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Solar system is the group of heavenly bodies comprising the sun and the nine planets.

The origin of the Solar System Theories

A theory is a set of reasoned ideas intended to explain facts or events

1. Passing Star Theory

  • A star with a greater gravitational pull passed near the sun
  • It attracted large quantities of gaseous materials from the sun
  • The materials split, cooled and condensed to form planets
  • The planets were set in orbit by the passing star



  • Doesn’t explain the origin of the sun and star.
  • Minimal chance of a star approaching another
  • Materials would disperse than condense

2. Collision Theory

  • Star with greater gravitational pull passed near the sun
  • It attracted large quantities of gaseous materials
  • The materials split into portions
  • Large portions collided with smaller ones and swept them to form planets. The weaknesses are the same as the passing star’s Theory.

3. Nebula Cloud Theory

  • There was a slowly rotating cloud of dust and gas called Nebula
  • It cooled and began to contact
  • Rotation speed increased and successive rings of gaseous materials were formed.
  • The rings condensed to form planets
  • The central gaseous material remained as the sun Evidence
  • Rotation and revolution of planets in anticlockwise direction Weakness

The origin of nebular is not explained.

4. Supernova/explosion Theory

  • There was a violent explosion of a star.
  • A cloud of dust (nebular) remained from the star.
  • There was fast movement of the cloud due to the force of explosion.
  • Rotation speed increased due to gravitational attraction
  • The cloud flattened into a disc.
  • The matter began to accumulate towards the centre to form a proto-sun which later began to shine.
  • The rest of the cloud collapsed to form planets.


  • Doesn’t explain the origin of the star
  • Doesn’t explain the cause of explosion

Composition of the Solar System

1. The Sun

It’s the centre of the universe.


  • It’s a star.

A star is a heavenly possessing its own light which it transmits.

Nebula/galaxy is a cluster of stars.

The earth is in a galaxy called The Milky Way.

  • It’s made of very hot gases mainly hydrogen (70%) and helium (30%).
  • Has a diameter of 1392000km.
  • Surrounded by a layer of gas which has boiled from its surface which is called corona.
  • Rotates on its own axis in anticlockwise direction.
  • Has gravitational pull which holds all the planets in orbit around it.

An orbit is a path which a planet or a satellite follows around a star or a planet.

  • Temperature at its centre is 15m◦c and at the surface is 5500◦c.
  • Radiates solar energy which is very important for all forms of life on the earth.

Planets are large spherical celestial/heavenly bodies in space.

There are 9 planets in our solar system.


  • Spherical in shape
  • Don’t have their own light but reflect it from the sun.
  • Revolve around the sun in anticlockwise direction.
  • Have their own force of gravity
  • Only one is known to support life.

The following are the planets arranged in order from the one nearest to the sun.


  • Nearest from the sun
  • Its 58m km from the sun
  • Has no satellites
  • Takes approximately 88 earth days to revolve around the sun


  • 2nd planet from the sun
  • It’s 108m km from the sun
  • One of the brightest planets
  • Can be seen clearly with naked eyes
  • Takes approximately 225 earth days to revolve around the sun
  • Slightly smaller than the earth
  • Has no satellites
  • Together with the earth they are called twin planets due to having many similarities


  • The 3rd planet from the sun
  • The earth and the heavenly bodies make the universe
  • The only planet that supports life
  • The home of man
  • Approximately 149m km from the sun
  • Takes 365 ¼ days to revolve around the sun
  • Has one satellite, the moon


  • Also called The Red Planet because when it’s observed through a telescope it appears reddish.
  • The 4th from the sun
  • Slightly smaller than the earth
  • Approximately 228m km from the sun
  • Takes 687 earth days to revolve around the sun
  • Between Mass and Jupiter there are small celestial bodies called planetoids.
  • Has no satellite.


  • 5th planet from the sun
  • Approximately 778m km from the sun
  • Largest in the universe
  • Rotates on its own axis at very fast speed
  • Has flattened poles due to its fast speed of rotation
  • Has very thick layers of ice on its surface
  • takes 12 earth years to revolve around the sun
  • Has 16 satellites


  • 6th planet from the sun
  • Second largest planet
  • Approximately 1427m km from the sun
  • Takes 29 ½ earth years to revolve around the sun
  • Has a ring around it
  • Has 18 satellites


  • 7th planet from the sun
  • About 4 times bigger than the earth
  • Approximately 2870m km from the sun
  • Also rotates very fast
  • Also has flattened poles due to fast speed of rotation
  • It appears greenish foe being surrounded by methane gas
  • Has 8 satellites
  • Takes 84 earth years to revolve around the sun


  • One of the farthest from the sun
  • 8th planet from the sun
  • Approximately 4497m km from the sun
  • Has 8 satellites
  • Takes 165 earth years to revolve around the sun
  • Very similar in size, colour and character with Uranus


  • 9th planet from the earth
  • Farthest from the sun
  • The smallest
  • 1/6 the size of the earth
  • Approximately 5900m km from the sun
  • Takes 248 earth years to revolve around the sun
  • Has one satellite
  • Very little is known about it

Other Celestial Bodies Natural Satellites

Any natural heavenly body that orbits around a planet e.g. moon for earth, tritan for Saturn and Triton for Neptune.


  • Also called minor planets.
  • Are small fragments of rocks left going around the sun when the solar system was formed
  • Found between Mass and Jupiter
  • Are 1500 in number
  • They sometimes collide with each other and planets due to Jupiter’s gravitational pull causing them to move in erratic orbits.


  • Heavenly bodies which appear to have a head and a long tail
  • Made of ice, dust and frozen gas
  • The head is made of many particles of dust, rock and frozen gases.  Their tail is made of gases and points away from the sun.
  • Move around the sun in extremely long and oval orbits
  • Their orbits cross the earth’s orbits e.g. Halley’s Comet which appears after every 76 years.


  • Small heavenly body which strays from its orbit in the solar system and enters the earth’s atmosphere at very high speed.


  • A meteoroid which is burning out due to friction after entering the earth’s atmosphere.


  • Remains of a meteoroid which have reached the earth’s surface or incompletely burnt up meteoroid.
  • When they fall they sink into the ground forming craters
  • They are rich in iron

The Moon

  • A natural satellite
  • Receives its light from the sun and reflects it onto the earth.
  • It revolves around the earth
  • Takes 29.5 days to complete one revolution around the earth
  • Its orbit is almost circular
  • As it revolves around the sun it appears in various shapes ranging from crescent/new moon, half moon, gibbons moon and full moon.
  • Has gravitational pull which causes the rising and falling of the ocean level
  • As the moon orbits around the earth it creates an event called eclipse.


Phenomenon occurring when the rays of the sun are blocked from reaching the earth or the moon.

  • The moon comes between the earth and the sun
  • The moon’s shadow is cast on the earth
  • The sun appears to be covered by darkness

Lunar/moon Eclipse

  • The earth comes between the moon and the sun
  • The earths shadow is cast on the moon
  • The moon appears to be covered by darkness

The Origin of the earth

  • A star with a greater gravitational pull passed near the sun
  • It attracted large quantities of gaseous materials from the sun
  • The materials split, cooled and condensed
  • Heavier materials collected at the centre to form the core
  • Less dense materials collected around the core to form the mantle
  • The lightest materials formed the crust

The shape of the earth is called geoid/ovoid/oblate spheroid due to being an imperfect sphere by being wide at the equator and flat at the poles.

Proofs/Evidence That the Earth Is Spherical

  1. If one moves towards the east in a straight line he will end up where he started.
  2. Satellite photographs taken from space show that the earth is like a sphere.
  3. Places in the east see the sun earlier than those in the west.
  4. When a ship is approaching the smoke is seen first, then the mast and finally the whole ship.
  5. All the planets are spherical so the earth being one of them is also spherical.
  6. During the moon eclipse the earth casts a spherical shadow on the moon.
  7. The earth’s horizon appears curved when observed from a very high point like a tower.

The size of the earth

  • Equatorial diameter-12756km
  • Equatorial circumference-40085km
  • Polar diameter-39995km
  • Surface area of the earth-510×106 km2
  • Water surface-73%.

The Movement of the Earth

There are 2 movements of the earth namely:

  1. Rotation of the earth on its axis
  2. Revolution of the earth around the sun

Rotation of the Earth

Movement of the earth on its own axis (imaginary line through the centre from N pole to S pole.

  • Rotates through 360◦.
  • Takes 24 hours (day) to complete 1 rotation.
  • Rotates in an anticlockwise direction (west to east).

Effects of Rotation of the Earth

  1. Creates day and night because at any one time one side of the earth faces the sun (day) and the other remains in darkness (night).
  2. Causes deflection of winds and ocean currents in the N hemisphere to the left and in the S hemisphere to the right.
  3. It causes rising and falling of ocean tides.
  4. Causes time difference between longitudes.
  5. Takes one hour to go through 15◦.
  6. 4 min to go through 1◦.

Calculation of Local Time

The time recorded in places within the same longitude.

A longitude is an imaginary line running from N to S which shows how far E or W a place is from the prime meridian.

Greenwich Meridian (0◦) longitude is the point of reference when calculating time.

Time is gained towards the E and lost towards the W.


  1. Suppose the time at GWM is 12 noon what is the local time at Watamu 40◦E? Time gained=40×4=160min=2 hours 40min Local time at Watamu is 12.00+2.40=14.40-1200=2.40pm. 2. At Dar-es-Salaam 40◦E time is 12pm what is the time at Ecuador 40◦E? 40◦+20◦=60◦

60×4=240min=4hours Ecuador is behind in time =12.00-4=8 am.

If the places are on the same side subtract the degrees to get the difference and add or subtract from the reference time depending on which side the place is.

Calculation of Longitude

What is the longitude of place x whose local time is 8 am when local time at GWM is noon?

Time difference =12.00-8=4 hours


Since x is behind in time its then 60◦W.

Standard Time and Zones

  • Standard time is time recorded by countries within the same time zone.
  • Standard time was come up with due to confusion resulting from time changing at every longitude.
  • The world has 24 time zones.

The International Date Line

It’s the 180◦ longitude.

Effects of Crossing It

  • One gains time when he crosses it from W to E and has to adjust the clock ahead by 24 hours.
  • One loses time when he crosses it from E to W and has to adjust the clock backwards by 24 hours.

Revolution of the Earth

  • Movement of the earth in its orbit around the sun.
  • It’s in anticlockwise direction.
  • The orbit of the earth’s revolution is elliptical.
  • Takes 365 ¼ days in a year or 366 days in a leap year (every 4 years).
  • The sun moves from the tropic of cancer to the equator and then towards tropic of Capricorn and back to the tropic of cancer.
  • 21st march and 23rd September are called equinoxes because the length of day and night is equal. The sun is vertically overhead at noon at the equator.
  • 21st June is called summer solstice because its summer in the N hemisphere.

The sun is vertically overhead at noon at the tropic of cancer.

  • 22nd December is called winter solstice because its winter in the S.

hemisphere. The sun is vertically overhead at noon at noon at the tropic of Capricorn.

  • Solstice is the period of maximum tilting of the earth towards the sun.

Effects of the Revolution of the earth

  1. Causes the four seasons summer, autumn, winter and spring due to the movement of overhead sun causing changes in the heat belt.
  2. Causes variation of day and night’s lengths due to the earth’s axis being inclined to the path of revolution at an angle of 60◦.
    • Equinoxes have equal lengths of day and night.
    • Summers have longer days and shorter nights.
    • Winters have longer nights and shorter days.

3. Causes changes in the altitude of the midday sun due to the earth’s orbit being elliptical.

    • Highest altitude during equinox
    • Lowest altitude during solstices

4. Causes lunar eclipse due to revolution bringing the earth in line with the sun and the moon.

Internal Structure of the Earth

The evidence used to study the earth’s interior are

  1. mining
  2. drilling
  3. quarrying/excavation


  • Outermost layer of the earth
  • Made of soils and other loose deposits of sand  The dominant rocks are granites.
  • Extends 0-50km
  • Has 2 layers


  • Also called continental crust
  • Made of light coloured rocks
  • Called sial because it’s made up of silica and al


  • Also called oceanic crust
  • Mainly made of basaltic rocks which are brittle.
  • Called sima because it is made of silica magnesium and iron.

Mohorovicic Discontinuity (Moho)

  • A definite zone of discontinuity between the crust and the mantle.
  • Was discovered by Dr. Andrija Mohorovicic in 1909.

 The Mantle/Asthenosphere

  • Layer lying between the crust and the core
  • Made of iron and magnesium
  • Has two layers

Upper mantle

  • Rocks are more elastic than those of sima.
  • Temperature is about 1000◦c.

lower mantle

  • Rocks are like very viscous liquid.
  • Temperature ranges between 1000◦c to 3000◦c.

