TUESDAY: 5 April 2022. Morning paper.                                                                                         Time Allowed: 3 hours.

Answer any FIVE questions. ALL questions carry equal marks. Do NOT write anything on this paper.


1.          With specific reference to the sale of goods law;

Identify three reasons why it is important to determine when property in goods passes.                 (3 marks)

List five remedies available to a buyer in a sale of goods contract.                                                  (5 marks)

2.        Define the meaning of the term “tribunal”.                                                                                       (2 marks)

Describe five types of jurisdiction of Courts in your country.                                                       (10 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1.         In relation to negotiable instruments, discuss five duties of a collecting bank.                                 (5 marks)

Highlight five circumstances under which a partnership might be dissolved by the Court.               (5 marks)

2.         Identify two types of defamation.                                                                                                    (2 marks)

Explain four ingredients to be proved in the defense of fair comment in an action for defamation. (4 marks)

Explain two defenses other than fair comment that are applicable in the tort of defamation.            (4 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1.          Define a “code of ethics”.                                                                                                              (2 marks)

Discuss four ways through which a code of ethics can be enforced in a place work.                     (8 marks)

2.        Outline four ways in which a surety might be discharged from a contract of guarantee.                                  (4 marks)

3.          In relation to the law of property, explain the meaning of the following terms:

Fee simple.                                                                                                                                       (2 marks)

Fee tail.                                                                                                                                            (2 marks)

4.         Describe two ways in which absolute proprietorship is created.                                                                     (2 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1.         Discuss five potential disadvantages of litigation over alternative forms of dispute resolution.                    (10 marks)

2.         Describe five ways in which an offer might be terminated.                                                                           (10 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1.         Outline two types of on-site legal audit processes that might be used during data collection.(2 marks)

Highlight two disadvantages of a legal audit.                                                                                  (4 marks)

Outline four attributes required of a legal auditor.                                                                          (4 marks)

2.        Examine four salient features that define the Supremacy of the Constitution of a country.            (8 marks)

Highlight two ways in which a Kadhis Court might apply Islamic law.                                           (2 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1.        Describe six rights of a principal whose agent makes a secret profit or takes a bribe from a third party with whom he contracts on behalf of the principal.                                                                                                           (6 marks)

2.        Distinguish between “statutory corporations” and “limited companies“.                                                         (6 marks)

3.         With reference to the Law of Insurance:

Outline six basic principles that must be met in insurance.                                                              (6 marks)

Identify two types of marine policies.                                                                                              (2 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1.       With reference to negotiable instruments, explain four parties to a bill of exchange.                                       (8 marks)

2.        With reference to administrative law:

State six principles of natural justice.                                                                                               (6 marks)

Highlight three principles that will guide the Court in determining the presence of bias in the decision of an administrative body.                                                                                                               (6 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)

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