be understood as representing the time, effort, and resources required to move from one event to another. A PERT activity cannot be performed until the predecessor event has occurred.
PERT sub-activity: a PERT activity can be further decomposed into a set of sub-activities.
For example, activity A1 can be decomposed into A1.1, A1.2 and A1.3 for example. Sub activities have all the properties of activities, in particular a sub-activity has predecessor or successor events just like an activity. A sub-activity can be decomposed again into finer grained sub-activities.
optimistic time (O): the minimum possible time required to accomplish a task, assuming everything proceeds better than is normally expected pessimistic time (P): the maximum possible time required to accomplish a task, assuming everything goes wrong (but excluding major catastrophes). most likely time (M): the best estimate of the time required to accomplish a task, assuming everything proceeds as normal. expected time (TE): the best estimate of the time required to accomplish a task, accounting
for the fact that things don’t always proceed as normal (the implication being that the expected time is the average time the task would require if the task were repeated on a number of occasions over an extended period of time).
TE = (O + 4M + P) ÷ 6
float or slack is a measure of the excess time and resources available to complete a task. It is the amount of time that a project task can be delayed without causing a delay in any subsequent tasks (free float) or the whole project (total float). Positive slack would
indicate ahead of schedule; negative slack would indicate behind schedule; and zero slack would indicate on schedule. critical path: the longest possible continuous pathway taken from the initial event to the terminal event. It determines the total calendar time required for the project; and, therefore, any time delays along the critical path will delay the reaching of the terminal event by at least the same amount. critical activity: An activity that has total float equal to zero. An activity with zero float is not necessarily on the critical path since its path may not be the longest. Lead time: the time by which a predecessor event must be completed in order to allow sufficient time for the activities that must elapse before a specific PERT event reaches completion.
lag time: the earliest time by which a successor event can follow a specific PERT event. fast tracking: performing more critical activities in parallel crashing critical path: Shortening duration of critical activities
Network analysis involves the following steps:
(i) Identifying project activities
(ii) Estimating activity durations
(iii) Identifying activity relationships
(iv) Drawing the network diagram
Identifying Project Activities
In order to undertake network analysis it is necessary to break down the project into a number of identifiable activities or tasks. This enables individuals to be assigned responsibility to particular tasks which have a well-defined start and finish time. Financial and resource planning can also be conducted at the task level and co-ordinated by the project manager who must ensure that each task manager is working to the overall project objectives and not maximising the performance of particular task at the expense of the whole project. Activities consume time and/or resources. The first stage in planning a project is to break down the project into a number of identifiable activities with a start and end. Performance objectives of time, cost and quality can be associated with each activity. The project is broken down into these tasks using a work breakdown structure. This is a hierarchical tree structure which shows the relationship between the tasks as they are further sub-divided at each level.
Identifying Project Activities
In order to undertake network analysis it is necessary to break down the project into a number of identifiable activities or tasks. This enables individuals to be assigned responsibility to particular tasks which have a well-defined start and finish time. Financial and resource planning can also be conducted at the task level and coordinated by the project manager who must ensure that each task manager is working to the overall project objectives and not maximising the performance of particular task at the expense of the whole project. Activities consume time and/or resources. The first stage in planning a project is to break down the project into a number of identifiable activities with a start and end. Performance objectives of time, cost and quality can be associated with each activity. The project is broken down into these tasks using a work breakdown structure. This is a hierarchical tree structure which shows the relationship between the tasks as they are further sub-divided at each level.
Estimating Activity Durations
The next stage is to retrieve information concerning the duration of the tasks involved in the project. he can be collated from a number ofsources, such as documentation, observation, interviewing etc. Obviously the accuracy of the project plan will depend on the accuracy of these estimates. There is a trade-off between the cost of collecting information on task duration‟ sand the cost of an inaccurate project plan.
Identifying Activity Relationships
It is necessary to identify any relationships between tasks in the project. For instance a particular task may not be able to begin until another task has finished. Thus the task waiting to begin is dependent on the former task. Other tasks may not have a dependent relationship and can thus occur simultaneously. Critical path diagrams are used extensively to show the activities undertaken during a project and the dependencies between these activities. Thus it is easy to see that activity C for example can only take place when activity A and activity B has completed. Once a network diagram has been constructed it is possible to follow a sequence of activities, called a path, through the network from start to end. The length of time it takes to follow the path is the sum of all the durations of activities on that path. The path with the longest duration gives the project completion time. This is called the critical path because any change in duration in any activities on this path will cause the whole project duration to either become shorter or longer. Activities not on the critical path will have a certain amount of slack time in which the activity can be delayed or the duration lengthened and not affect the overall project duration. The amount of slack is a function of the difference between the path duration the activity is on and the critical path duration. By definition all activities on the critical path have zero slack. It is important to note that there must be at least one critical path for
each network and there may be several.
Drawing the Network Diagram
For the activity-on-node notation each activity task is represented by a node with the following format. hus a completed network will consist of a number of nodes connected by lines, one for each task, between a start and end node. Calculating the Earliest Start/Finish times (forward pass): From the duration of each task and the dependency relationship between the tasks it is possible to estimate the earliest start and finish time for each task as follows. You move left to right along the network, forward through time.
1. Assume the start (i.e. first) task begins at time = 0.
2. Calculate the earliest finish time where: Earliest Finish=Earliest Start + Duration
3. Calculate the earliest start time of the next task where:-Earliest Start=Earliest Finish oft ask immediately before: If there is more than one task immediately before take the task with the latest finish time to calculate the earliest start time for the current task.
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for all tasks
Calculating the Latest Start/Finish times (backward pass): It is now possible to estimate the latest start and finish time for each task as follows. You move right to left along the network, backward through time.
1. Assume the end (i.e. last) task end time is the earliest finish time (unless the project end time is given).
2. Calculate the latest start time where:- Latest Start = Latest Finish – Duration
3. Calculate the latest finish time of the previous task where: Latest Finish = Latest Start of task immediately after. If
there is more than one task immediately after take the task with the earliest start time to calculate the latest finish time for the current task.
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for all tasks
Calculating the slack/float times: The slack or float value is the difference between the earliest start and latest start (or earliest finish and latest finish) times for each task. To calculate the slack time
1. Slack = Latest Start – Earliest Start OR Slack = Latest Finish – Earliest Finish
2. Repeat step 1 for all tasks.
Identifying the Critical Path: Any tasks with a slack time of 0 must obviously be undertaken on schedule at the earliest start time. The critical path is the pathway connecting all the nodes with a zero slack time. There must be at least one critical path through the network, but there can be more than one. The significance of the critical path is that if any node on the path finishes later than the earliest finish time, the overall network time will increase by the same amount, putting the project behind schedule. Thus any planning and control activities should focus on ensuring tasks on the critical path remain within schedule.
Example:
Consider a small project that involves the following activities.

By simple enumeration one finds that the critical path is A-C-D.
CP =A-C-D and the mean critical path duration is dcp = 6 + 14 + 4 = 24.
Gantt charts
Although network diagrams are ideal for showing the relationship between project tasks, they do not provide a clear view of which tasks are being undertaken over time and particularly how many tasks may be undertaken in parallel at any one time. The Gantt chart provides an overview for the Project Manager to allow them to monitor project progress against planned progress and so provides a valuable information source for project control. A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart, developed by Henry Gantt in the 1910s, that illustrates a project schedule. Gantt charts illustrate the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project. Terminal elements and summary elements comprise the work breakdown structure of the project.
To draw a Gantt Chart manually undertake the following steps:
– Draw a grid with the tasks along the vertical axis and the time-scale (up to the project duration) along the horizontal axis.
– Draw a horizontal bar acrossfrom the task identifier along the left of the chartstarting at the earliest start time and ending at the earliest finish time.
– Indicate the slack amount by drawing a line from the earliest finish time to the latest finish time.
Example
The following activities relate to a particular project

Review questions
1. Define the term project
2. Explain the three main project activities
3. Explain the origin of network analysis
4. Describe the process of drawing a project network
5. Discuss the process of drawing a Gantt chart
References
Hill, T 2005, Operations Management, 2 nd edn, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke
Fitzsimmons ,J.A. and Fitzsimmons, M.J.(2008) Service Management: Operations, Strategy and
Information Technology, 6th edn, McGraw-Hill.
Slack, N. and Lewis, M. (2011) Operations Strategy, 3 rd edn, Pearson Education Limited, Harlow.
Suri, R. (2010) It’s About Time: he Competitive Advantage of Quick Response
Manufacturing, Productivity Press, NewYork.
Vonderembse, M.A. and White, G.P. (2004) Core Concepts of Operations Management, John
Wiley and Sons Ltd., Chichester.