Why the Interior of Earth Is Very Hot

  1. Due radio-active decay causing most of the heating.
  2. Due to great pressure as a result of overlying crustal materials.
  3. The original heat resulting from slow cooling of the materials which were pulled off the sun

Gutenberg Discontinuity

  • A definite zone of discontinuity between mantle and core.


  • The innermost/central layer of the earth.
  • Has 2 layers

Outer Core

  • Composed of very dense rocks
  • Made up of nickel and iron
  • Temperatures are up to 3700◦c.

Inner Core

  • A solid mass of mainly iron
  • Temperatures are estimated to be 4500◦c to 5000◦c.

External Structure of the Earth

1. The Atmosphere

  • Layer of gases surrounding the earth.
  • The earth revolves with it because its held onto it by gravity
  • It’s about 330km thick.

Composition of the Atmosphere

  1. Gases-exist as a mixture
  2. Smoke particles
  3. Dust particles
  4. Water vapour

The structure of the Atmosphere

It’s divided into 4 layers/zones namely:

1. Troposphere

Lowest layer of the atmosphere

Contains 90% of water vapour

Rainfall is got from it

Temperature decreases with increase in altitude (lapse rate)

Air is turbulent due to mixing of air

Contains dust particles

There is a zone of transition between troposphere and stratosphere called tropopause.

2. Stratosphere/ozonosphere

Layer lying next to troposphere

Has layers

Lower isothermal layer in which temperature is constant

Upper layer of temperature inversion in which temperature increases with increasing altitude

Has ozone layer which absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation.

Air is calm so its used by passenger jets

Limited amounts of water vapour

There is a zone of transition between stratosphere and mesosphere called stratopause.

3. Mesosphere

Middle layer of the atmosphere.

Temperature decreases with increasing altitude.

There is a zone of transition between mesosphere and thermosphere called mesopause which is an inversion layer.

4. Thermosphere/ionosphere

  • High radiation is present.
  • The pressure is very low.
  • Gases and molecules in this layer exist as ions due to high radiation.
  • Has no definite top but merges gradually into the outermost part of the atmosphere called exosphere.
  • Exosphere consists of rare gases like hydrogen and helium.
  • Beyond the atmosphere there is the outer space.
  • Outer space is the universe beyond the atmosphere in which other planets and stars exist.

Significance of Atmosphere

  1. Animals and plants breathe in from it oxygen for respiration.
  2. Plants use carbon dioxide from it for photosynthesis.
  3. Water vapour in the atmosphere condenses to form clouds which give us rain.
  4. Ozone layer in the stratosphere shields us from ultraviolet radiation which may cause cancers.
  5. Carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere cause global warming through the green house effect.

The Hydrosphere

  • Part of the earth’s surface covered by water masses e.g. oceans, seas, lakes, rivers and even underground water.
  • It comprises 73% of the earth’s surface area.
  • The atmosphere and hydrosphere are related in that atmospheric gases penetrate to the ocean depth in solution form.
  • The lower atmosphere, hydrosphere and the upper part of the earths crust are called biosphere meaning the sphere of the earth in which organic life exists.
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The meaning of Geography

  • Scientific study of the earth as a home of man.
  • Study of interrelationship on natural and human phenomena on the earth’s surface. 


  • The surroundings
  • All external conditions surrounding an organism which has influence over its behaviour.

Environment can be divided into two:

  1. The Physical Environment
  • Natural physical conditions of weather, climate, vegetation, animals, soil, landforms and drainage.
    1. The Human Environment
  • Human activities such as farming, forestry, mining, tourism, settlement, transportation, trade and industry.

Branches of Geography

Physical Geography

Deals with the study of natural physical environment of human kind.

The areas covered include:

  1. Geology-study of the origin, structure and composition of the earth. It includes study of rocks.
  2. Geomorphology- the study of internal and external land forming processes and landforms.
  3. Climatology- the study of climate and weather
  4. Pedology- the study of soils
  5. Biogeography – the study of soils, vegetation and animals.
  6. Hydrology- the study of water bodies
  7. Spatial geography-study of space

Human and Economic Geography

Study of people and their activities on the earth’s surface.

The areas covered include:

  1. Mining
  2. Forestry
  3. Agriculture
  4. Fishing
  5. Wildlife and tourism
  6. Industry
  7. Energy etc.

Practical Geography

A smaller branch which equips the learner with practical skills that enhance their understanding and interpretation of human and physical geographical information.

The areas are:

  1. Statistical methods
  2. Map work
  3. Field work
  4. Photograph work

Importance of Studying Geography

  1. Facilitates good relationship among nations by studying geography of other regions of the world.
  2. it’s a career subject in that it enables one to go for advanced studies in specialised fields e.g. geography teachers, meteorology, surveying etc.
  3. Enables us to appreciate other people’s way of life by learning economic activities of different communities within our country and other parts of the world.
  4. Enables us to conserve our environment when we learn negative and positive effects of human activities on the environment.
  5. Enables us to conserve our resources when we learn wise use of resources in conservation and management of resources e.g. wildlife, forests, energy, etc.
  6. Inculcates in us virtues of cooperation and patience as we work in groups.
  7. Makes us to appreciate manual work as we are involved in practical geography which may lead to self employment.
  8. Promotion of industry such as tourism by guiding tourists to places of interest by using maps, calculations of distances etc.

Relationship between Geography and Other Subjects

  1. Mathematics-mathematical techniques are used in drawing graphs and pie charts and mathematical formulae are used in geography to calculate distances, areas, population density, population densities, etc.
  2. History-history uses geographical tools like maps, charts and graphs to show where past events took place e.g. the movement of people in the past.
  3. Biology-Geography explains the distribution of organisms and factors influencing their distribution on the earth’s surface.
  4. Physics-geography uses physics principles and formulae to calculate and describe aspects such as magnetic field, gravity, vibrations of the earth etc.
  5. Chemistry-geography applies chemistry in studying chemical composition and chemical changes which take place in soils and rocks.
  6. Agriculture-geography studies farming systems, their distribution and factors affecting farming activities.
  7. Meteorology-geography uses meteorological information in the study of weather and in classifying climatic regions and mapping them.
  8. Geology-geography studies rocks.
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One of the characteristics of democratic systems of government is the frequent holding of elections to give the citizens a chance to pick leaders of their choice. This is the case with the USA, Britain and India.


  1. What is Representative Democracy?

Name three main organs of government in the United States of America.

  1. Explain the meaning of the term Federal Republic. (Define a Federal Republic).

Name the states that make up the United States of America.

The USA attained independence in July 1776 and created a Representative Democracy I.E a system of government in which officials are elected by citizens to manage the affairs of government.

In the United States of America, there are several levels of elections to elect the President, senators and members of the House of Representatives.  The government comprises three organs I.E the Legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary.

The USA is a Federal Republic, meaning that the government comprises several states that are under one federal government.

                    THE RISE OF THE USA

The United States of America came into existence in 1776 when the thirteen British colonies of North America united to overcome British colonialism by forming an alliance under the articles of a confederation with a common armed force to fight the British. Actual independence was got in 1783 with the signing of The Peace of Paris.

  1. State/explain the problems that the United States of America faced after independence.

After independence, the Americans had so many problems to deal with. They had to:

  • Achieve unity amidst diversity.
  • Organize a representative government.
  • Reconcile freedom with authority.
  • Regulate taxation, commerce and currency.
  • Govern the yet ungoverned lands.
  • Maintain forces adequate for defense.

In 1787, a convention of delegates from the states that formed the USA met in Philadelphia and drew up a constitution, which was ratified in 1788, after which George Washington became the first President of the USA in 1789.

Describe/explain the features of the constitution of the United States of America.

  • It is federal. Each of the states that make up the United States of America has a large measure of independence. The national (federal) government only has powers identical to it I.E handling or dealing with national and international issues.
  • It is written.
  • It is the supreme law of the land. All the states and their people are bound to it. No state is allowed to secede (break away) after joining the USA.
  • It includes the Bill of Rights I.E the rights and freedoms of the individual citizen, which nobody can take away.
  • It is to be interpreted by the Supreme court.
  • The legislature, which is bicameral and which comprises two houses I.E the senate and the house Of representatives, which together became Congress.
  • Clearly spelt out processes of constitutional amendment.
  • Separation of powers between the legislature, the Executive and the judicature (Judiciary) as branches of the federal government to ensure that no branch attains or has more influence over the others.


                    HOW THE US GOVERNMENT WORKS

        The Legislature

Describe the US legislature.

  • It is the lawmaking arm of government.
  • It is made up of the Senate and the house of Representatives, altogether known as Congress.

Explain how the US legislature works.

  • A bill is first debated in both houses.
  • When approved, the bill is forwarded to the President for assent.
  • Congress amends the constitution when necessary. Such amendment must be approved by individual states.

Explain the role played by Congress in the USA.

  • It checks on the executive.
  • It ensures that government revenue is properly used. It controls the revenue and expenditure of the federal government I.E defense, foreign aid and salaries for federal employees.
  • It checks on the Executive. It closely monitors the conduct of the President, Vice President and other senior public officials and helps guard against serious crimes like treason or corruption.
  • It enacts and amends laws.
  • It approves the ratification of treaties with other powers
  • It approves the appointment of those who work in the senior civil service and foreign relations such as high-ranking government officials and ambassadors.
  • It appoints commissions of enquiry to investigate issues of national importance.
  • It represents the aspirations of the American people.

Explain how one becomes a member of the federal parliament (Congress) in the United States of America.

Members of Congress are elected by universal adult suffrage for different terms as follows:

  • Representatives are chosen from among the states according to the size (population). They serve for two years.
  • Senators serve for six years and are elected (two) from each state.
  • Congressional candidates are nominated from either the Republican or the Democratic Party.

Describe three main political parties in the United States of America. Three political parties are represented in the US Congress. These are: These are:

  • The republicans, which mainly comprises members that could be regarded as conservatives, with deepseated rigidity with regard to issues or matters concerning the lives and values of Americans.
  • The Democratic Party, which mainly consists of Liberals and tends to put up with emergent issues such as scientific and other social developments.
  • The Party of Independent Candidates, which comprises politicians who choose to stand or run through the elections as independent candidates. These belong to neither the Republican nor Democratic political parties. However, so far, Presidents of the USA only came from either the Republican or Democratic party.

Parliament buildings of the USA are in Washington DC: the capital city of the USA.

Individual state issues are in the hands of state governments. Each of the states that form the USA has its own government, which handles or runs its own (internal) affairs.

Describe the features of state government in the United States of America.

Each state has a governor, who is its administrative head.

  • Each state has a law court that handles internal affairs.
  • Each state has education, health and public welfare facilities.
  • Each state is responsible for its own development.
  • Each state has its own capital city.
  • Each state generates its own revenue.
  • Each state has a bicameral legislature to pass state laws. Ø Each state has state-police to maintain law and order.


Describe the categories/levels of election in the United States of America. In the united States of America, there are various levels of elections as follows:

  • Elections of the House of Representatives, which are held every two years. Ø Elections of the Governors, which are held every four years Ø Elections for the senate, which are held every six years.
  • Presidential elections, which are held every four years. In some cases, Presidential elections are included in the Elections for the Governors category.
  • Explain the role of political parties in the United States of |America.
    • They make electoral politics meaningful as most candidates are sponsored by them.
    • They help voters to decide on candidates, who stand for different principles and policies.
    • They are held accountable if the policies advocated by their candidates fail.
    • They help communicate the desires of the people to the government.
    • They provide political education to members.
  • State the requirements for a Presidential candidate in the United States of America.
    • Must be 35 years of age or older.
    • Must have lived in the USA for at least 14 years.
    • Must be an American by birth.


                    THE EXECUTIVE

In the United States of America, the Executive is charged with carrying out the laws and regulations passed by parliament. It is headed by the President. The President is the leader of the federal government in the USA.

What are the functions of the President in the United States of America? (Describe/explain the functions of the President of the USA).

  • Is the head of state.
  • Is the chief executive, ensuring that laws and policies are implemented.
  • Initiation of bills in the Congress.
  • Keeping Congress informed of international developments.
  • Is the commander in chief of the armed forces.
  • Is the head of the party that nominates him/her.

Describe the features of the Presidency in the United States of America.

  • The President serves as nominal and political head of the federal republic.
  • Although the President has much power, he is closely supervised by Congress. If his conduct is poor and of a criminal nature, he can be removed from office by the Legislature through impeachment.
  • The President’s authority over the Legislature is limited.
  • The president is elected every four years through an indirect system.

In what ways does the President of the United States of America serve as nominal and political head of the federal republic?