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Project Organisation KNEC Notes

TOPIC 11: PROJECT TEAM

Sub-Topics

  • Team versus Group
  • Characteristics of High Performing Teams
  • Stages in Team Development
  • Responsibilities of a Project Team Manager
  • Duties of a Project Team

TEAM VERSUS GROUP

  • Teams are formed for a particular purpose while groups can exist as a matter of fact
  • Team members, individual roles are specified while groups are much more informal
  • Team members are aware of a set of people they collaborate while groups have personal relationships
  • Teams members are usually performed orderly by use of a criteria but there is no formal criteria for forming a group
  • Team members are inter-dependent while group members can entirely be disconnected from one another
  • Teams require coordination of tasks and activities to achieve a shared goal while
    groups don’t need to have focus on specific outcomes

Ways of establishing team identities

  • Creating a team name
  • Team rituals e.g symbolic actions
  • Effective use of team meetings e.g setting specific date and time for the team
  • Team logos and uniforms
  • Core location of team of team members to specific working space

CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH PERFORMING TEAMS
While recruiting team members that is project manager into the organizational by asking for volunteers to reduce conflict
a.When the project is high priority and critically to the future of the organisation select
people with the capacity that is required, ( Knowledge , skills )
b.When recruiting project team members remember project solving ability of members , availability , technologies expertise, credibility, ambition, initiative , energy , political
connection
c.High performing project teams should have performance measures set, that will be used to determine the level of performance. Such measures include :
 Project success according to agreed standards
 On time performance measures
 On budget performance
 Overall customer and donor satisfaction
 Responsiveness and flexibility to customer requirement
 Positioning the project for a future progress
A high performing team , is the team that that exerts energy toward problem solving rather than inter-personal issues or competitive struggles
This is a team where differences of opinions are encouraged and freely expressed
This is a team whereby members have set high personal standards of performance and encourage each other to realize the objectives of the project
 It is a team where roles are balanced and shared to facilitate both accomplishment of tasks and feeling of team cohesion and morale
It is a team that identifies individual talents and expertise and uses them depending on the project needs
It encourages risk taking and creativity and views mistakes as opportunities for learning

STAGES IN TEAM DEVELOPMENT
The following are the stages in Project Team Development
1.Forming stage
In this stage, the members become acquainted with each other and become aware of individual behavior and exploit some of the do’s and don’ts.
2. Storming Stage
In this stage, conflict arises here and there among members when they disagree or tend to exert dominance. Such disagreements may arise over priorities goals or methods and sub groups may emerge within the team
Here the project manager must be focused and consistent in communicating the objective of the project and he task ahead of the team members
He / She should ensure that the conflict are resolved by sticking to he set guidelines.
3. Norming Stage
Once the disagreements, conflicts have been resolved and addressed, the team comes together, group unity emerges as the members establish common goals and norms under sense of cohesion, motivation and productivity begins to emerge.
4. Performing stage
The team now begins to function, everybody taking up their roles and responsibilities and moves towards accomplishing them. All members work cordially and responsibly willing to learn from each other. All the projects tasks are implimented and monitoring is continuously done to ensure successful completion of the project.
5. Adjourning stage
When the work is accomplished successful the group wraps up its act and focuses its performance to closure.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF A PROJECT TEAM MANAGER
Roles and duties of project Managers in developing high performing teams

  • Recruiting team members who can perform
  • Conducting meetings
  • Establishing team identity
  • Creating a common sense of purpose / Shared purpose
  • Managing a reward system that encourages working system of the team
  • Strengthen decision making
  • Resolving conflicts in the project team

DUTIES OF A PROJECT TEAM

  • Planning
  • Coordination of activities
  • Resource Mobilization
  • Implementation of project activities
  • Monitoring and evaluation
  • Project risk management
  • Project resource allocation
  • Project procurement
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Project Team Management Notes

TOPIC 11: PROJECT TEAM

Sub-Topics

  • Team versus Group
  • Characteristics of High Performing Teams
  • Stages in Team Development
  • Responsibilities of a Project Team Manager
  • Duties of a Project Team

TEAM VERSUS GROUP

  • Teams are formed for a particular purpose while groups can exist as a matter of fact
  • Team members, individual roles are specified while groups are much more informal
  • Team members are aware of a set of people they collaborate while groups have personal relationships
  • Teams members are usually performed orderly by use of a criteria but there is no formal criteria for forming a group
  • Team members are inter-dependent while group members can entirely be disconnected from one another
  • Teams require coordination of tasks and activities to achieve a shared goal while
    groups don’t need to have focus on specific outcomes

Ways of establishing team identities

  • Creating a team name
  • Team rituals e.g symbolic actions
  • Effective use of team meetings e.g setting specific date and time for the team
  • Team logos and uniforms
  • Core location of team of team members to specific working space

CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH PERFORMING TEAMS
While recruiting team members that is project manager into the organizational by asking for volunteers to reduce conflict
a.When the project is high priority and critically to the future of the organisation select
people with the capacity that is required, ( Knowledge , skills )
b.When recruiting project team members remember project solving ability of members , availability , technologies expertise, credibility, ambition, initiative , energy , political
connection
c.High performing project teams should have performance measures set, that will be used to determine the level of performance. Such measures include :
 Project success according to agreed standards
 On time performance measures
 On budget performance
 Overall customer and donor satisfaction
 Responsiveness and flexibility to customer requirement
 Positioning the project for a future progress
A high performing team , is the team that that exerts energy toward problem solving rather than inter-personal issues or competitive struggles
This is a team where differences of opinions are encouraged and freely expressed
This is a team whereby members have set high personal standards of performance and encourage each other to realize the objectives of the project
 It is a team where roles are balanced and shared to facilitate both accomplishment of tasks and feeling of team cohesion and morale
It is a team that identifies individual talents and expertise and uses them depending on the project needs
It encourages risk taking and creativity and views mistakes as opportunities for learning

STAGES IN TEAM DEVELOPMENT
The following are the stages in Project Team Development
1.Forming stage
In this stage, the members become acquainted with each other and become aware of individual behavior and exploit some of the do’s and don’ts.
2. Storming Stage
In this stage, conflict arises here and there among members when they disagree or tend to exert dominance. Such disagreements may arise over priorities goals or methods and sub groups may emerge within the team
Here the project manager must be focused and consistent in communicating the objective of the project and he task ahead of the team members
He / She should ensure that the conflict are resolved by sticking to he set guidelines.
3. Norming Stage
Once the disagreements, conflicts have been resolved and addressed, the team comes together, group unity emerges as the members establish common goals and norms under sense of cohesion, motivation and productivity begins to emerge.
4. Performing stage
The team now begins to function, everybody taking up their roles and responsibilities and moves towards accomplishing them. All members work cordially and responsibly willing to learn from each other. All the projects tasks are implimented and monitoring is continuously done to ensure successful completion of the project.
5. Adjourning stage
When the work is accomplished successful the group wraps up its act and focuses its performance to closure.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF A PROJECT TEAM MANAGER
Roles and duties of project Managers in developing high performing teams

  • Recruiting team members who can perform
  • Conducting meetings
  • Establishing team identity
  • Creating a common sense of purpose / Shared purpose
  • Managing a reward system that encourages working system of the team
  • Strengthen decision making
  • Resolving conflicts in the project team

DUTIES OF A PROJECT TEAM

  • Planning
  • Coordination of activities
  • Resource Mobilization
  • Implementation of project activities
  • Monitoring and evaluation
  • Project risk management
  • Project resource allocation
  • Project procurement
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Project Monitoring and Evaluation

TOPIC 9: PROJECT MONITORING AND EVALUATION

Sub-Topics
Meaning of Monitoring and Evaluation
Importance of Monitoring and Evaluation
Project Monitoring and Evaluation Process

MEANING OF MONITORING AND EVALUATION
Meaning of Project Monitoring
Refers to a continuous tracking of a project progress with a view of ensuring efficiency. It is a systematic and continuous collection analysis and interpretation of dates with a view of ensuring that everything is moving on as planned.
Project monitoring is an integral part of day – to- day management. It provides information by which management can identify and solve implementations problemsand access progress.
Monitoring also involves giving feedback about the progress of the project to the donor –implementation and beneficiaries of the project enables gathering information used in making decision for improving project performance .the dates acquired through monitoring is used for evaluation .
Monitoring usually focuses on process such as when and where activities occur, who delivers them and how and how many people or entities they reach.
Monitoring is conducted after a program has begun and continuous throughout the program implementation period.
Monitoring clarifies program objectives and their resources to objectives; translates objectives into performance indicators and sets a target. Routinely collects data on this indicators, compares actual results with targets.
Monitoring gives information on where a policy, program or project at any given time (or over time) relative to respective targets and outcomes ,monitoring focuses in
Meaning of Project Evaluation
Project evaluation is the process of determining the extent to which objectives have been achieved
 It’s a set of procedures to appraise a projects merits and information about its goals .objectives activities outcomes and input
 Project evaluation is a systematic and objective assessment of an ongoing or completed project .the purpose of carrying out evaluation is to determine relevance and level of achievement of project objectives , develop efficiency effectiveness impact and sustainability
 An evaluation can be done during implementation at its end or afterward
IMPORTANCE OF MONITORING AND EVALUATION
The main purposes for carrying out Monitoring and Evaluation include;
 Ensuring that planned results are achieved,
 Supporting and improving project management,
 Generating shared understanding,
 Generating new knowledge and support learning,
 Building capacities of those involved,
 Motivating stakeholders and
 Fostering public and political support
The following benefits accrue from monitoring:
 Improved performance of all activities through timely feedback to stakeholders
 Means of ensuring that performance takes place in accordance with work-plans
 Improved coordination and communication through readily available
information.
 Provision of greater transparency expected by all stakeholders
 Improved awareness about programme activities among all stakeholders
 Enhanced external/Governments support due to accurate and timely reporting
on use of funds
 Confirmation of whether the project addresses the needs of special groups like
the poor, disabled, children etc.
 Assessment of whether the project is on track in meeting the programme goals
 Informed contribution to future programme designs
 Help make decisions and recommendations about future directions
 Identify the strengths and weaknesses of a project
 Feed data back to support programs and policies
 Assess and determine stakeholder and target group satisfaction
 Determine whether the project is meeting its objectives
 Meet demands for accountability to funding bodies
 Develop the skills and understanding of people involved in a project
 Promote a project to the wider community.
PROJECT MONITORING AND EVALUATION PROCESS
Steps in Project Monitoring
1. Conducting a readiness assessment
How monitoring will support attainment of objectives, Reaction to results
2. Agreeing on what to monitor Stakeholder identification and involvement
Identify stakeholder’s major concerns
Disaggregate data to capture key desired outcomes (gender age economic status, rural,urban)
3. Selecting the key performance indicators to monitor outcomes -translate outcomes to a set of measurable performance indicators
 Indicators are signs that show changes in certain conditions, an indicator is simply a measurement which are compared over time in order to assess change.
4. Setting baselines and collecting data on the indicators Baseline is info before the monitoring period (critical measurement of indicator)
Identify the sources of data, collection methods, who to collect, frequency, cost, reporting and use
5. Select result targets
Consider baseline indicator level, set the desired level of improvement spread over specified time
6. Decide on the method of monitoring to use Activity based-activity implemented on schedule Result based –focuses on impact
7. Monitor the project
Mechanisms include:
-use of a filling system to organize all communications ,reports ,minutes of meetings and any other that can be used to keep track of project activities
-use of document logs like activity logs to track events and progress of the project
activities and contact logs to record the time and details of contacts
-tracking software for project documents or recording websites and other
technology related activities
8. Document and disseminate results
Steps in Evaluation
Phase A: Planning the Monitoring and Evaluation
 Determine the purpose of the evaluation.
 Decide on type of evaluation.
 Decide on who conducts evaluation (evaluation team)
 Review existing information in programme documents including monitoring information.
 List the relevant information source
 Describe the programme.
Phase B: Selecting Appropriate Monitoring and Evaluation Tools and Methods
 Identify evaluation goals and objectives.
 Formulate evaluation questions and sub-questions
 Decide on the appropriate evaluation design
 Identify measurement standards
 Identify measurement indicators
 Develop an evaluation schedule
Develop a budget for the evaluation.
Phase C: Collecting and Analyzing Information
• Develop data collection instruments
• Pre-test data collection instruments
• Undertake data collection activities
• Analyze data
• Interpret the data
Phase D: Reporting Findings
• Write the evaluation report.
• Decide on the method of sharing the evaluation results and on communication strategies.
• Share the draft report with stakeholders and revise as needed to be followed by follow up.
• Disseminate evaluation report.
Phase E: Implementing Monitoring and Evaluation Recommendations
• Develop a new/revised implementation plan in partnership with stakeholders.
• Monitor the implementation of evaluation recommendations and report regularly on the implementation progress.
• Plan the next evaluation

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Project Implementation

TOPIC 8: PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION

Sub-Topic
Meaning of Project Implementation
Factors to be considered in Project Implementation
Project Implementation Process

MEANING OF PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION
Project implementation (or project execution) is the phase where visions and plans become reality. This is the logical conclusion, after evaluating, deciding, visioning, planning, applying for funds and finding the financial resources of a project. Technical implementation is one part of executing a project.
The fundamentals of Project Implementation Tasks

FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED IN PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION
1. Project mission-Initial clearly defined gods and general directions.
2. Top management Support-Willingness of top management to provide the necessary resources and authority/power for project success.
3. Project Schedule/Plan-A detailed specification of the individual actions steps for. Project implementation.
4. Client Consultation-Communication, consultation, and active listening to all impacted parties.
5. Personnel-Recruitment, selection, and training of the necessary personnel for the project team.
6.Technical Tasks-Availability of the required technology and expertise to accomplish the specific technical action steps.
7. Client Acceptance-The act of “selling” the final project to its ultimate intended users.
8. Monitoring and Feedback-Timely provision of comprehensive control information at each stage in the implementation process.
9. Communication-The provision of an appropriate network and necessary data to all key actors in the project implementation.
A project is generally considered to be successfully implemented if it
 Comes in on-schedule (time criterion).
 Comes in on-budget (monetary criterion).
 Achieves basically all the goals originally set for it (effectiveness criterion).
 Is accepted and used by the clients for whom the project is intended (client satisfaction criterion).
PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS
Prepare the infrastructure. Many solutions are implemented into a production environment that is separate and distinct from where the solution was developed and tested. It is important that the characteristics of the production environment be accounted for. This strategy includes a review of hardware, software, communications, etc. In our example above, the potential desktop capacity problem would have been revealed if we had done an evaluation of the production (or real-world) environment. When you are ready for implementation, the production infrastructure needs to be in place. Coordinate with the organizations involved in implementation. This may be as simple as communicating to your client community. However, few solutions today can be implemented without involving a number of organizations. Many of these groups might actually have a role in getting the solution successfully deployed. Part of the implementation work is to coordinate the work of any other groups that have a role to play. Implement training/Capacity building. Many solutions require users to attend training or more informal coaching sessions. This type of training could be completed in advance, but the further out the training is held, the less information will be retained when implementation rolls around. Training that takes place close to the time of
implementation should be made part of the actual implementation plan. Implement the project. This is the piece everyone remembers. Your solution needs to be moved from development to test. If the solution is brand new, this might be finished in a leisurely and thoughtful manner over a period of time. Monitor the Implementation. Usually the project team will spend some period of
time monitoring the implemented solution. If there are problems that come up immediately after implementation, the project team should address and fix them.