  • As the chief of the Executive, he appoints his cabinet ministers and senior civil servants, but with the approval of Congress.
  • He is the Commander in chief of the armed forces, whose main units are: the army, the air force and navy. These units have foreign bases in strategic parts of the world.
  • Together with Congress, he guides and controls foreign relations and aid.

Explain how the President of the United States of America is Elected.

The President of the USA is elected every four years through an indirect system as follows:

  • The people vote for either Republican or Democrat candidates of their choice in each state.
  • Those who win in the preliminaries are nominated and sponsored by their parties for the presidential elections, in which all voters participate.
  • Once elected by his party, the Presidential nominee picks a vice president as his running mate.
  • On winning the elections, the President appoints his council of ministers and senior civil servants, who must be approved by Congress before taking office.
  • The President serves for four years and can be re-elected only once to prevent an individual from ruling for too long and from becoming too powerful.

In what ways is the President’s authority over the Legislature in the USA limited? Ø He cannot appropriate federal revenue without approval.

  • He can neither dissolve Congress nor call a general election. Elections in the USA are controlled and fixed for predetermined periods. Presidential elections occur in November after every four years.
  • The new government takes over in January after the elections.

Describe/explain the functions of the Federal government in the United States of America.

  • It admits new states into the union.
  • It gives grants to individual states.
  • It levies and collects taxes.
  • It pays government debts.
  • It defends the nation from external and internal enemies.
  • It regulates commerce with foreign nations and among the states.
  • It regulates the value of the US currency.
  • It handles affairs with foreign nations.
  • It resolves disputes between different states.
  • It enacts federal laws.
  • It establishes the federal courts.


                THE JUDICATURE

Identify/name the main branches/components/organs of the Judiciary in the United States of America. In the United States of America, the judiciary comprises:

  • The Supreme court,
  • Federal Courts,
  • State Courts.

The Supreme Court is at the topmost while State Courts are the lowest in the Court hierarchy.

Explain how the Judicature operates in the United States of America. (Describe the organization of the Judicature in the United States of America).

The U.S judicature operates (is organized) as follows:

  • Judges of the Supreme Court are nine, including the Chief Justice.
  • All judges are appointed by the President, with the approval of the Senate.
  • Judges make independent decisions by trying to interpret the constitution fairly.
  • Where agreement in a case is not reached by interpretation, judges cast votes to conclude the case through majority consensus.
  • The supreme court only deals with matters involving interpretation (the meaning) of the Constitution.

Explain the differences between state courts and federal courts in the United States of America.

  • State courts concern themselves with cases which involve the adjudication of rights claimed under state laws.
  • Judges of state courts are usually elected by citizens for short terms.
  • The federal judiciary consists of the supreme court, circuit courts, Courts of Appeal, District courts, Court of claims, and the Court of customs.
  • The supreme Court has original jurisdiction in all cases affecting Ambassadors and public officials.
  • Federal judges are appointed by the President, but with the consent of the Senate.

Explain how federal government operates in the United States of America. (Describe federal government in the United States of America).

  • All states are legally considered equal. Each state functions as a republic.
  • States exist almost as independent republics with their own laws, which, however, do not conflict with federal laws.
  • States raise revenue, usually from local income, property sales and excise taxes.
  • Most of the expenditure goes to education, highways, public welfare and health.
  • Relations with foreign countries are never the concern of individual states.
  • Each state is similar in structure to the federal government.

In what ways is the structure of government of individual states of the USA similar to the federal government?

In the United States of America, each state is similar in structure to the federal government in various ways as follows:

  • Every state has its written Constitution for internal affairs.
  • There is a legislative system that comprises the senate and the house of Representatives.
  • The number of senators and representatives varies. Senators serve for four years while representatives serve for two years after election.
  • Senators and representatives are elected by popular vote.
  • The Executive in each state is headed by an elected Governor, who serves for four years, but just like the President, can be re-elected only once.
  • The Judiciary in each state comprises courts of several grades, whose members are usually elected.

Explain the relationship between states and the federal government in the United States of America.

The government of the United States of America  operates on division of power between the central and the state governments in the following ways:

  • State legislatures are empowered to pass laws on purely state matters. Such laws are only applicable in the individual states.
  • States are empowered to run their own affairs in areas of provision of social services like health, education and public welfare.
  • States are responsible for maintaining law and order in their respective areas of jurisdiction.

Identify matters/affairs that are handled by the federal government but which are not the concern of individual states in the United States of America. (What matters are not dealt with by individual states in the United States of America? Or:

What matters are handled only by the Federal government in the United States of America?) Ø Foreign affairs,

  • Trade,
  • Defense,
  • Taxation,
  • Issuing of currency,
  • Mediation in disputes between states and the citizens of different states,
  • Interstate disputes.



The British system of government is a constitutional monarchy, where  by, although the Monarchy is hereditary, the government must adhere to the rules of the constitution. The Monarch (King  or Queen) is the ceremonial head of state, but political power is exercised by the Prime Minister. The monarch is the head of state, but the Prime Minister is the head of government.


Describe the electoral process in Britain.

  • The electoral process is based on universal adult suffrage, where all citizens aged 18 years and above are eligible to vote.
  • British elections are by Plurality, meaning that the person attracting the highest number of votes becomes the winner. Although this method is simple and clear, its main disadvantage is that the person emerging as the winner could have less number of votes as compared to the total number of votes of the other contestants.
  • There are two main political parties that take part in elections in Britain, i.e. the Conservative Party and the Labour Party.
  • Elections are characterized by competition between the two major political parties. The party that wins most constituent seats names the Prime Minister.

Describe voter registration in Britain.

  • Registration of voters is done by the local authorities, which update the electoral registers all the time (by keeping an annual register of the voters).
  • An annual register of those eligible to vote in each constituency is issued every February.
  • Since 1948, a postal vote is possible for citizens who are away from their constituencies during the voting period, either on business or for other reasons.
  • The constituency boundaries are based on the population and geographical size. At the moment, Britain has 650 constituencies in total.
  • There are no nominating conventions or Primaries in British politics. This is mainly due to the unpredictable timing of the elections. However, a candidate is nominated by ten registered voters of an area.
  • Until 1970, no party affiliation conditionality was required, but most of the candidates have always been affiliated to a political party.
  • In Britain, it is the house of Commons that is subjected to the electoral process. This stems from the Reform Act of 1894.

In what ways is the Reform act of 1894 important?

  • It embodies recognition that sovereignty comes from people as represented in parliament, with a modernized constitutional monarchy, respondent to the needs and wishes of the people.
  • The act served as a Back-up to the Act of Settlement (adopted in 1701).

What was the outcome (what were the results) of the adoption of the Act of Settlement in Britain in 1701?

(What were the terms of the Act of Settlement in Britain (1701)?)

  • There emerged a recognized monarch, from whom all lawful authority was derived.
  • Respect for custom was increasingly embodied in law.
  • The authority of the king and the rest was to be exercised according to the law.
  • Parliamentary sovereignty was recognized as a cornerstone of constitutional monarchy.

Describe two types of election in Britain.

There are two types of elections for the House of Commons. These are:

  • General Elections, which must be held at least once every five years. The Prime Minister determines when the elections are to take place.
  • By-elections, which take place in an individual constituency in the event of death or resignation of a member of parliament.
  • Identify four categories of citizens that are not eligible to contest a constituency seat in Britain.

There are four categories of citizens that are not eligible to contest a constituency seat in Britain. These are:

  • Clergymen of the churches of England, Scotland and Ireland, and the Roman Catholic church.
  • Holders of certain offices, E.G Judges, Civil Servants, Soldiers, Police officers and various public officials.
  • Aliens (those that are not British citizens).
  • Members of the House of Lords.
  • Name three main organs of government in Britain.

The British government mainly comprises three organs/branches. These are:

  • The Legislature,
  • The Executive
  • The Judiciary.

The British system of government clearly separates the powers and duties of the three organs of government. The principle of separation of the three organs of government is crucial for the protection of the rights and freedoms of the citizens, which is the hallmark of parliamentary systems of government. Of the three organs, parliament is the most supreme as it makes the laws of the land.

                             THE LEGISLATURE

Who constitutes the British parliament? (Identify the bodies/organs that the British parliament is made up of).

The British parliament (Legislature) mainly consists of:

  • The Monarchy,
  • The House of Lords,
  • The House of Commons.

Explain how the Organs that make up the British Parliament operate/work.


In Britain:

  • The monarchy is represented by the King or Queen.
  • After each general election, the King or Queen invites the leader of the party with majority support in the house of Commons as the Prime Minister to form a government answerable to parliament.
  • At the beginning of each parliamentary session, the King or Queen addresses both houses together in the house Of Lords. The speech is written by the Ministers and it outlines the government’s proposed legislation of the coming session. The reading of the speech opens parliament officially.
  • The King or Queen is the legal head of state. He/she is the symbol of national unity, a focus of loyalty and an embodiment of acceptable social standards. However, the monarchy is above party politics.
  • The government functions in the name of the Monarchy.


  • It is made up of people nominated by the King or Queen.
  • It also consists of people in office by virtue of holding some hereditary peerage or those who hold some senior posts in the Church of England such as the Archbishop of Canterbury.


  • It is the major legislative arm of the government.
  • It controls the revenue and expenditure and directs government policy.
  • Members of the House Of Commons are elected by the people.

Explain the functions of:

  • The House of Commons,
  • The House of Lords.

Functions of the House of Commons

It makes the laws together with the House Of  Lords.

  • It controls the Executive. For instance, it can pass a vote of no confidence if it is not happy about the way the Executive conducts public affairs.
  • It controls finance. It is the guardian of national wealth.
  • It calls attention to abuses in society and demands the settlement of public grievances.
  • It serves as a training ground for future leaders.


It initiates legislation, usually routine or non controvertial bills.

  • It examines bills as they pass through parliament.
  • It at times helps the House of Commons in checking the powers of the Executive.
  • It acts as a court of Appeal for criminal cases.
  • It facilitates the house of Commons in the process of lawmaking.
  • It holds bills from the House of Commons to seek public approval.
  • It questions ministers about the activities of the government.

Parliamentary Supremacy in Britain

Before the close of the 17th century, the Monarchy, the Rule of Law and the claims of the representative assembly had been reconciled, giving Parliament supremacy.

Explain the effects of the supremacy of parliament in Britain.

  • Flexibility of the Constitution since it is altered by an act of parliament.
  • The Majesty’s government is carried on through ministers acceptable and responsible to parliament according to the rule of law. This means that nobody can be deprived of liberty or penalized in any way except for breach of the law and in accordance with the legal process.
  • Everyone under the monarch is equally subject to the law, meaning that the king or queen cannot do anything without referring to the law.
  • Judges could and still can be removed from office for serious misbehaviour and in accordance with the procedure requiring the consent of both houses of parliament (The House of Commons and the House of Lords).
  • If all other institutions fail, the will of the House of Commons prevails.

By early 20th century, the British parliament comprised the monarchy, the House of Commons, the House of Lords and the government.

Identify the factors that limit parliamentary supremacy in Britain.

  • Members of the House of Commons have to consider the moral values of the British society.
  • Public opinion, to which parliamentarians are sensitive, especially because an unpopular government may not be re-elected.
  • Local authorities are empowered to make by-laws even without consulting parliament.
  • The interests of the institution under the spotlight are always taken into account before legislation is done in parliament. Such institutions include the Church, Universities farmers and trade-unions.
  • Legislation passed by one parliament can be changed by a future one.
  • International law is also taken into account when laws are made.
  • In spite of these limitations, the legislature remains the supreme organ in Britain.

Explain why parliament remains the supreme organ in Britain. (Why is parliament still the supreme organ in spite of its limitations in Britain?)

  • It is the only institution empowered to make, amend and abolish laws.
  • All other institutions in Britain derive their powers from Parliament.
  • It is the only institution that approves government budget.
  • Its decisions are binding to all.
  • The legislature (Parliament) can remove an unpopular government from office.


Identify the components of the Executive in Britain. (Identify the institutions that make up the Executive in Britain.)

  • The Monarch (King or queen),
  • The Prime Minister, Ø The Cabinet,
  • The civil service.

(Explain the functions of the Monarch in the British government. (What are the duties/responsibilities of the king/queen in the British government?) In the British government, the King or Queen:

  • Is the head of state.
  • Sermons, prorogues and dissolves parliament.
  • Approves bills before they become laws.
  • Confers honours to citizens who have excelled.
  • Invites the leader of the ruling party to form government.
  • Heads the Commonwealth of Nations.
  • Opens and closes parliament.
  • Creates Peers.
  • Heads the Anglican Church and appoints the Archbishop.
  • Is Commander In Chief of the Armed Forces.
  • Handles foreign policy, including the enactment of treaties.
  • Pardons offenders.
  • Appoints judges.