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PROJECT PLANNING

TOPIC 7: PROJECT PLANNING

Sub-Topics
Meaning of Project Planning
Importance of Project Planning
Tools used in Project Planning

MEANING OF PROJECT PLANNING
The project planning phase is where you’ll lay out every detail of the plan from beginning to end. The plan you create here will lead your team through the execution, performance, and closure phases of the project management process. The Project Planning involves:
Scope Management Project
Scope Management refers to the set of processes that ensure a project’s scope is accurately defined and mapped. Scope Management techniques enable project managers and supervisors to allocate the right amount of work necessary to successfully complete a project—concerned primarily with controlling what is and what is not partof the project’s scope.
Quality Management
According to the project quality management definition, it is a process which ensure that all the activities related to project are efficient and effective with respect to the project objectives and project performance. Quality Management in project management includes creating and following policies and procedures in order to ensure that a project meets the defined needs it was intended to meet from the customer’s perspective.
Procurement Management
Procurement management is the project process that includes the processes necessary to get things and services needed for the project to run smoothly and achieve its objectives.
Cost Management
Schedule Management
 Stakeholder Management
 Communications Management
 Resource Management
 Risk Management
IMPORTANCE OF PROJECT PLANNING
 Planning identifies and reduces potential risks
Risk is always lurking in the background, whether at a micro or macro level. What may seem like a minor risk to a task could pose a larger threat later during project execution. Proper planning allows teams to ensure that risks can be mitigated against and that smaller tasks roll-up into milestones that meet with the larger goals of the project, reducing potential risks.
 Reducing project failure rates
Planning is the second phase of project management. This is where you cross the T’s and dot the I’s. It’s where the scope of the project is laid out, where the timeline, costs, deliverables and the details are ironed out. This is where expectations are set and assumptions are identified. Without this vital step, it is almost certain things will fall through the cracks and a project team is bound to miss crucial details, deadlines and eventually deliverables.
 Project planning plays an essential role in helping guide stakeholders, sponsors, teams, and the project manager through other project phases. t provides a shared vision for what the project will accomplish – this common understanding can bind the team together in completing actions that satisfy the project’s goals.
 It gives clarity on the responsibilities of team members and other organizations in contributing to the goals of the project.
 It organizes the work of the project and can be used to prevent extraneous work from crowding out legitimate project activities.
 It can be a very powerful communication mechanism, supplementing verbal
interactions. This is an important written reference for the team, and can also be used with other stakeholders.
 Planning is needed to identify desired goals
TOOLS USED IN PROJECT PLANNING
A Gantt chart, Logic Network, PERT chart, Product Breakdown Structure and Work Breakdown Structure are standard tools used in project planning. What follows is a short definition for each:
Gantt Chart
A Gantt chart is a popular project management bar chart that tracks tasks across time. When first developed in 1917, the Gantt chart did not show the relationships between the tasks. Since then, it has become common to track both time and interdependencies between tasks, which is now its everyday use. Since their first introduction, Gantt charts have become an industry standard. They are an important project management tool used for showing the phases, tasks, milestones and resources needed as part of a project.

Logic Network
A Logic Network indicates the sequence of activities in a project over time. It shows which activity logically precedes or follows another activity. It can be used to identify the milestones and critical path of a project. It will help you understand the dependencies in your project, timescale, and its workflow. Valuable information thatyou may otherwise overlook can be revealed using this technique.
PERT Chart
PERT is a method for analysing the tasks involved in completing a given project, especially the time needed to complete each task and identifying the minimum time required to complete the total project.
Product Breakdown Structure (PBS)
In project management, a Product Breakdown Structure (PBS) is an exhaustive, hierarchical tree structure of components that make up a project deliverable, arranged in whole-part relationship. A PBS can help clarify what is to be delivered by the project and can contribute to
building a work breakdown structure. A Work Breakdown Structure is a hierarchical decomposition of the deliverables needed to complete a project. It breaks the deliverables down into manageable work packages that can be scheduled, costed and have people assigned to them. A Work Breakdown Structure is a standard project management tool and the basis for much project planning.

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Project Selection

TOPIC 5: PROJECT SELECTION

Sub-Topics
Criteria of Project Selection
Factors to Consider when Selection Projects
Tools and Techniques of Project Selection

CRITERIA OF PROJECT SELECTION
Project selection is the process of accessing each project idea and enumerating the project with highest priority. It’s a careful study of proposed project, focusing on each project in detail and choosing one of them for further considerations. Criteria for selecting a new project.
a. Needs priotization – This seeks to answer the question, ” Which needs have received the highest potential for impact”
b.External Impact Consideration – This seeks to answer the question “Who else is working in that area of intervention, what are their programme strength and activities, which complement the efforts of your projects. It also seeks to identify the compatibility of the project with other long term projects of the organisation as well as national and international development agenda ”
c. Appropriateness – This seeks to answer the question “Is the project acceptable to the target population and key stake holders groups. (i.e.) would a reproductive health programme be consistent and appropriate with religious and cultural norms.
d. Institutional Capacity – This seeks to answer whether the organisation has the strength and capacity of implementing a project.
e. Resource Availability – This seeks to answer the following question , ” is therepotential for growth , What opportunities exist to leverage resources.
f .Financial Feasibility – It is the rate of return for investment acceptable
g.Technical Feasibility and Sustainability – Can the project be realistically accomplished sustained and maintained
h.Internal Programme Consideration – This seeks to answer the question,” What are the strategic priorities of the organisation in the country /globally, and what priority does the organisation have regarding to the organisation beneficiaries. Criteria for selecting appropriate project selection models.
Realism – It dictates that an effective model must reflect organizational objectives. It must be reasonable in the light of constants such as finance and human resources as well as as taking into account commercial and technical risks.
Capability – This means the model should be flexible to accommodate changes under which the projects is being carried out.
Flexibility – The model should be easily modifiable, that is allow adjustments (i.e) in exchange rates, building cords, etc.
Ease of Use – The models should be simple enough to be used by people of all areas of the organisation. It should be timely and people should be able to assimilate information without training /special skills .
Cost – It should be cost effective that is the cost of obtaining selection information and results should be low enough
Comparability – The models should be broad enough for multiple projects. Should be easy to store and gather information in the computer database and manipulate the data in the model through available computer packages.
FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN SELECTION PROJECTS
1. Compatibility of the project with other long term plans – The projects should fit in the mandate of the organisation and the other development plans .
2. Influence of government regulations and control – Projects should meet government regulations so as not to contravene the law
3. Sustainability and social welfare
4. Possibility of licensing and knowhow
5. Competitive advantage in case of profit making projects
6. Compatibility of traditional and custom of any kind of religion
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF PROJECT SELECTION
1.Non Numeric Project Selection Models
These are relatively subjective models that do not involve numbers.
They do not use number as input.
They don’t involve either the use of past or future data.
These models include:
 Sacred cow
 Operating necessity
 Competitive necessity methods
 Democracy/Participatory methods
 Urgency criteria
Sacred cow
 In this model, project ideas are guaranteed by powerful individuals in the community regardless of other people opinion.
 Such powerful sources could be; the president, politician, the merchant.
 Projects selected this way enjoy maximum support and stand a high chance of a successful completion. However, they may not be viable and sustainable in the long run due to lack of support from the community.
Operating necessity
 These are projects that simply keep the system going e.g. online search system, disaster response system and introduction of new production project for example BVR Competitive necessity
They are projects selected where it is deemed it will have competitive edge over the others offering similar services and goods such as Replacing, old show machines which are inefficient ones (i.e.) E- banking services, E- registrations etc.
Product line Extension
This projects are meant to fill in a gap that currently exist. They fit in the organisation product line, strengthens a weak link and fills the gap e.g, a mobile phone with a camera , radio and tracking device
Comparative Benefit Model
These happens when there are many possible projects which are not easily comparable in terms of benefit. Selection is based on benefit even though there may not be define the measure of benefit.
Democracy /Participatory Method
These are projects that are selected on the basis of the majority view. Such methods include: PRA, PUA .Voting may only be involved.
Urgency criteria. The urgency depends on the particular power of the proposer since the project is given
priority solution given /depending on the level of urgency.
2. Numeric Project selection Method
These are models which rely on numbers therefore undertake computations
They are:
Payback period
Average rate of return
Net Present Value
Probability Index
Internal Rate of return
Payback period
Payback period in capital budgeting refers to the time required to recoup the funds expended in an investment, or to reach the break-even point. For example, a $1000 investment made at the start of year 1 which returned $500 at the end of year 1 and year
2 respectively would have a two-year payback period.
Average rate of return
The Average Rate of Return or ARR, measures the profitability of the investments on the basis of the information taken from the financial statements rather than the cash flows. It is also called as Accounting Rate of Return
Net Present Value
Net Present Value (NPV) is the value of all future cash flows (positive and negative) over the entire life of an investment discounted to the present. NPV analysis is a form of intrinsic valuation and is used extensively across finance and accounting for determining the value of a business, investment security, capital project, new venture, cost reduction program, and anything that involves cash flow.
Probability Index
Profitability Index is a capital budgeting tool used to rank projects based on their profitability. It is calculated by dividing the present value of all cash inflows by the initial investment. Projects with higher profitability index are better.
Internal Rate of Return
The internal rate of return is a metric used in financial analysis to estimate the profitability of potential investments. The internal rate of return is a discount rate that makes the net present value (NPV) of all cash flows equal to zero in a discounted cashflow analysis. IRR calculations rely on the same formula as NPV does.