Explain how the Prime Minister carries out his/her duties in the British government.

The Prime Minister:

  • Is the chief government official.
  • Appoints Ministers to work closely with him/her. Ministers are in turn assisted by junior ministers.
  • Then there are Government departments such as the Department of Employment and the Department of Defense, both of which are run by senior civil servants headed by a Permanent Secretary. Such departments carry out the work of the government.
  • Appoints his cabinet, which help him in government by carrying out various government responsibilities.

 Explain the functions of the Prime Minister in Britain.

  • Appoints and dismisses cabinet ministers.
  • Chairs cabinet meetings.
  • Is the leader of the House of Commons.
  • Is the chief executive in the British government.
  • Initiates both domestic and foreign policies.
  • Represents Britain in international forums.
  • Recommends the appointment of senior civil servants such as the Chief Justice, High Commissioners etc.

What are the functions of the cabinet in Britain?

  • Initiation, control and implementation of political policies.
  • Serves as the most important decision making body.
  • Initiation of most legislations.
  • Control of the legislative process.
  • Coordination of government activities.

Identify the conventions that guide the operation of the cabinet in Britain.

  • A government that is defeated on a major issue or on a vote of no confidence is expected to resign.
  • The cabinet is usually drawn from the House of Lords and the House Of Commons.
  • Except during a crisis, the cabinet comes from the ruling party.
  • Advice given by the cabinet must be accepted by the King or Queen.
  • All members of the Cabinet take the oath of the Privy Councilors and are bound to secrecy by this and the Official Secrets Act.
  • Members of the Cabinet are collectively responsible for all decisions and actions and are individually responsible for the departments they head.

Explain the provisions of the 1854 Northcote-Trevelyan report on the civil service in Britain.

  • The civil service became a single organization rather than separate department staff.
  • Entry into the civil service was based on merit.
  • A civil servant could be transferred from one department to another.
  • All civil service examinations are conducted by the Civil Service Commission.

By   2003,  people working in the British civil service got engaged in a variety of activities, ranging from coalmining and teaching, to scientific research and diplomacy. While some of the civil servants are employed by local authorities, others are employed by various government departments and boards.

State the principles that characterize/govern the civil service in Britain.

The civil service in Britain is characterized by four main traditional rules. These are:

  • The tradition/practice of Anonymity, Whereby the minister alone is responsible for the work of his/her department. The Minister therefore gets credit for all that goes well and censure (he/she is blamed) for all that is criticized. The civil servants are therefore taken as carrying out the instructions of the minister.
  • The Principle of Impartiality, whereby civil servants are required to serve whichever minister is in office. This explains why senior civil servants are not allowed to take part  in national politics, with the exception of voting.
  • Ministers make policies and the civil service executes them.
  • The Tradition of Assumption, whereby it is not the task of the civil servants to initiate change or take responsibility for future policies. They do not plan future lines of social and economic development. The British civil service is organized according to departments.

Explain the role of the civil service in Britain.

The role of the civil service in Britain includes:

  • Advising ministers on formulating policy and decision making.
  • Implementing government policy.
  • Providing continuity in the government.


                    THE JUDICIARY

Explain the main importance of independence of the Judiciary in Britain.

In Britain, the Judiciary operates as an independent branch of the government.  Therefore, judges are not political appointees. This independence is important, as it helps the Judiciary to check the other branches of government (the Executive and the Legislature).

Explain the main function of judges in Britain.

The main function of British judges is to apply the law before their courts. They do not decide on the desirability or correctness of the law itself, meaning that it is not the task or responsibility of judges to argue or decide as to whether a particular law is acceptable or not.

British judges have long had the reputation of  being  impartial. This results partly from the Common Law tradition and judgment based on precedents.

Explain how independence of the Judiciary is protected in Britain. (In what ways is independence of the Judiciary ensured in Britain?)

Various mechanisms have been established to ensure the independence of the judiciary in Britain as follows:

  • The constitution recognizes the Judiciary as a separate  organ from the other organs of government.
  • The tenure of office of judges is longer than that of other public servants. In Britain, judges retire at 75 years of age.
  • A judge’s tenure can only be terminated when the judge is unable to perform duties.
  • Since 1701, judges have been appointed on good behaviour until retirement.
  • A judge can only be dismissed by a resolution from both houses of the British parliament.
  • Judges and magistrates are not answerable to the Executive.
  • The Judiciary has a separate system of command under the Chief justice.
  • The salaries of judges are not open to discussion by parliament.



India attained political independence from Britain in 1947. Her constitution was promulgated in 1949 and was formally effected in 1950.

Give examples of Indian political institutions that are inspired to some extent by the British parliament system.

    • The Indian President,
    • House Of The People,
    • Council Of States,
    • Council Of Ministers,
    • The Cabinet,
    • The Prime Minister.

In what two ways is the Indian political system mainly different from the British model?     Two major differences of the Indian system from the British model are:

  • The provision for a federal system of government, which divides power between the central government and the states.
  • The Presidency. India is neither a republic nor


                         The electoral process in India

Explain how democratic institutions that are enhanced by the electoral system were established in India.

  • To facilitate the illiterate people to pick their candidates, the ballot contains the names and party-symbols of the candidates in each constituency. Voters mark the symbols and drop the ballots in the ballot-box.
  • The Indian political structures are heavily borrowed from the British system. For instance, the house Of The People in India is the equivalent of the House Of commons  in Britain.
  • India is divided into Single-Member districts, some of which are traditionally reserved for members of the Minority groups, E.G people of the lower castes.
  • The candidate who wins the largest number of votes takes the seat.
  • Candidates are required to file nomination papers and must pay a deposit, which is refunded if a candidate garners over a sixth of the votes. The Indian Electoral Commission scrutinizes Campaign finances to curb or prevent corrupt practices in the electioneering period, such as buying of votes by unscrupulous politicians.

Explain the functions of the Electoral Commission of India (ECI).

  • Preparation of the electoral register.
  • Setting polling dates.
  • Establishment and making of polling stations.
  • Allocation of party symbols.
  • Publishing election reports according to the electoral laws.
  • Counting of votes.
  • Drawing constituency boundaries.

Identify the political parties in India.

  • The congress party.
  • The Bharatiya Janata Party.
  • Communist Parties of India. These are: CPI-M and CPI-ML.
  • Dravivita Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK).
  • India Ana DMK.
  • Telegn Desam
  • The National Conferences
  • The Alkali Dal.

Participation in elections in India is usually high in spite of the high population of economically underprivileged and illiterate people.

Name three main organs of government in India.

India’s government is a Representative Democracy comprising three main organs. These are:

  • The Legislature,
  • The Executive,
  • The Judiciary.

It is also made up of several federal states.

                                     The Legislature

  1. Describe the formation/structure of parliament in India.
  2. State the powers of Parliament in India.
  3. Describe the two chambers that India’s parliament is made up of.
  4.  The Indian parliament is the supreme lawmaking body. Its powers include:
  • Initiating amendments to the constitution.
  • Scrutinizing the technical aspects of a legislation before it becomes law.

The Indian parliament is made up of two chambers or houses. These are:

    • The Lower chamber, also referred to as the House of the People (Lok Sabha). It has 545 members.
    • The Upper House (Rajya Sabha), also known as The Council Of State. It has 250 members.
  • The president nominates twelve members to the Upper House to represent special interests, such as the Arts and other professions. The other members are elected by the state legislatures.
  1. Members of the Upper House (Rajya Sabha) are elected to serve a term of six years, but one third of them stand for elections every two years. Any bill, with the exception of a money-bill, can be introduced in either house. All bills must pass through both houses. In the case of a conflict, a joint meeting is organized in order to resolve it. Therefore, the upper house serves as a link between state-governments and the national government.
  2. Lower House members are elected on the basis of a single-member (to represent)  constituencies for a term of five years. The house meets twice every year.
  3. The Speaker comes from the Lower house and is elected from among the members, as is in the House Of Commons in Britain. The Speaker is required to be impartial (not to take sides) in the exercise of his/her duties.
  • The house Of The People (the most powerful of the two houses) has several standing committees, E.G the Rules Committee. These committees supervise a whole-range of government operations, including the Budget,  performance of ministries,ETC. English and Hindi are the official languages of this house.
  • All bills must be debated by both the Lower House and the Upper House.


                    THE EXECUTIVE

According to the Indian constitution, the Head of State is the President, who is elected for a five-year term by an electoral college consisting of members of parliament and the Legislative Assembly.

The vice President is elected for a five-year term by both houses of parliament in a joint session. As is in the USA, The Indian Vice President presides over the upper house of parliament and is empowered by the constitution to take over the Presidency whenever it falls vacant apart from during election.

  1. What conditions must one fulfill in order to be elected President of India?
  • Be a citizen of India by birth.
  • Be elected as a member of the house of the people ( the Lok Sabha).
  • Be the winner of most votes in a presidential election.
  • Must have attained the age of 35 years and above.
  • Must have lived in India for at least 14 years.
  • Should not be holding any office of profit under the government of India. (b) Outline the powers of India’s President.

The Indian constitution vests overwhelming powers in the President. In this respect, the President has powers to:

  • Dissolve parliament.
  • Declare a state of emergency and rule the country by decree.
  • Assent or veto a bill. However, the veto may be overcome if both houses repass the bill.
  • Serve as commander in chief of the Armed Forces.
  • Appoint state governors and supreme court judges.
  • Appoint the Prime Minister. However, the constitution demands that the President acts only on the advice of parliament.
  • Serve as the major symbol of national unity.
  1. Apart from elections, identify other circumstances in which the office of the president of India could fall vacant.
  • In the event of death of the sitting president,
  • Incapacitation of the sitting President,
  • Removal of the sitting President from office,
  • Resignation of the seating President.

In such an event, Presidential elections must take place in six months’ time.

Explain how the cabinet is formed/constituted in India.

  • The Prime Minister is appointed by the President, but must be the winner of elections in the Lower House. In spite of the President’s power to appoint, the President has no choice as the leader of the Majority party in the Lower House must be appointed. If this is not done, the government would not secure the confidence of the strongest party.
  • The Prime Minister picks (appoints) Ministers. These must however be officially appointed by the President. Ministers in India must be members of parliament. However, nonmembers of parliament may be appointed if within six months they become members of parliament through a by-election.
  • The Ministers constitute the council Of Ministers and are collectively responsible to parliament for all government decisions. However, by tradition, only the most important ministers (between twelve to eighteen) are invited by the Prime minister to Join the Cabinet. This is mainly because the council of ministers is too large, since it is made up of both ministers and their deputies.
  • The cabinet meets regularly, usually once a week. Other ministers and experts can attend these meetings, but only on invitation. Normally, the Prime Minister picks an Inner cabinet to help him/her  in decision making on important policies.

Explain the functions of the cabinet in India.

  • Approval of all proposals for legislative enactment.
  • Giving recommendations on all major appointments.
  • Settlement of interdepartmental disputes.
  • Co-ordination of government activities.
  • Overseeing the implementation of government policies.
  • Formulation and coordination of all government policies.

Explain the role played by the special agency of the Civil service that is assigned to the Prime Minister and the Cabinet in India.

A special agency of the Civil service is assigned to the Prime Minister and the Cabinet, just like in Britain. The agency provides specialized  secretarial and administrative  services.

These include:

  • Preparing agenda.
  • Keeping records;
  • Recovering decisions, which involves going into the records to establish earlier decisions made by the government regarding a particular policy.
  • Making follow-up on implementation.
  • Coordinating the various special committees of the cabinet.

After independence, the Indian government replaced the colonial civil service. The Indian civil service was named the  Indian Administrative services (AS). The Indian Administrative services is made up of people of proven talent and intelligence, who are then provided with special training so as to act as the core of the huge civil service.

Analyse the structure of state government in India.

  • Executive power is vested in the governor, who is appointed by the President.
  • The Governor appoints the Chief Minister, who, on his advice, appoints other ministers.
  • The Governor nominates one sixth of the legislative Council.
  • All decisions of the Council of Ministers in a state  must be communicated to the governor.
  • The governor has the power to dissolve the legislative assembly.
  • The Governor’s assent is necessary for a bill to become law.

 Describe/discuss the organization of the Judiciary in India. (Explain how the Judiciary in India operates/works).

The constitution of India creates and provides for organization of the Judiciary as follows:

  • The most senior is the Supreme Court, made  up of 17 judges and the Chief Justice.
  • Judges are appointed by the President but  in consultation with the sitting members of the Supreme court.
  • A judge holds office until 65 years of age.
  • There exist lower courts.
  • State-courts serve in various Indian states.
  • Privileges and allowances of a judge cannot  be changed to his/her advantage after appointment.
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In Kenya, development depends on the availability of funds. The government must have an annual financial plan to identify its sources of revenue and areas of expenditure.