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Project Identification

TOPIC 4: PROJECT IDENTIFICATION

Sub-Topics
1. Meaning of Project Identification
2. Sources of Project Ideas
3. Methods used in Project Identification
4. Steps in Project Identification
5. Establishing Terms of Reference
6. Importance of Feasibility Studies
7. Challenges in Project Identification

MEANING OF PROJECT IDENTIFICATION
Project Identification is a repeatable process for documenting, validating, ranking and approving candidate projects within an organization.
Purpose of Project Identification
Due to the changing financial conditions within the total organization, it is necessary to establish a stable process for approving projects for initiation. This process will…
 Validate the business reason for each candidate project.
 Provide the base information for more informed financial commitments to projects.
 Establish a more objective ranking of candidate projects.
 Allow a more effective matching of skilled resources to the right project.
 Avoid over-allocating limited skilled resources.
 Anticipate future human resource quantities and skills.
 Provide a valid basis for staff training.
 Make Project Initiation faster and more efficient.
Because priorities, finances and resources may change at any time, it is critical that this process be well-defined and easy to follow. It is also important that its value is understood and supported by corporate leaders and the business organization.
Problem Identification
 Problem identification is a very crucial process in the early stages of project development and this is what forms the process of project justification rationale, that is; core of the project existence and definition.
 Problem identification refers to the process of assessing the problems encountered by a people locally, nationally, regionally and globally.
 Projects grow out of problems and therefore the identification of problems is about function finding the issues that affect people/uniting them to maximally. All these issues, when summed up become the problem statement of the project.
 The problem statement specifies the problem at hand that needs to be solved, the ideas to solve the problem and all aspects to beconsidered in solving the problem.
Therefore, the problem to be the solved becomes the objective of the project.
SOURCES OF PROJECT IDEAS
 Reviewing of suggestions and recommendations by development agencies, investors and their partners.
 Assessing the status of local resource utilization with the objective of establishing the gap to be filled.
 Analyzing the performance of existing industries in terms of capacity and profitability.
 Study of government plans, outlaws and guidelines. This have indicators of demand and short forms where one can take advantage.
 Study of emerging trends e.g. increasing population, decrease in land or sites, decrease in soil fertility.
 Analyzing of social and economic trend e.g. high cost of living has led to all parents engaging in full time and long hours of working.
 Exploring the availability of restored investments i.e. revival of stored supermarkets such as Uchumi , stored processing i.e. Mumias
 Identification of unfulfilled psychological needs.
 Ideas from attending trade fairs.
 Examining new technology or research finding for new exploitation e.g M-pesa.
 Natural calamities.
 Development plan priorities in national and regional development plans.
 Changing trends in the current status e.g. unemployed youth.
 Local market demand in oversees market.
METHODS USED IN PROJECT IDENTIFICATION
Main approaches to project identification are:
(i)The top down approach
(ii)The bottom up approach
(iii)The need problem and trend pattern approach (NPT)
Top Down Approach
 The top down approach focuses on the negative characteristics of a community and demoralizes the product beneficiaries.
 It is commonly adopted by donors and senior managers because they think thetarget beneficiaries do not understand their problems /the donor and senior managershave their interests to serve.
 Projects are identified based on demand beyond the community. Such sources may be directives including, but not limited to:
(i)International conventions such as Kyoto Protocol/Climate Change
(ii)International institutions/NGOs that have determined particular priorities
(iii)Global regional and national policy makers e.g. sustainable development goals
Advantages of the top down approach
(i)It is a source of employment, through partnerships with local suppliers
(ii)It is appropriate for rapid response to disasters e.g. war, floods, outbreaks
(iii)It is effective in providing common service to education, health, water and transport.
(iv)It is appropriate in contributing to wider nationals/international objectives and
goals and therefore has a widespread benefit.
(v)It is appropriate for sharing trans boundary resources.
Disadvantages of the top down approach
(i)It does not help in modifying strongly established ideas and beliefs of the target beneficiaries.
(ii)It assumes external individuals know better than beneficiaries which is not true.
Communities know their problem even though they do not have a solution.
(iii)Communities have little to say in planning process rendering the process devoid of human resource development.
(iv)It forms a strong basis for community dependency syndrome on outside assistance not exploiting their own potential.
(v)It leads to low community morale and causes
(vi)It can lead to migration to where the jobs are leading to a high population, therefore causing high unemployment, social vice, crime,early pregnancy, violence etc.
Tools and techniques in top down approach
(i)The household (social economic survey)
 Here in Kenya, the household survey is conducted majorly by Kenya NationalBureau of Statistics (KNBS). It is also conducted by the Kenya Institute for Public
Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA).
 This involves studies of the social economic statistics of an economic area e.g. climate, economic activities ,education system ,culture ,physical infrastructure .It involves use of questionnaires ,interviews ,documentation and direct observation.
(ii)Rapid Appraisal
 Rapid rural appraisal is carried out in rural areas whereas rapid urban appraisal is carried out in rapid urban areas.
 This involves collection and assessment of data quickly, so as to acquire information in the shortest time possible and at a low cost.
 It is called rapid because the investigation and assessment of projects are done at the same time.
 The data techniques are analysis of secondary data, interviews and direct
observation.
(iii)Needs Assessment Survey
This is also called SITAN, which is Situational Analysis. It involves fact finding about problems/needs in a given area/community finding out what is given out in a given area. This is done so as to identify the solution.
Bottom Up Approval
 In this approach, communities/beneficiaries are encouraged to identify and plan theproject themselves with/without outsiders. This focuses on the strengths and resourceswithin the community.
 It gives the community an opportunity to strategically design, progressive and transformative development programs that respond to the needs, situation and perception of the people.
 Every individual/ community, regardless of their location have opportunities, strengths, weaknesses and threats.
 Unfortunately, leaders and individuals in developing countries have led their people and themselves towards the scarcity mentality. This has made many people not to see the great opportunities and strengths granted to them by God the creator. Every community has capital that can contribute to the community’s progressive and transformative development. Example:
(i)Natural capital (natural ecosystem/resources) trees, water etc.
(ii)Physical capital such as property, equipment and plans.
(iii)Economic capital i.e. market value of assets and liabilities
(iv)Human capital i.e. competence, knowledge, skills, physical health, talent
(v)Social capital (relationships, cooperation, network of influence and support)
(vi)Cultural capital (education, religion, heritage)
Advantages of bottom up approach
(i)It is appropriate for accomplishing interventions with limited resources.
(ii)It allows for better management of resources since people will tend to safeguard
what belongs to them/what they have provided.
(iii)It is an appropriate approach for building the capacity of the people to identify their
problems and needs and seek possible solutions.
(iv)It allows peoples participation in solution formulation therefore, providing opportunities to educating people.
(v)It helps people to work as a team making the project progressive and sustainable. Short comings/Disadvantages of bottom up approach
(i)It is not effective for projects that require urgency to implement.
(ii)It is based on the principle of democracy therefore time consuming.
(iii)It provides basis for holding people accountable therefore causes people to dislike
the approach because they don’t want to take responsibility for action.
(iv)The agency using the approach is never in control and cannot guarantee the results it wants since it is not in full control.
(v)The priorities of the community may not fit with that of the national and international priorities that seek to have a broader effect.
Tools used for bottom up approach
(i)Animation
It’s the process of stimulating people to become more aware of conscience they suffer from. This method gives people confidence in their ability to deal with problems and make them better prepared to overcome its problems and be aware to take full
responsibility. The animation is carried out by animators. They can be internal/external.
(ii)Facilitation/Community action
This is an attempt to assist people to get over problems by equipping them with skills, providing information e.g. market information, linking them up with relevant agencies and organizations to improve access to needed resources.
(iii)Participatory appraisal (PRA / PUA)
Participatory appraisal is an approach of many methods carried out with local communities identifying and selecting project participatory.
STEPS IN PROJECT IDENTIFICATION
CERTIFY BUSINESS CASE
Document Business Case: Evaluate all Candidate Project Information that has been provided by the requesting organization or that has been gathered by a technical analyst. If additional information is needed, issue an Information Request to the requester. Format this information into a Business Case. Assign the Candidate Project a new
Project Code.
Review Business Case: The Business Case will be examined by an screening body with the corporate authority to accept or reject a Candidate Project. When a Business Case is accepted, the Candidate Project is captured in a repository for ranking and selection. If additional information is required on a Business Case, note it as “pending” and issue an Information Request to the requester. If a Business Case is rejected, send the information to the requester with an explanation for the rejection. Remain this
information in a repository. Update Business Case: When additional information is received on a Candidate
Project, obtain the pending Business Case from the repository and revise the data. This Business Case should now be reconsidered by process Rank Candidate Projects: When requested, all Candidate Projects that are in the repository should be objectively ranked in order of significance. The ranking criteria should include…
 Target due dates
 Impact on the total business
 Impact on the technology architecture
 Impact on other applications
 Project size, cost and duration
 Project risk
It will be helpful to rank projects against each of these criteria separately and then compile a single ranking that weights each of these criteria against each other. This ranking process is typically used to feed quarterly budget decisions but may be requested at any time. Evaluate Resources: An updated Skills Inventory should be maintained for all corporate (Business Unit and Information Technology Department) resources that are available for project assignment. Additionally, an inventory of available contract resources should also be captured. The purpose of this Skills Inventory is to understand the true capabilities and capacities of these resources.
Determine Resource Needs: By evaluating the Skills Inventory and the Candidate Project repository, this process will identify anticipated requirements for quantities and capabilities of future resources. This information will provide…
 The identification of critical training needs
 A basis for employment opportunities
 Criteria for contract personal
This process should be reviewed on a regular basis by Resource Managers within the organization and can be used for staff career counselling.
Approve Project
ESTABLISHING TERMS OF REFERENCE
Terms of Reference is a document that explains the objectives, scope of work, activities, tasks to be performed, respective responsibilities of the Employer and the Consultant, and expected results and deliverables of the Assignment/job.
The constituents of TOR
I. Background -describes the project in the context. States the general note stakeholders in doing project. Background provides an overview of history behind the project
II. Objectives -these are the desired accomplishments that can be reasonably desired upon the project completion with consumption of available resources and within an expected timeframe
III. Scope\ issues – project involves a number of issues and problematic areas that need to be addressed in order for the project to be implemented smoothly General issue evaluation criteria for projects
a. Efficiency – how well the given activity transforms available resources t desired outputs.
b. Reference – analyze if a given activity is being performed to desired benefits.
c. Impact – extent to which the projects benefits received by the target audience.
d. Sustainability – criterion identifies whether the project positive outcomes will continue after funding ends.
e. Methodology – how to carry out the project I a cost effective way
f. Expertise – the expertise needed for doing a project defines a set of professional requirements for the individual and terms involved in project implementation.
g. Reporting – reporting provides valid information about a project performance over a certain period.
h. Work plan – is a kind of strategy that aims to help solve problems through a project and boost employee drive and focus.
IMPORTANCE OF FEASIBILITY STUDIES
A feasibility study is an analysis that takes all of a project’s relevant factors into account—including economic, technical, legal, and scheduling considerations—to ascertain the likelihood of completing the project successfully
Areas of Feasibility Study A feasibility analysis evaluates the project’s potential for success; therefore, perceived objectivity is an essential factor in the credibility of the study for potential investors and lending institutions. There are five areas of feasibility study—separate areas that a feasibility study examines, described below.
1. Technical Feasibility
This assessment focuses on the technical resources available to the organization. It helps organizations determine whether the technical resources meet capacity and whether the technical team is capable of converting the ideas into working systems. Technical feasibility also involves the evaluation of the hardware, software, and other technical requirements of the proposed system. As an exaggerated example, an organization wouldn’t want to try to put Star Trek’s transporters in their building—currently, this project is not technically feasible.
2. Economic Feasibility
This assessment typically involves a cost/ benefits analysis of the project, helping organizations determine the viability, cost, and benefits associated with a project before financial resources are allocated. It also serves as an independent project assessment and enhances project credibility—helping decision-makers determine the positive economic benefits to the organization that the proposed project will provide.
3. Legal Feasibility
This assessment investigates whether any aspect of the proposed project conflicts with legal requirements like zoning laws, data protection acts or social media laws. Let’s say an organization wants to construct a new office building in a specific location. A feasibility study might reveal the organization’s ideal location isn’t zoned for that type of business. That organization has just saved considerable time and effort by learning that their project was not feasible right from the beginning.
4. Operational Feasibility
This assessment involves undertaking a study to analyze and determine whether—and how well—the organization’s needs can be met by completing the project. Operational feasibility studies also examine how a project plan satisfies the requirements identified in the requirements analysis phase of system development.
5. Scheduling Feasibility
This assessment is the most important for project success; after all, a project will fail if not completed on time. In scheduling feasibility, an organization estimates how much time the project will take to complete. When these areas have all been examined, the feasibility analysis helps identify any constraints the proposed project may face, including:
 Internal Project Constraints: Technical, Technology, Budget, Resource, etc.
 Internal Corporate Constraints: Financial, Marketing, Export, etc.
 External Constraints: Logistics, Environment, Laws, and Regulations, etc.
The importance of a feasibility study This based on organizational desire to “get it right” before committing resources, time, or budget. A feasibility study might uncover new ideas that could completely change a project’s scope. It’s best to make these determinations in advance, rather than to jump in and to learn that the project won’t work. Conducting a feasibility study is always beneficial to the project as it gives you and other stakeholders a clear picture of the proposed project.
Key benefits of conducting a Feasibility Study:
 Improves project teams’ focus
 Identifies new opportunities
 Provides valuable information for a “go/no-go” decision
 Narrows the business alternatives
 Identifies a valid reason to undertake the project
 Enhances the success rate by evaluating multiple parameters
 Aids decision-making on the project
 Identifies reasons not to proceed
CHALLENGES IN PROJECT IDENTIFICATION
Inadequate Technology Infrastructure. Technology is essential in project identification as it could be useful in mining of data.
Inadequate data. Data involves decision surveys carried out on social economic indicators depict the strategic issues of society and the world at large. The information processed from the data is necessary for identifying gaps. Unfortunately, many organizations don’t manage data and it’s barely available. Corruption. Many people given an opportunity would serve their own interests than the interests of others or community at large therefore, this makes project identification subjective and ends up not serving the needs of the people.
Lack of innovation. Innovation is the capacity to think outside the box and provide solutions to problems. Apparently, many people are problem identifiers but not solution providers. Education systems have failed in their role of creating an innovative learning environment but only otherwise feeds theory into the mind.
Lack of technical capacity. Capacity is required in screening ideas to come up with viable one. Such capacity is for example research and development.
Competition. The ever changing environment has necessitated competition in the market place as everybody is trying to pace up technology.