Every year, the Minister for Finance has to read the Budget.

What is a budget?

  • A budget is a financial statement that gives estimates of government revenue and expenditure. Or:
  • It is a comprehensive financial statement that gives an estimate of government revenue and expenditure for a given financial year.

 Explain why the government of Kenya prepares the budget annually.

  • To Identify sources of government revenue.
  • To identify development projects and expenditure for a particular year.
  • To explain to the public the taxes imposed.
  • To balance its revenue and expenditure and prioritize its needs.
  • To obtain useful information that enables it to monitor expenditure.
  • To assess its performance in the previous year.
  • To communicate its plans and policies to its foreign and local development partners for the purpose of investment.
  • To secure loans and grants from donors.
  • To plan for emergencies (crises) within the year E.G earthquakes, disease outbreaks and floods.
  • To promote accountability and transparency in government departments as each ministry is allocated funds in order of need and must account for them.
  • To have a point of reference in the preparation of the next budget.

Into what two main categories are sources of government revenue in Kenya divided? (Describe two main classifications of sources of government in Kenya.)

  • Internal sources E.G taxation.
  • External sources I.E loans and grants, mainly from donor countries.

Into what two categories is taxation divided?

 Taxation, which is the main internal source of government revenue, is divided into two categories. These are:

  • Direct taxes E.G pay-As-you-Earn (Payee). It is commonly known as income Tax. Indirect tax.

Identify the forms of taxes that fall under the Indirect Tax category.

  • Customs Duty, which is imposed on imported goods, E.G vehicles.
  • Excise Duty I.E tax on locally made goods like coffee and soda ash.
  • Value Added Tax (VAT) I.E sales Tax, which is imposed on goods like bread, fuel and sugar.
  • Traffic Revenue Tax I.E Road-maintenance levy, road licenses, airport tax, etc.
  • Trading licenses, which are paid by business people.
  • Investment revenue I.E profit gained from parastatals and other firms.
  • Interest from loans paid to the government.
  • Land rates from land-owners.
  • House rents for government buildings.
  • Court fines.
  • Fees charged on a variety of services such as levies on timber, mining, tourist and scrap metal fees.
  • Sales of treasury bills and post office bonds.
  • Grants and loans from donors such as world Bank and the International Monitory Fund (IMF).

Identify five types of taxes paid by Kenyans to the government.

  • Income tax;
  • Customs Duty;
  • Excise duty;
  • Value Added tax (VAT);
  • Airport tax;
  • Sales stamp duty.

What problems does the Kenya government encounter in raising revenue for national development?

(Explain the setbacks facing the Kenya government in raising revenue for national development.)

  • Evasion of taxation by individuals and organizations.
  • People’s negative attitude towards tax payment due to lack of information on the importance of tax payment apart from rampant corruption and poverty.
  • Wealth declaration initiatives do not provide the right information as to how much wealth an individual has that is eligible for taxation due to dishonesty.
  • Rich Kenyans keep their money in foreign banks, making Kenya to lack interest generated from such monies.
  • Inadequate information on local investment through Treasury Bills, post office bonds and shares at the Nairobi Stock exchange.
  • High interest rates on loans.
  • The donor conditions are too harsh and undermine national sovereignty. This is because the recipient nation is compelled to import goods from the country that gives her loans.
  • Government offices in charge of tax collection at times cheat about the income to be taxed. Some officers embezzle the revenue collected, making it not to reach the treasury.

Describe two main types of government expenditure.

  • Capital expenditure I.E money for development activities such as development of roads, schools, industries, airports and agriculture.
  • Recurrent expenditure I .E money used for maintenance of government services.

Describe any three forms of recurrent expenditure. (Into what forms is recurrent expenditure classified/divided?)

  • Payment of salaries.
  • Repair and maintenance of government property
  • Loan repayment.
  • Maintenance of embassies.
  • Membership obligations to regional and international bodies such as the African union (AU) and the United Nations Organization (UNO)
  • Grants to local authorities.
  • Bursaries to schools.

Explain how the Kenya government controls Public finance.

Government revenue has to be controlled to ensure efficient and effective use of public funds. As the supreme body of the Land, the Kenya Parliament controls government money by enacting various laws aimed at ensuring government accountability as follows:

  • All intended government expenditure is approved by parliament.
  • All reports on expenditure from the ministries are scrutinized by the Public Accounts committee and the Public Investments committee.
  • The Controller and Auditor-General audits ministries and government departments and report the findings to parliament. The Auditor-General of the state co-operations audits the expenditure of all state co-operations.
  • The Permanent secretaries in the ministries account for all the money allocated to their ministries.
  • The Kenya anticorruption commission investigates corruption cases and recommends prosecution of suspects.
  • Government contracts are advertised and awarded according to the procurement procedures.
  • Supplementary expenditure in government ministries are approved by parliament.
  • Revenue evasions are curbed by use of X-ray scanners to verify cargo arriving at the Mombasa port.
  • The Public Officers Ethics act, which was formulated by the government in 2001, compels Kenyans to shun corruption, which encourages those handling public money to spend it for the intended purpose. Embezzlement of public funds attracts heavy penalties.
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What are local authorities? (Describe local authorities in Kenya.)

  • Local authorities are a system of local level administration in Kenya, which is separate from central government.
  • They constitute local government, which is run by residents in their particular localities.
  • Local government is carried out by elected local councilors.
  • All local Authorities operate under the Minister for Local Government.

Explain how local authorities were established in Kenya.

  • In Kenya, local authorities were introduced in 1903, following the enactment of the Township Ordinance, which created Nairobi and Mombasa townships.
  • However, in the colonial era, the British separated the European local authorities from the African local authorities known as The Local Native Council from 1924.
  • In 1950, these councils were elevated to African District Councils.
  • At Independence in 1963, the local authorities were unified.

Outline the types of local authorities in Kenya. (Into what types are local authorities in Kenya classified/divided?)

Local authorities in Kenya include:

  • City councils;
  • municipal councils;
  • Urban councils;
  • County councils;
  • Town councils;
  • Area councils.

Analyse/describe the system of local government in Kenya.

  • Each council has elected and, in some cases, nominated councilors.
  • Nominated councilors are appointed by the Minister for Local Government.
  • Elected councilors are voted into office by residents within their respective localities. Also, in the councils, are District Commissioners, i.e. exe Officio members of the local authorities in their districts. Ø Local people are allowed to participate in matters affecting them in their daily life, such as health, Education and Agriculture.
  • Local authorities employ qualified staff for higher and technical posts, which is important for effective administration and provision of services.
  • The Local Government Staff Commission appoints middle-level and senior staff.

Identify/outline the most important officers in a local authority. (Name the officers that run/operate a local authority.)

The most important officers in a local authority include:

  • The Clerk;
  • The Treasurer;
  • The Engineer;
  • The Medical Officer of Health.


 Name three cities in Kenya today.

Today, Kenya has three cities. These are:

  • Nairobi,
  • Mombasa,

Describe city and municipal councils in Kenya. (Explain how government activities are carried out/exercised in city and municipal councils in Kenya.)

  • Cities are run in the same manner as the municipalities, except that services offered at the City level are at a larger scale due to higher population.
  • Like the municipalities, the city is headed by a Mayor.
  • Every municipality in Kenya has a Municipal Council.
  • Each council consists of elected and nominated councilors. The elected councilors represent the electoral areas (wards), into which each council is divided. The nominated councilors, who are appointed by the Minister for Local Government, work hand in hand with the elected councilors.
  • A mayor is elected from among the councilors during the first Council meeting after each General Election. The Mayor heads the council and presides over all Council meetings as chairman and as chief representative of the council. The Mayor is legible for re-election.
  • The Mayor is assisted by the Deputy Mayor, who is elected in the same manner.
  • All elected councilors in each council hold office for a five-year term and can stand for re-election.

Describe/analyse county and town councils in Kenya.

  • Normally, Counties are rural areas while towns or townships are urban.
  • A county or township is an area that does not merit municipal status due to its small size.
  • Townships may exist within counties.
  • Each county or township has a County or Township council made up of elected and nominated councilors, headed by a chairman and deputy chairman, both of who are elected from among the councilors during the first Council meeting.


Describe urban and area councils in Kenya. Explain how government functions/runs in urban and area councils.

  • They are found in every County division.
  • They consist of a chairman, vice chairman and elected and nominated councilors.

Explain the relationship between local authorities and central government in Kenya.

  • Local and central government are linked through the Minister for Local Government.
  • The Minister for Local Government controls the activities of all local authorities throughout the country.
  • Central government spells out directives and policy guidelines to local authorities through the Ministry for Local Government.
  • Through the Local Government Act, the Ministry is mandated to ensure that all local authorities function and operate within the overall national policy as spelt out by Central Government.

Explain how central government influences/controls local authorities in Kenya. (Describe the powers of the Minister for local government over local authorities in Kenya.)

  • General supervision of the activities of the local authorities to ensure that they follow the regulations of the central government.
  • Streamlining local authorities’ affairs.
  • Re-organization of local authorities through upgrading, redefining their boundaries and amalgamation of two or more local authorities.
  • Enquiry, suspension and dissolution of a local authority.
  • Approval or disapproval of decisions made by local authorities.
  • Appointment of senior officers of the councils, E.G the Town Clerk and the Auditor General. This, he does in conjunction with the Public Service Commission.
  • Approval or disapproval of the by laws made by local authorities.
  • Receiving and assessing annual reports on the performance of local authorities.
  • Financial control over local authorities by withdrawing grants, appointing inspectors to audit the local authorities and either approving or disapproving levies, rates, taxes and rent increases.

Outline the services that are offered by local authorities in Kenya.

  • Education;
  • Health;
  • Water;
  • Housing;
  • Sewerage services, depending on their respective capacity.

Explain the functions of local authorities in Kenya.

  • They link the people with the central government through their elected leaders and councilors.
  • They enhance participatory democracy in their respective localities and afford their people an opportunity to exercise their democratic rights and manage their public affairs and government. For instance, Councilors, Mayors, Chairmen and other leaders are elected democratically.
  • They mobilize local resources and energies in carrying out projects within their areas, E.G construction of roads, bridges, etc.
  • They facilitate education through construction and maintenance of schools.
  • They assist the Central Government in providing social services to the people over a specified locality. They perform specialist duties and are empowered to raise revenue and spend money within certain limitations in line with the Local Government Act, CAP.265 of the laws of Kenya.
  • They provide job and training opportunities for people within their jurisdiction. Thus people get employed in the local authorities as councilors, administrators, clerks, labourers, etc.
  • They provide recreation services, which include provision of recreation grounds and allotment such as swimming-pools, sports-grounds, parks, museums, art galleries and public film shows.
  • They provide and maintain sanitation and drainage facilities and services.
  • They are responsible for housing in their areas of jurisdiction.
  • They provide and maintain the road network in their areas where as the central government develops major roads.
  • They provide entertainment and leisure facilities such as stadia, social halls and parks.
  • They regulate commercial activities within their area of jurisdiction.
  • They provide water and sewerage services and collect garbage.
  • They make the by laws that regulate the behavior of those living within their jurisdiction.
  • They provide employment for many people.
  • They control pollution within their areas of jurisdiction.
  • They provide building regulations and protection.
  • They render essential public services to people within their jurisdiction.
  • They supplement government efforts in the provision of health services.

Explain how local authorities supplement government efforts in the provision of health services. 

  • They construct and maintain health centres e.g. maternal and child-welfare clinics, Dispensaries, Smoke-controls, etc.
  • They provide mortuary and ambulance services.

Explain the responsibilities of local authorities for housing in their areas of jurisdiction. (Explain how local authorities ensure proper housing in their areas of jurisdiction.)

  • Clearing slum dwellings.
  • Building and managing new houses as well as improving older ones.
  • Water supplies.
  • Sewerage and rubbish disposal.
  • Street-lighting and cleaning.

Explain the responsibilities of local authorities in provision and maintenance of sanitation, drainage facilities and services.

  • They ensure that public toilettes are kept clean.
  • They dispose off dead animals.
  • They burry destitute persons who die within their jurisdiction and have no relatives to claim and burry them.
  • They ensure cleanliness in shops and offices.
  • They collect and dispose off refuse.
  • They provide Ambulance services and carry out vaccination and immunization programmes.

Explain how local authorities regulate commercial activities within their area of jurisdiction. 

  • Building, provision of and maintaining markets and abattoirs.
  • Performance of regulatory services such as consumer protection and provision of tradelicenses and permits.
  • Imposition of Cess and other levies on crops such as coffee and tea.

Explain the role/responsibilities of local authorities in provision of building regulations and protection.

  • Issuing and approval of plans for various types of buildings.
  • Safe-guarding buildings and other property, particularly by fire control services.
  • Provision of municipal police.

Identify the essential public services that are rendered by local authorities to people within their jurisdiction. 

  • Maintaining public areas E.G squares and gardens.
  • Provision of educational facilities i.e. preschool, nursery and primary schooling as well as special schools for handicapped children.
  • Running libraries, which are closely associated with education.
  • Running personal social services such as Day-care centres, social clubs, meal services and hostels.
  • Establishment of children’s homes to care for children deprived of a normal home-life. Ø Provision of homes for destitute and the aged.
  • Looking into the welfare of the disabled people within their locality.
  • Construction and maintenance of roads and bridges.
  • Provision of land for cemeteries and for cremation.

Assess/discuss the independence of local authorities in Kenya.

  • Parliament controls the functions of local authorities through the statutory powers conferred on them through the Public General acts.
  • Local authorities are permitted to pass by-laws to effect their work. They work closely with Central Government departments in this regard.
  • The by-laws passed by local authorities regulate particular aspects of public life in a given area, e.g. there can be a by-law prohibiting the dumping of garbage in a certain area.
  • All by-laws must be approved by the Minister for Local Government.

Sources of revenue for local authorities in Kenya

Explain how local authorities are financed. (Describe the sources of revenue for local authorities in Kenya.)

Local authorities in Kenya are financed or funded in the following ways:

  • They receive grants from the central government.
  • They collect rent from residential buildings, market stalls, stadia and those who erect bill boards within their areas of jurisdiction.
  • They receive fees from the residents for services such as markets, slaughterhouses; refuse collection, house rents, rates on land, service charges, trade licenses, Cess, Fines, water and sewerage disposal.
  • They give or withdraw business licenses.
  • Fines from offenders.
  • Rates from property owners
  • Loans and donations from donor agencies.
  • Sale of property E.G land and buildings.
  • Profits from investments.

Explain the factors that undermine the performance of local authorities in Kenya.

  • Some local authorities are too small to operate effectively.
  • The high population in some local authorities strains the available resources.
  • Many of the local authorities lack a financial base to provide services.
  • Inefficient revenue collection systems reduce their performance.
  • Many individuals and organizations evade payment of the required levies or fees.
  • Misappropriation of funds and corruption bewilder and undermine efficiency in most local authorities.
  • Conflicts between the councilors and the chief officers greatly frustrate operations.
  • Too much control by the central government and politicians, which hinders their independence and efficiency.
  • Most local authorities lack qualified staff in administration and financial management due to poor terms of service and remuneration.
  • Over employment of staff, which strains the finances of some local authorities.
  • Illiterate councilors, who run down some local authorities.
  • Other factors such as poor infrastructure, vandalism, increased crime and traffic congestion.


The Central Government controls all operations of local authorities and can intervene when necessary to protect the interests of the citizens and to ensure that they operate in line with government policies.

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After attaining independence, African leaders had a great task of nation building. The Africans had suffered economic exploitation, racial discrimination and lack of political representation. The situation could only be addressed through sound policies that would promote national development. Many African countries such as Kenya, Uganda, Ghana, Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of Congo adopted various policies for development. However, the leaders lacked resources and had not been prepared for leadership.


After attaining her independence in 1961, Tanganyika embarked on an ambitious development programme. The significant political mileage was the union of Tanganyika (under Julius Nyerere) with Zanzibar (under Abeid Karume), forming Tanzania in 1964.

Describe/discuss the political developments in postcolonial Tanzania. (Assess the political developments in Tanzania since independence).

  • In 1961, Tanganyika attained her independence from British rule, with Mwalimu Julius Nyerere as President.
  • After Zanzibar’s independence from British rule, an Arab leadership headed by the sultan was imposed on the Africans. Soon after, Sheikh Abeid Karume of the Afroshirazi party came to power, deposing the sultan’s regime.
  • In 1964, there was a political union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. A new nation: the Union of Tanzania was formed, with Nyerere as President and Karume as First Vice President. According to the constitution of the Union, If the president of the united republic came from the mainland, the first Vice President came from the island and the second Vice President from the mainland. Later, due to some constitutional changes, the post of Prime Minister was introduced.
  • In 1967, the Arusha declaration was signed, laying down the principles for development. Tanzania adopted a Socialist policy in her development agenda. She also embraced the policy of nonalignment.
  • In 1973, Tanzania’s capital centre was transferred from Dar Es Salam to Dodoma to ease administration of mainland Tanzania.
  • Maintenance of the east African Community together with Kenya and Uganda was another political development. Although the community collapsed in 1977 due to policy difference among the three east African countries, more cooperation was realized in 1984, leading to eventual revival of the Community in 1993.
  • In 1977, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged their two parties: the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) and the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP) to form Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM).
  • In 1978-1979, Tanzania was invaded by Uganda, but she drove back the Ugandan army and even had a hand in the overthrow of Uganda’s President: Idi Amin Dadaa.
  • President Nyerere made remarkable efforts in Tanzania’s growth. In 1985, Nyerere resigned as Tanzania’s President and Ali Hassan Mwinyi took over.
  • Tanzania offered material and financial support for African Liberation movements, for which she is well remembered, since the OAU liberation Committee was based in Dar Es Salam. Her role in African liberation movements brought independence to Angola, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. This strengthened Tanzania’s opposition to apartheid, which led to Namibia’s independence in 1990, followed by south Africa in 1994.
  • With the support of Ali Hassan Mwinyi but to the disappointment of mainland parliamentarians, Zanzibar decided on its own to join the African Muslim League, which threatened the Republic of Tanzania as a Union, but this problem was later diplomatically repudiated.
  • In 1995, Tanzania held her first multiparty elections and Benjamin William Mkapa was elected President of Multiparty Tanzania. In December 2005, Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete became Tanzania’s fourth president in a peaceful transition.

What were the principles of the Arusha Declaration (1967)? (Describe the principles for Tanzania’s development as contained in the 1967 Arusha Declaration.)

  • Self-reliance I.E use of human and local resources for development.
  • Ujamaa (socialism) I.e. Communalism for collective responsibility, unity and national development.
  • Rejection of all forms of discrimination.
  • Nationalization policy I.E control of factories and means of production by the government.

Describe the major political developments that President Julius Nyerere will be remembered for in Tanzania.

  • Political union between mainland Tanganyika and Zanzibar in 1964.
  • Nyerere was pro-socialism and was opposed to Capitalist ideology.
  • Support for international organizations, particularly the Nonaligned movement, Organization of African Unity, United Nations Organization and the commonwealth.
  • Support for African Liberation movements, aimed at liberating African countries from colonialism. In fact, Tanzania was a member of the Frontline states: an organization or union of states that worked for liberation of Africans from the colonial bondage.
  • Merger of the Tanzania African National Union and the Afro-Shirazi Party in 1977. these two parties together formed Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM), with Nyerere as President and Karume as Vice President.
  • Nyerere helped President Milton Obote of Uganda, who had been deposed by Idi Amin to reclaim power in Uganda in 1979.
  • Nyerere influenced the transfer of the capital city of Tanzania from Dar-Es-Salam to Dodoma.
  • As an example of good leadership, Nyerere retired as president of Tanzania in 1985 to allow new leadership in the country.

Describe/discuss the political challenges/setbacks encountered by Tanzania since independence. (State three political challenges that Ali Hassan Mwinyi faced as President of Tanzania.)

Most of Tanzania’s political challenges were encountered during the reign of President Ali Hassan Mwinyi. As President of Tanzania, Mwinyi faced the following problems:

  • His decision to lead Zanzibar in joining the African Muslim League almost broke the Union of Tanzania.
  • By joining the league, Mwinyi made Tanzania an ally of the Arab World without wide consultations
  • He faced pressure to embrace multiparty democracy until the constitutional amendment of May 1992.
  • Corruption contradicted Ujamaa and African socialism.
  • The influx of refugees from the Democratic Republic of Congo was a threat to security.
  • Fear of political instability made Zanzibar threaten to break away from the union.

Describe the economic developments/successes/achievements in Tanzania since independence.

  • In 1964, Tanzania adopted the Arusha declaration, with emphasis on self reliance, Ujamaa (socialism) and Nationalization.
  • The Ujamaa policy and desire for Self Reliance boosted agricultural production.
  • Agro-based industries were established. Sisal-related factories and textile industries were set up. Cement, shoes, oil tobacco brewery and steel-manufacturing industries were also built.
  • Nationalization and Africanization encouraged African participation in economic development which enhanced trade and financial initiatives.
  • The construction of the Tazara line and the Tanzam Oil Pipeline, with financial assistance from China, which boosted Tanzania’s economy. The Tazara line linked Dar Es Salam in Tanzania to Kapiri Mposhi in Zambia and helped in the transportation of copper.
  • Establishment of the East African Community in 1967, which increased trade.
  • Rapid expansion of some urban centers such as the port of Dar Es Salam, the new capital of Dodoma and Arusha, the headquarters of the revived East African Community.
  • Improvement of the banking and insurance sectors. Ø Increased mining of diamonds, Cobalt and Oil.

What economic challenges/setbacks has Tanzania encountered since independence? (State/discuss the factors that undermined economic growth in Tanzania since independence.)

  • Increased poverty levels.
  • A wider gap between the rich and the poor due to the rise of African enterprises.
  • Negative attitude towards Ujamaa, which resulted in use of force in its implementation. Because of this, agricultural production decreased.
  • The volume of imports outweighed that of exports, causing trade-imbalance, which was worsened by the collapse of the East African Community in 1977.
  • Foreign investors feared the economic slump and left for Kenya and Uganda.
  • Price fluctuations in the world market for crops such as tea, sisal and coffee, which negatively affected Tanzania.
  • Prolonged drought and diseases, which negatively affected the agricultural sector.
  • The fact that Nyerere did not believe in foreign loans for development. Donors did not accept the policy of nationalization.
  • Tanzania’s currency was devalued in addition to suffering inflation.
  • Corruption cropped up as Hassan Mwinyi made efforts towards adoption of liberal policies to jump-start the economy.
  • Tanzania’s mineral resources are not fully exploited due to poverty, lack of technical expertise and poor transport system.
  • The collapse of the east African Community, which denied Tanzania a large market for her goods.
  • Tanzania’s huge debts.
  • Failure of Ujamaa as a development strategy, which eroded the confidence of the leaders.

Analyse/assess the social developments in Tanzania since independence.

  • Educational facilities were expanded, with free education right from primary school level. Self reliance was emphasized according to the Arusha declaration. Agriculture and technical subjects were also emphasized. Adult education was highly valued.
  • Kiswahili was accepted, encouraged and used as a medium of instruction and a national language, which promoted unity in Tanzania.
  • Provision of health services was stepped up by establishing hospitals, health centers and clinics, especially in rural areas. More food was provided for better nutrition and improved health.
  • The role of women in society was and still is appreciated by offering them educational opportunities as are offered to men, employing and appointing them to senior positions in party and government activities.



The Democratic Republic of Congo was a Belgian colony. Previously known as Belgian Congo and then Zaire, after which it was named the Democratic republic of Congo, this country attained independence in June 1960, with Joseph Kasavubu as President and Patrice Lumumba as Prime Minister. The Democratic Republic of Congo immediately faced a military revolt by soldiers who demanded an end to Belgian domination in the army. There was a lot of chaos and the whole of the Democratic Republic of Congo was plunged into disorder, leading to the Congo Crisis.

Analyse/discuss the factors that fuelled/led to the Congo Crisis.