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Project life cycle

TOPIC 3: PROJECT LIFE CYCLE

Sub-Topics
1. Meaning of Project Life Cycle
2. Stages of Project Life Cycle

MEANING OF PROJECT LIFE CYCLE
A project life cycle is the sequence of phases that a project goes through from its initiation to its closure. In an adaptive life cycle, the product is developed over multiple iterations, and detailed scope is defined for iteration only as the iteration begins.
STAGES OF PROJECT LIFE CYCLE
Phase 1: Project Initiation
This is the start of the project, and the goal of this phase is to define the project at a broad level. This phase usually begins with a business case. This is when you will research whether the project is feasible and if it should be undertaken. If feasibility testing needs to be done, this is the stage of the project in which that will be completed. Important stakeholders will do their due diligence to help decide if the project is a “go.” If it is given the green light, you will need to create a Project Charter or a project  Initiation Document (PID) that outlines the purpose and requirements of the project. It should include business needs, stakeholders, and the business case.
The activities in initiation are:
Project conception
At this stage an idea regarding a required intervention in a specific area to address and identify problems is formed or developed through discussion with specialized leaders, peers and is catalyzed into a proposal.
The projects can therefore be conceived based on market demands, resource availability, technology, natural calamities. Project Identification
This stage refers to the process where all potential projects arising from ideas crystalize in the first stage are determined
An individual or an organisation capable of identifying the most viable projects can be engaged in order to support , to realize the expectation of the idea holder
The idea holder can submit the information in form of a proposal
This proposal is usually general and descriptive
A feasibility test is conducted
Project preparation
This stage involves a more thorough exercise of collecting data and information of the proposed project.
At this stage of the cycle the objective of the project is defined and alternative solutions described
The project preparation contains the design of operational proposal which is technically, financially, and economically visible.
The decision is made on the scope of the project as well as the location and size.
Project Appraisal
It involves a further analysis of the proposed project
At this stage a critical review of the project is undertaken
This systematic and comprehensive review is usually undertaken by an independent team of experts in consultation with the stakeholders of the project
This provides an opportunity to re-examine every aspect of the project plan to assess whether the proposal is justified before realizing money
The approach may change the project plan to a new one
Project Selection
After appraisal a viable or suitable proposal is chosen for implementation
Various project selection models both numeric and non-numeric are employed in project selection
The criteria for selection is pre-determined
Project Negotiation and Financing
Once the project to be implemented is agreed on, resources are mobilized
For donor funded projects discussions are held on funding and associated aspects of funding such as conditionality for grants, repayment periods and interest rates if loans are borrowed.
They must also discuss the flow of funds, contributions from stake holders and beneficiaries and if there is any co-financing
This results in an agreement document of the project that binds all parties involved during the implementation of a project
(PAD-Project Appraisal Document , POM- Project Operational Manual )
Phase 2: Project Planning
This phase is key to successful project management and focuses on developing a roadmap that everyone will follow. This phase typically begins with setting goals. Two of S.M.A.R.T. Goals – This method helps ensure that the goals have been thoroughly vetted. It also provides a way to clearly understand the implications of the goal-setting process.
S.M.A.R.T. Goals
Specific – To set specific goals, answer the following questions: who, what, where, when, which, and why.
Measurable – Create criteria that you can use to measure the success of a goal.
Attainable – Identify the most important goals and what it will take to achieve them.
Realistic – You should be willing and able to work toward a particular goal.
Timely – Create a timeframe to achieve the goal.
C.L.E.A.R. Goals – A newer method for setting goals that takes into consideration the environment of today’s fast-paced businesses.
Collaborative – The goal should encourage employees to work together.
Limited – They should be limited in scope and time to keep it manageable.
Emotional – Goals should tap into the passion of employees and be something they can
form an emotional connection to. This can optimize the quality of work.
Appreciable – Break larger goals into smaller tasks that can be quickly achieved.
Refinable – As new situations arise, be flexible and refine goals as needed.
During this phase, the Scope of the Project is defined and a Project Management Plan is developed. It involves identifying the cost, quality, available resources, and a realistic timetable. The project plans also includes establishing baselines or performance measures. These are generated using the scope, schedule and cost of a project. A Baseline is essential to determine if a project is on track.
At this time, roles and responsibilities are clearly defined, so everyone involved knows what they are accountable for. Here are some of the documents a PM will create during this phase to ensure the project will stay on track:
 Scope Statement – A document that clearly defines the business need, benefits of the project, objectives, deliverables, and key milestones. A scope statementmmay change during the project, but it shouldn’t be done without the approval ofmthe project manager and the sponsor.
 Work Breakdown Schedule (WBS) –This is a visual representation that breaks down the scope of the project into manageable sections for the team.
 Milestones – Identify high-level goals that need to be met throughout the project and include them in the Gantt chart.
 Gantt Chart – A visual timeline that you can use to plan out tasks and visualize your project timeline.
 Communication Plan – This is of particular importance if your projectinvolves outside stakeholders. Develop the proper messaging around the project and create a schedule of when to communicate with team members based on deliverables and milestones.
 Risk Management Plan – Identify all foreseeable risks. Common risks include unrealistic time and cost estimates, customer review cycle, budget cuts, changing requirements, and lack of committed resources.
Phase 3: Project Execution
This is the phase where deliverables are developed and completed. This often feels like the meat of the project since a lot is happening during this time, like status reports and meetings, development updates, and performance reports. A “kick-off” meeting usually marks the start of the Project Execution phase where the teams involved are informed of their responsibilities.
Tasks completed during the Execution Phase include:
a. Develop team
b. Assign resources
c. Execute project management plans
d. Procurement management if needed
e. PM directs and manages project execution
f. Set up tracking systems
g. Task assignments are executed
h. Status meetings
i. Update project schedule
j. Modify project plans as needed
Phase 4: Project Performance/Monitoring
This is all about measuring project progression and performance and ensuring that everything happening aligns with the project management plan. Project managers will use key performance indicators (KPIs) to determine if the project is on track. A PM will typically pick two to five of these KPIs to measure project performance:
 Project Objectives: Measuring if a project is on schedule and budget is an indication if the project will meet stakeholder objectives.
 Quality Deliverables: This determines if specific task deliverables are being met.
 Effort and Cost Tracking: PMs will account for the effort and cost of resources to see if the budget is on track. This type of tracking informs if a project will meet its completion date based on current performance.
 Project Performance: This monitors changes in the project. It takes into consideration the amount and types of issues that arise and how quickly they are addressed. These can occur from unforeseen hurdles and scope changes. During this time, PMs may need to adjust schedules and resources to ensure the project is on track
Phase 5: Project Closure
This phase represents the completed project. Contractors hired to work specifically on the project are terminated at this time. Valuable team members are recognized. Some PMs even organize small work events for people who participated in the project to thank them for their efforts. Once a project is complete, a PM will often hold a meeting
– sometimes referred to as a “post mortem” – to evaluate what went well in a project and identify project failures. This is especially helpful to understand lessons learned so that improvements can be made for future projects. Once the project is complete, PMs still have a few tasks to complete. They will need to create a project punch list of things that didn’t get accomplished during the project and work with team members to complete them. Perform a final project budget and prepare a final project report. Finally, they will need to collect all project documents and deliverables and store them in a single place.

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Evolution of Project Management

TOPIC 2: EVOLUTION OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Sub-Topics
1. History of Project Management
2. Project Management versus Functional Management
3. Factors that determine the Success of a Project
4. Challenges that may be faced in Project Management