  • Africans in the army rebelled against white officers employed during the colonial era because of their opposition to the continuation of white men as army commanders.
  • Belgium sent its army to quell the revolt and to protect Belgian civilians and property.
  • The Belgian navy bombed the coastal town of Matadi. In response, angry African soldiers killed many Belgian citizens, which provoked a serious military engagement between the two communities.
  • Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba and President Joseph Kasavubu broke relations between the Democratic Republic of Congo and Belgium.
  • In the south of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Moise Tshombe, with the help of the Belgians, was prepared to cut off Katanga from the rest of the country and establish his own independent state. This led to a rebellion in Kasai, which, like Katanga, wanted to cut itself off from the Democratic Republic of Congo.
  • The government of the Democratic Republic of Congo appealed to the United Nations Organization for military support to put down the rebellion. The UNO sent some soldiers, but these were of no help since the UNO had a policy of not interfering in the affairs of a country.
  • Lumumba and Kasavubu opposed each other because Lumumba held radical views while Kasavubu belonged to the conservative group. This led to the murder of Lumumba in December 1960. As a result, Lumumba’s followers pulled out of government and retreated to the province of Oriental, where they formed their own government and started guerrilla training camps to overthrow Kasavubu’s government. Katanga, Kisangani and Kasai each had a government and army of its own, ready to fight the other.
  • At a National Leaders Meeting of 1961, a new National Coalition Government was set up under Cyrille Adoula. Antonine Gizenga (one of Lumumba’s followers) was to be Deputy Prime Minister. Katanga (which was under Moise Tshombe) was not represented at the meeting. However, there was peace and stability for a while.
  • There was another political rift between Gizenga and Adoula, but Gizenga was arrested and imprisoned. Once again, the government requested the United Nations Organization to help it against Tshombe, which the UNO readily provided in 1962. Tshombe was defeated and Katanga was integrated into the Democratic Republic of Congo.
  • A new constitution was drawn whereby the DRC became a federation and each state had its own assembly. Adoula’s term of service ended in 1964. President Kasavubu invited Moise Tshombe to form a new government as a way of pleasing the Katangese. Tshombe therefore became the Prime Minister of the new government.
  • Because of previous problems, the Lumumba group, which was not pleased with Tshombe’s appointment, staged a rebellion against Kasavubu’s government in the city of Kisangani, where they formed the People’s Republic of Congo. There was war between the Tshombe government and the Kisangani rebels. To defuse the situation, Kasavubu forced Tshombe to resign on 3rd October 1965 and replaced him with Sylvester Kimba. But that government did not last long.
  • In November 1965, Joseph Mobutu, who was Commander of the armed forces, organized a bloodless coup and removed the civilian government from power. He then established a totalitarian regime.

Describe/discuss the political developments in the Democratic Republic of Congo since independence.

(Explain/analyse the political successes in the Democratic Republic of Congo since independence. Or:

Explain/Identify the reforms adopted by Mobutu Sese Seko as President of the Democratic Republic of Congo.)  On becoming President of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Joseph Mobutu (later Mobutu Sese Seko) adopted various reforms as follows:

  • He centralized power and became the head of state and government.
  • He banned all political parties, except his movement: Popular De La Revolution (MPR).
  • He nationalized industries and raised revenue for development.
  • He changed the constitution, stripping parliament of its powers. He abolished the federal system (including local assemblies).
  • He reduced administrative regions to eight. Civil servants were appointed by the central government.
  • On election in 1970, he declared himself life president.
  • He adopted the Authenticity programme to promote Congolese culture.
  • He changed the country’s name from Belgian Congo to Zaire to differentiate it from Congo Brazzaville.
  • He renamed major towns. E.G Leopoldville became Kinshasa while Elizabethville became Lubumbashi.
  • He dropped his name (Joseph) and adopted the names Mobutu Sese Seko. He advised the Zairians to drop their Christian names.

Analyse/discuss the socioeconomic developments in the Democratic Republic of Congo since independence.

(Describe the social successes in the Democratic Republic of Congo since independence. Or:

Explain the economic achievements in the Democratic Republic of Congo since independence.)


  • The government supported social activities such as dance, music and sports.
  • Congolese culture was promoted.
  • The entertainment industry developed due to the country’s rich cultural heritage. Congolese musicians are internationally recognized. They send part of their profits back home.
  • Mobutu adopted the Authenticity programme to revive the Congolese culture. To achieve this, he encouraged the Africanization of names of people, the country and towns.
  • The government revised the education curriculum to suit the needs of the people.
  • Primary, secondary and university education were expanded.
  • Hospitals and dispensaries were built.
  • The government established a national medical insurance programme.


  • Roads and railways were built.
  • The port of Matadi was expanded.
  • Navigation on river Congo was improved.
  • Mobutu adopted economic reforms in which industries were nationalized.
  • The government established a pension scheme for workers.
  • Foreign investors were encouraged to invest in agriculture, which increased food production. Ø Lunga hydroelectric power station was built for industrial use.
  • Petroleum resources were developed.

Describe the political difficulties that the Democratic Republic of Congo experienced since independence.

(Discuss the political setbacks encountered in the Democratic Republic of Congo since independence. Or:

State the political challenges/problems facing the Democratic Republic of Congo since independence.)

  • The Democratic republic of Congo experienced political turmoil after six days of independence. The country’s multi-ethnic composition of about eighty tribes has naturally made unity a distant dream for political leaders.
  • The Belgians, who came to crash a mutiny, may have masterminded massive looting and destruction of property, making Congo ungovernable.
  • The Congo crisis culminated in the secession of Katanga under Moise Tshombe and the Kasai region under Albert Kalonji.
  • Political and ideological differences existed between the Prime Minister (Patrice Lumumba), who advocated centralization of power, and President Joseph Kasavubu, who favoured regional government.
  • After the assassination of Patrice Lumumba in 1961, his supporters withdrew to Kisangani, almost causing disintegration of the country.
  • The Belgian and United Nations forces that came in during the Congo Crisis interfered with the running of the government.
  • In 1965, Joseph Desire Mobutu took over power from Kasavubu through a military coup.
  • Mobutu became a dictator, banning all political parties. He centralized power and suspended parliament.
  • The Shaba Rebellion (1977-1978) caused civil war.
  • The 1990s saw a rise in pressure-groups comprising civilians and soldiers who demanded multipartism.
  • Opposition groups rebelled against the government. Laurent Desire Kabila (a rebel-leader based in the then eastern Zaire) rose to power and overthrew Mobutu in 1997. Mobutu fled to Morocco, where he died shortly later.

Laurent Kabila was assassinated in January 2001.

Joseph Kabila (a son of Laurent Kabila) took over in 2001 but continued to face opposition from rebels under Ernest Wamba Dia Wamba and Eunice Ihinga. It was during the reign of his father Laurent that what was known as Zaire became the Democratic Republic of Congo.

The Democratic Republic of Congo has faced hostilities from her neighbours such as Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi.

Discuss the political challenges in the Democratic Republic of Congo since independence.


                        Economic challenges

  • Failure to exploit her natural (mineral) resources due to political instability.
  • Over-reliance on foreign aid from Belgium and France, which created a debtrepayment crisis.
  • Misappropriation of donor funds, which aggravated the debt crisis.
  • Lack of trade policies, which gave rise to Black Marketeering.
  • Smuggling and corruption, which hindered economic growth.
  • Joblessness (Unemployment), which led to increased poverty levels.
  • Massive printing of the country’s currency on the directive of Mobutu, which caused inflation and weakened the economy.
  • Poor economic policies by Mobutu, which affected economic growth. Mobutu became a multibillionaire amidst angry and poverty-stricken citizens.
  • The nationalization policy failed, forcing Mobutu to return some nationalized assets to private investors.


Social challenges

  • Increased illiteracy as the school system collapsed.
  • Increased unemployment.
  • Low standards of living due to poverty.
  • Deterioration of the health sector due to lack of medical services.
  • Civil wars, which have caused a refugee problem.
  • Insecurity, which has hindered delivery of services in the refugee camps.
  • An increase in the number of orphans and widows due to war.
  • Destitution, which has led to the spread of HIV & AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections due to sexual abuse.


Sociopolitical challenges in Tanzania And the Democratic Republic of Congo

Whereas Tanzania has enjoyed unity and political stability, the democratic Republic of Congo has not had any peace despite her large mineral resource base that lies untapped. However, both countries encounter common sociopolitical problems such as:

  • Inadequate funds.
  • Poor infrastructure.
  • Natural calamities
  • Inadequate trained manpower.
  • Untapped natural resources.
  • Population explosion.
  • The refugee problem.
  • Environmental degradation.


By the beginning of the 21st century, all African countries had attained political independence. Some had made great strides in nation building. Different African nations adopted various approaches in the fulfillment of their dreams. The choice of political, economic and social ideology largely depended on the leadership that took over upon attaining independence. However, their attempts at nation building have been undermined by various challenges.

Social challenges

  • Poverty I.E low income per capita, which has meant low purchasing power, hence reduced economic growth. This frustrates virtually every development effort.
  • Illiteracy (low literacy levels), which characterize much of sub-Saharan Africa, especially in countries affected by conflict such as the Democratic republic of Congo, Chad, Somalia and Sudan. African countries inherited from colonial masters a segmented pattern of education, which makes their search for an education system that suits their development needs one of the biggest challenges.
  • Inadequate healthcare (lack of access to modern medical facilities) due to poverty and low levels of technology. Killer diseases like Malaria, HIV-AIDS and Cholera as well as the exodus of medics from various countries in search of greener pastures in the developed world has compounded the problem of inaccessibility of medical services, which has lowered economic growth.
  • Population explosion (the ever rising population), which has strained provision of essential services like Food, clean water, medicine, literacy and housing to the people, leading to rural-urban migration and unemployment.
  • Conflict (civil and international wars), which defines the interaction between communities as witnessed in Nigeria, Sudan, Somalia, Rwanda, Burundi, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Angola, Mozambique, Ethiopia, Cote D’ivoir and the Democratic Republic of Congo among others. Due to dwindling economic resources, different religious doctrines and authoritarian systems of government.
  • Crime, due to unemployment, which results from poor planning, inaccessibility to career training and shrinking economies. The easy access to fire-arms due to regional conflicts has led to increased armed robberies in cities and on major highways. This causes insecurity, which scares  away investors in some countries.
  • Terrorism, which has continued to be a cause of great concern to many African countries, especially those that have been hit by bombings like Kenya, Tanzania, Morocco, Libya and Egypt. Africa has been targeted by international terrorist organizations on suspicion that some countries have taken sides with the enemy.
  • The Refugee Menace (influx of refugees in some countries) as masses flee from civil strife in their homecountries, as is evident in the Great Lakes region, a situation that has overstretched refugee camps in the neighbouring countries.
  • Environmental pollution, especially in cities like Lagos, Cairo and Johannesburg due to poor environmental policies, a thriving industrial sector and rising population.

Economic challenges

  • Colonial hangovers, whereby many independent African countries never detached themselves but continued to seek loans from their former colonial masters, which they were unable to repay. Donor aid, loans and grants have brought about a dependence syndrome which explains the debt crisis many African states experience since independence.
  • Slow industrial growth due to acute shortage of vital industrial raw materials like iron, coal, steel and petroleum in many parts of Africa, largely because of over-exploitation of existing natural resources during the colonial period. Shortage of technical support and skilled manpower for industrial take-off has made the situation worse.
  • Unfavourable climatic conditions, which have greatly curtailed food production, particularly among agricultural communities, leading to severe famine.
  • Population pressure (rapid population growth) particularly in cities, where social and other services have been overstretched, particularly health, education and housing. The population is also characterized by a high dependence ratio as most of it is youthful, unemployed and dependent on a small working group.
  • Massive rural-urban migration puts more pressure on the limited resources in urban areas.
  • Poor infrastructure (lack of/inadequate transport & communication network) since the few that exist link the colonial sources of raw material, leaving other parts (especially dry areas) inaccessible, which explains the imbalance in economic development in many African countries.
  • Over-reliance on primary exports such as coffee, tea, rubber, cotton, copper, soda ash, bauxite ETX, which means low income to the exporting countries. The imports to African countries largely comprise ready-made highly expensive goods while the exports from the very African countries are raw materials subjected to price-fluctuations in the world market as, in most cases, such prices are determined by the buyers.
  • Corruption, characterized by bribery and mismanagement, whereby public funds are often embezzled, leading to collapse of public institutions and projects in such countries as Nigeria, Cameroon and the Democratic republic of Congo, whose economies lack the much-needed support. Rampant smuggling, black marketeering as well as lack of transparency and accountability in economic and political affairs cause donor agencies to suspend aid, thus frustrating trade and industrial growth in independent Africa.
  • Poor economic planning, whereby economic reform policies pursued E.G the Nationalization and Africanization policies in Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda have destabilized economies and therefore kept foreign investors at bay. This left such countries with very weak economies, from which they have never recovered. Haphazard printing of money in some countries E.G in Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo triggered financial crises due to inflation and high costs of living.
  • Unemployment due to decline of job-creation, which stems from economic mismanagement and structural adjustment programmes such as retrenchment.


                    Political challenges

  • Ideological differences based on the economic, political and social philosophies adopted by postcolonial African governments/leaders to guide development. In some countries such as Angola, Mozambique and the Democratic Republic of Congo, such differences exploded into civil strife.
  • The Cold war, during which various leaders supported either the Western or Eastern bloc for selfish motives in spite of Africa’s stated position of nonalignment. This left many African countries divided and locked in border conflicts that continue today, even though the cold war itself is over.
  • Coups D’itat (political instability) characterized by military take-over, which gripped several African states after independence and became the order of the day, particularly in the 1960s. The rise of military dictatorships led to insecurity and underdevelopment since Democracy, human rights, and the rule of law were stifled.
  • Strained international relations (personal/ideological differences between African leaders), with some ending in border closures, which greatly undermined international cooperation.
  • Conflicting interests, whereby many African governments have found themselves torn between serving their territorial interests and adhering to the interests of global and continental organizations like the African Union and the United nations Organization. For instance, Nigeria and Zimbabwe had to be expelled from the Commonwealth of Nations for alleged disregard for human rights and personal property.
  • Neocolonialism, whereby African states claim independence but continue to heavily depend on their former colonial masters. Most countries retained the colonial structures; E.G former British colonies still practice the Westminster parliamentary democracy, although they have difficulties in sustaining it.