HISTORY OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Using management tools and techniques. After all, without some form of planning, organization and communication strategy, nothing can be effectively accomplished. However, the discipline that we now think of as project management was first formalized in the 1950s Way back in BC 2500… Pyramids of Egyptians… (Were organized as projects, but without any management philosophy.
 1911 Taylorism/Scientific Management: Henry L Gantt invents the Gantt scheme
 Karol Adamiecki creates the first network diagram, the so called Harmonogram
 1942-45: The Manhattan project (USA). The project began modestly in 1939, but grew to employ more than 130,000 people and cost nearly US$2 billion
 1950ies: Operations analysis, RAND Corporation
 1957: The Sputnik shock, initiating the Polaris project The Polaris project: The Polaris missile was nuclear armed submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) built during the Cold War by Lockheed Corporation of California for the United  States Navy. Many new project management techniques were introduced during the development of the Polaris missile program, to deal with the inherent system complexity. This includes the use of the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT). This technique replaced the simpler Gantt chart methodology which was largely employed prior to this program.
 1956-59: CPM (Critical Path Method) is created at DuPont, independent of
PERT.
 1959: The concept of ‘project manager” is coined in Harvard Business Review.
 1960…s: Great interest in matrix organizations
 1967: INTERNET and PMI is established
 1980ies: Increasing interest in organizational and project management issues in projects. The project philosophy spreads to other fields, to smaller activities and to internal activities.
 1987: PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge) presents its first ever certified project management concept by PMI in the form of so called PMPs (Project Management Professionals).
 1990ies: Management by projects (the project based company), Agile project Management
 2000s: Portfolio Management Techniques. Project Portfolio Management (PPM) is the centralized management of processes,
methods, and technologies used by project managers and project management offices (PMOs) to analyze and collectively manage current or proposed projects based on numerous key characteristics. The objectives of PPM are to determine the optimal resource mix for delivery and to schedule activities to best achieve an organization’s operational and financial goals ―while honouring constraints imposed by customers, strategic objectives, or external real-world factors. Four Periods in the Development of Modern Project Management
1.Prior to 1958: Craft system to human relations. During this time, the evolution of technology, such as, automobiles and telecommunications shortened the project schedule. For instance, automobiles allowed effective resource allocation and mobility,
whilst the telecommunication system increased the speed of communication. Furthermore, the job specification which later became the basis of developing the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) was widely used and Henry Gantt invented the Gantt chart. Examples of projects undertaken during this period as supported by documented evidence include: (a) Building the Pacific Railroad in 1850s; (b) Construction of the Hoover Dam in 1931-1936, that employed approximately 5,200 workers and is still one of the highest gravity dams in the U.S. generating about four billion kilowatt hours a year; and (c) The Manhattan Project in 1942-1945 that was the pioneer research and development project for producing the atomic bomb, involving 125,000 workers and costing nearly $2 billion.
2. 1958-1979: Application of Management Science. Significant technology advancement took place between 1958 and 1979, such as, the first automati plain-paper copier by Xerox in 1959. Between 1956 and 1958 several core project management tools including CPM and PERT were introduced. However, this period was characterised by the rapid development of computer technology. The progression
from the mainframe to the mini-computer in the 1970s made computers affordable to medium size companies. In 1975, Bill Gates and Paul Allen founded Microsoft. Furthermore, the evolution of computer technology facilitated the emergence of several project management software companies, including, Artemis (1977), Oracle (1977), and Scitor Corporation (1979). In the 1970s other project management tools such as Material Requirements Planning (MRP) were also introduced. Examples of projects undertaken during this period and which influenced the development of modem project management as we know it today include: (a) Polaris missile project initiated in 1956 that had the objective of delivering nuclear missiles carried by submarines, known as Fleet Ballistic Missile for the U.S Navy. The project
successfully launched its first Polaris missile in 1961; (b) Apollo project initiated in 1960  with the objective of sending man to the moon; and (c) E.I du Pont de Nemours chemical plant project commencing in 1958, that had the objective of building major chemical production plants across the U.S.
3. 1980-1994: Production Centre Human Resources. The 1980s and 1990s arecharacterised by the revolutionary development in the information management sector with the introduction of the personal computer (PC) and associated computer communications networking facilities. This development resulted in having low cost multitasking PCs that had high efficiency in managing and controlling complex project schedules. During this period low cost project management software for PCs became widely available that made project management techniques more easily accessible. Examples of major projects undertaken during this period that illustrate the application of high technology, and project management tools and practices include: (a) England France Channel project, 1989 to1991. This project was an international project that involved two governments, several financial institutions, engineering construction companies, and other various organisations from the two countries. The language, use of standard metrics, and other communication differences needed to be closely coordinated; (b) Space Shuttle Challenger project, 1983 to 1986. The disaster of the Challenger space shuttle focused attention on risk management, group dynamics, and quality management; and (c) xv Calgary Winter Olympic of 1988, which successfully applied project management practices to event management. 4.1995-Present: Creating a New Environment. This period is dominated by the
developments related to the Internet that changed dramatically business practices in the mid 1990s. The Internet has provided fast, interactive, and customised new medium that allows people to browse, purchase, and track products and services online instantly. This has resulted in making firms more productive, more efficient, and more client oriented. Furthermore, many of today’s project management software have an Internet connectivity feature. This allows automatic uploading of data so that anyone around the
globe with a standard browser can: (a) input the most recent status of their assigned tasks; (b) find out how the overall project is doing; (c) be informed of any delays or advances in the schedule; and (d) stay “in the loop” for their project role, while working independently at a remote site.
PROJECT MANAGEMENT VERSUS FUNCTIONAL MANAGEMENT
The key difference between project management and functional management is that project management is the process of initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing the work of a project to achieve a specific objective whereas functional
management is managing the routing activities in the organization relating to various functions such as production, sales, and marketing, finance etc. in order to achieve the overall objective of the organization. Managing functional tasks are done from the inception to the end of a business organization. On the other hand, projects are carried out based on a specific need.
What is Project Management?
A project is a collection of tasks to be executed over a specific period of time to achieve a particular objective. It is a unique exercise that will be terminated following the achievement of the project objective. Project management is the process of initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing the work of a project to achieve a pre-determined objective. Project management institute (PMI) defines project management as “the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to a broad range of activities in order to meet the requirements of a particular project”. What is Functional Management? Functional management refers to managing the routing activities in the organization relating to various functions such as production, sales, and marketing, finance etc. Functional managers have ongoing responsibilities and are not usually directly associated with project teams. The main task of functional managers is to ensure that
the daily business activities are conducted smoothly, which in turn will assist in realizing the overall corporate objectives.
Duties of a Functional Manager
 Share professional suggestion and knowledge with the employees
 Allocate resources efficiently by identifying the resource priorities
 Provide employees with learning opportunities
 Identify cost inefficiencies and address them to improve efficiency

FACTORS THAT DETERMINE THE SUCCESS OF A PROJECT
1. Planning
Comprehensive planning sets up a project for success from the start. All stakeholders should be on board during the planning process and always know in which direction the project is going to go. Planning can help the team to meet deadlines and stay organized.
Good planning not only keeps the project team focused and on track, but also keeps stakeholders aware of project progress.
2. Open Communication
Keeping open communication within the team is absolutely essential. When working under a specific timetable, it is important that the team remains well-informed. If a problem arises on one part of a project, it can negatively impact other parts as well.
Communication is the best way to prevent problems from occurring. Communication should also be focused internally within the organization. Keeping an organizational history of major projects will give convenient access to improved policies and business processes. If this isn’t done, then a team may repeat mistakes that have already occurred. Listening to stakeholders and paying attention is a very important ingredient for success.
3. Careful Risk Management
Project managers know that things rarely go off exactly as planned. During the planning process, it is vital to produce a risk log with an action plan for the risks that the project could face. Make sure all key stakeholders are aware of your risk log and know where they can find it. If something happens, then the team can quickly resolve the issue with the management plan that has already been set in place. This will give the team confidence when facing project risks and help the clients feel comfortable with the project’s progression. Having a central online database of project information is vital to ensure you don’t lose crucial project momentum during the project, but also in the event of losing key participants you can quickly get your new team members up to speed.
4. Right Team
Without the right team in place, any strategy and plan has the potential of completely falling apart. Because of this, the core project staff, expert resources, suppliers and all stakeholders should be part of the team dynamic. All of those involved must have commitment to the group, share similar visions for the projects and strive for overall success.
5. Controlling
Check on your progress and evaluate results on a regular basis. Define key performance indicators (KPI) and use reports to be able to quickly grasp if the project is on track. If things go sideways you will recognize early on and be able to take countermeasures before bigger damage is done.
6. Experienced project managers
You can learn the theory and methods of project management but in the end success comes with experience. The more experienced a project manager, the more confidence and skill he will have to overcome the challenges of the daily project business.
CHALLENGES THAT MAY BE FACED IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT
1.Undefined Goals – When goals are not clearly identified, the whole project and team can suffer. When upper management cannot agree to or support undefined goals, the project in question typically has little chance of succeeding. The project manager must ask the right questions to establish and communicate clear goals from the outset.
2.Scope Changes – Also known as scope creep, this occurs when project management allows the project’s scope to extend beyond its original objectives. Clients and supervisors may ask for changes to a project, and it takes a strong project manager to evaluate each request and decide how and if to implement it, while communicating the effects on budget and deadlines to all stakeholders.
3.Inadequate Skills for the Project – A project sometimes requires skills that the project’s contributors do not possess. Project management training can help a project leader determine the needed competencies, assess the available workers and recommend training, outsourcing or hiring additional staff.
4.Lack of Accountability – A project manager’s leadership qualities can shine when each member of the team takes responsibility for his or her role in achieving project success. Conversely, a lack of accountability can bring a project to a complete halt. Finger-pointing and avoiding blame are unproductive, but all-too-common features of flawed project management. Learning to direct teams toward a common goal is an important aspect of project management training.
5.Improper Risk Management – Learning to deal with and plan for risk is another important piece of project management training. Risk management is typically a desirable project manager trait because projects rarely go exactly to plan. Gathering input, developing trust and knowing which parts of a project are most likely to veer off course are aspects of the project manager’s job.
6.Ambiguous Contingency Plans – It’s important for project managers to know what direction to take in pre-defined “what-if” scenarios. If contingencies are not identified, the entire project can become mired in an unexpected set of problems.
Asking others to identify potential problem areas can lead to a smooth and successful project.
7.Poor Communication – Project managers provide direction at every step of the project, so each team leader knows what’s expected. Effective communication to everyone involved in the project is crucial to its successful completion.Good project managers keep communication and feedback flowing between upper management and team leaders
8. Impossible Deadlines – A successful project manager knows that repeatedly asking a team for the impossible can quickly result in declining morale and productivity. The odds of successfully completing a project under unreasonable deadlines are generally not feasible expectations.
9. Resource Deprivation – In order for a project to be run efficiently and effectively, management must provide sufficient resources. Project management training shows how to define needs and obtain approval up front, and helps project managers assign and prioritize resources throughout the duration of a project.
10.Lack of Stakeholder Engagement – A disinterested team member, client, CEO or vendor can destroy a project. A skilled project manager communicates openly and encourages feedback at every step to create greater engagement among participants.