Furthermore, the “Divide and rule” policies inherited by leaders of independent states have contributed to anarchy (lawlessness and disorder). The presence of multinational peace-keeping forces in parts of Africa has perpetuated Western influence, hence exposing Africa to economic exploitation.

  • Ethnicity (existence of different ethnic groups), which has contributed to severe interethnic wars as was the case in Rwanda, Burundi, Sudan and Nigeria, which have slowed down economic development apart from causing a rise in the refugee Crisis and heavy loss of human life.
  • Maladministration, whereby, at independence, the leadership in many African states was ill-prepared and inexperienced in administration. This led to political instability and often spurred rebel movements by groups that felt locked out in the sharing of the national cake. This was more so in Angola and Mozambique.


  1. Describe the social developments in the Democratic Republic of Congo since independence.
  2. Identify the economic achievements in the Democratic Republic of Congo since independence.
  3. Identify the reforms adopted by Mobutu Sese Seko as President of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
  4. State the challenges facing the Democratic Republic of Congo since independence.
  5. State the principles of Tanzania’s development as contained in the Arusha Declaration of 1967.
  6. Explain the economic developments and challenges that Tanzania has witnessed since independence.
  7. Identify the major political developments that Julius Nyerere will be remembered for in Tanzania.
  8. State three political challenges that Ali Hassan Mwinyi faced as President of Tanzania.
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At independence in 1963, Kenya’s new leaders under President Jomo Kenyatta encountered various political, economic and social challenges, which they lacked experience in handling. They however took up bravely the task of seeing Kenya into prosperity.

Explain how national unity was fostered in Kenya by 1964. (Explain the measures taken to defuse the difference between KANU and KADU by 1964.)

  • By December 1964, most of the prominent Kadu leaders, under Ronald Ngala and Masinde Muliro, voluntarily crossed over to Kanu.
  • Paul Ngei of the APP was absorbed into Kanu and was made Chairman of the Kenya Maize and Marketing board. He later became a Minister in the Cabinet. This made Kenya a defector one-party state, although the constitution had a provision for a multiparty system.
  • Parliament abolished the regional constitution that Kenya had at independence.

Explain the political developments witnessed in postcolonial Kenya. (Explain the political successes realized in Kenya since independence.)

Change of Kenya from a multiparty state to a defector One-Party state (one-party state by fact). Kenya became a dejure One-Party state (One-party state by law) in 1982 but returned to multipartism in 1991 following the repeal of section 2A of the Constitution of Kenya.

National Unity. By December 1964, most of the prominent Kadu leaders, under Ronald Ngala and Masinde Muliro, voluntarily crossed over to Kanu, which ended the divisive trend that Kenya would have otherwise followed.

The 1964 Republican Constitution, by which Kenya became a republic with an executive President, who was also the head of the government, state and the ruling party. This brought Kenya closer to the strong unitary government that Kanu had always wanted.

  • Though the President was given wide-ranging powers, he was closely bound to an elected Legislature, of which he had to be one.
  • Kanu’s control over parliament and the country as a whole was strengthened in spite of continuous splits in the party along ideological lines.
  • There were various constitutional amendments and bills in parliament to ensure that Kenyans would no longer live under oppression and discrimination of any kind.
  • Since independence, Kenya has remained under an elected government in spite of various unsuccessful coupattempts such as that of 1st August 1982.
  • Kenya has remained free from political instability in spite of political assassinations such as that of Tom Mboya in 1969 and Robert Ouko in 1990. this makes Kenya suitable for civilians and other people to live in.
  • Disbanding of tribal welfare organizations. This took place during the reign of President Daniel Arap Moi.

Explain the political challenges/difficulties experienced in postcolonial Kenya. (Explain the political setbacks encountered in Kenya since independence.

  • Suspicions between various ethnic groups E.G the smaller ethnic groups that supported Kadu and the larger ethnic groups that supported Kanu.
  • Conflict between the political leaders E.G between Jomo Kenyatta and Oginga Odinga.
  • Threat of neocolonialism as Western nations and communist countries sought to dominate Kenya’s policies.
  • Political assassinations E.G those of Tom Mboya, J.M Kariuki and Robert Ouko, which left the nation divided.
  • Death of the founding President (Mzee Jomo Kenyatta) in 1978, which created fears over the transition.
  • The 1982 attempted military coup.
  • Prodemocracy protests that led to the scrapping of section 2A of the constitution in 1991.

Explain the factors that contributed to the clamour for multipartism in Kenya. Explain why Kenyans eventually demanded multipartism.

  • Rampant corruption in government such as the Goldenberg scam and the grabbing of public plots and buildings.
  • Rigging of elections, especially through the Queue voting system, introduced in party nomination in 1988.
  • The collapse of One-party states in eastern Europe in 1989, which encouraged the struggle for democracy.
  • The success of multipartism in other parts of Africa E.G in Zambia.
  • Pressure from donor institutions and countries.
  • Pressure from the Clergy.  Pressure from the civil society.

Explain the challenges/disadvantages of multiparty democracy in Kenya. (Explain the problems facing multiparty democracy in Kenya.)

Many politicians and senior government officials were not ready for multipartism. They incited their supporters to kick out opposition supporters from their regions.

Ethnic clashes of  1991 particularly in the Rift valley, due to political animosity.

  • Some public servants were used by the executive arm of government and the ruling party to frustrate the opposition by denying politicians licenses to hold political rallies.
  • Many of the political parties formed were ethnic based.
  • Many selfish politicians were paid to defect from their parties and join others.
  • The ruling party used the police force and the  government-owned media to its advantage.  The opposition parties lacked financial support from the state, enjoyed by the ruling party.
  • There was inadequate civic education for the electorate.
  • The international community interfered with the running of the country and openly sided with certain politicians and parties.
  • Due to poverty, many citizens were compromised to vote for incompetent leaders.
  • Most political parties have experienced leadership wrangles.

 Explain the role/importance of political parties in Kenya since independence. (In what ways have political parties fostered good governance in postcolonial Kenya?)

  • They formulate policies and programmes on how to run the government more efficiently.
  • They select candidates for public office and nominate candidates for parliamentary and civic seats.
  • They mobilize the people to participate in political affairs E.G elections.
  • Opposition parties check the excesses of the government by pointing out its mistakes. For instance, in 2004, Ntonyiri MP: Maoka Maore pointed out two financial scandals involving misuse of government funds.
  • They initiate political debate on important issues.
  • They provide civic education to the masses.
  • They ensure that there is a government in-waiting in the event that the ruling party is unable to govern.
  • They serve as training ground for political leadership.
  • They provide an opportunity for ethnic groups to associate politically, encouraging unity.
  • Opposition parties take part in Watch-dog committees of Parliament such as the Public Accounts Committee and the Public Investments Committee.
  • Opposition parties provide an alternative approach to the management of political and economic affairs of the country through their contributions in debates.

Explain how the existence of many parties has promoted democracy in Kenya since 1991. (In what ways has existence of many parties promoted democracy in Kenya since 1991?)

  • They have promoted freedom of Association by providing alternative parties for people.
  • They have provided people with a forum to express their views on how the country should be managed.
  • They have made the government more accountable to the people.
  • They have provided checks and balances in government.
  • They have provided a system of scrutinizing government expenditure through the Public Accounts committee and the Public Investments Committee.
  • They have enabled people to form political parties.



The economic developments experienced in postcolonial Kenya included introduction of Land and Industrial policies aimed at strengthening the economy. The sessional paper NO.10 of 1965 made a number of proposals to rejuvenate the economy.

Describe the land policies/reforms adopted by the government after independence in Kenya. (Describe the policies/reforms adopted by the government in postcolonial Kenya.)

In the colonial period, a lot of land was snatched from Africans by white settlers and the colonial government. At independence, the Kenya government arranged to resettle landless Africans on land formally owned by white settlers. Various policies were adopted by the government to achieve the resettlement.  Such policies were as follows:

  • The Kenya government obtained a loan from Britain, which it reloaned to Africans to enable them to buy land in the former “White” highlands.
  • The government established and expanded settlement schemes all over  the country through the Ministry of Land and Resettlement, which was formed in 1963.
  • Cooperatives and land-buying companies were formed to purchase land for Africans.
  • The government came up with a Land adjudication and registration programme to convert the traditional African land-tenure system to Registered Freehold Tenure. Originally, it was based on land consolidation, whereby fragmented plots of land owned by one person in a particular area were consolidated into one holding before registration. Today, the programme is concerned with normal registration of land. The Land Adjudication and Registration programme was very important in speeding up subsequent agricultural development, especially in development of ranches for livestock improvement in arid and semi-arid areas.
  • The Agricultural development Cooperation (ADC) was established to manage large-scale farms. It has retained several farms for the production of certain key inputs such as highbred seeds and high-quality breeding stock.
  • The government has diversified the agricultural sector to avoid reliance on only one or two crops as was the case in the colonial period. Crops like wheat, sisal, pyrethrum, horticultural crops and sugarcane were added to coffee and tea,  which formed the backbone of the colonial economy.
  • Through the Ministry of Agriculture, the government established Kenya Agriculture research institutes at Muguga near Nairobi, Tigoni, Bogoria, Embu and Bukura among others. Also, organizations that conduct research work on specific crops  were set up, such as  the coffee and Tea Research foundations and the horticultural crop research stations. This led to increased food-production due to high yields and pest-resistant varieties of highbred crops and animals that have been introduced all along.
  • Several irrigation schemes were set up in marginal or arid areas, which was necessary since 80% of Kenya’s land area is dry land. Examples of such irrigation schemes are: The Bura Scheme in Tana River District, the Ahero Irrigation Scheme in Nyanza Province,  Mwea Irrigation Scheme in Central Province  and Pekera Irrigation Scheme in Rift Valley Province. These schemes have boosted production of crops such as rice, cotton, fruits and vegetables.
  • The government established Development Authorities for coordination and proper use of resources in each water catchment area. Examples are the Tana-Athi River development Authority, Kerio Valley and Lake Basin Development Authorities.
  • The Kenya government has carried out studies meant to assess the area of potential drainage that can be reclaimed E.G Kano Plains, Yala Swamps and Lambwe Valley.
  • The government has had to take increased action to arrest land degradation due to major changes in land-use.

Explain the benefits of land reforms/policies that were adopted/introduced in Kenya after independence.

  • Farmers acquired Title deeds, which they used to acquire farming loans.
  • Many landless people acquired land.
  • People conducted economic activities with a lot of confidence.  Living standards improved due to economic growth.
  • The country’s economy improved due to dairy farming and cultivation of cash crops.

Describe two main types of settlement schemes established by the government in postcolonial Kenya.

(Describe two types of settlement schemes established after independence in Kenya.)

  • Low-density schemes, which were sold to people with farming experience, for such schemes had big farms.
  • Those who bought land in such schemes also received loans for purchase of farm-inputs.
  • High-density schemes, for resettlement of as many landless African families as possible. Here, small-scale farming was practiced on farms created through subdivision of large-scale farms formerly owned by white settlers.

(Name the settlement schemes that were established in Kenya after independence. (Identify examples of settlement schemes that were established in postcolonial Kenya.)

  • The Million-Acre Scheme,
  • Haraka Scheme,
  • Harambee Scheme
  • The Shirika Scheme.

Identify the major changes in land-use that the Kenya government has had to deal with in order to arrest/address the problem of land degradation. (Describe the changes that have caused land degradation in Kenya.)

  • Destruction of forests through clearing for cultivation or timber, firewood or building materials in water catchment areas.
  • Poor cultivation methods, especially on hill-sides.
  • Reduction of water and grazing areas, particularly in arid and semi-arid areas.
  • Successive crop failure and diminishing crop-yields.
  • Overstocking and cultivation along river-banks.

Identify the possible solutions that the Kenya government adopted to alleviate/deal with the problem of land degradation. (In what ways has the government tackled the problem of land degradation in Kenya?)

  • An agro-ecological Zone mapping, compiled by the Ministry of Agriculture to correlate information on rainfall, water and soil topography for possible cropping patterns.
  • A permanent Presidential commission on soil conservation and Afforestation, created by President Moi in 1981. It was aimed at coordination and mobilization of the efforts of various agencies in soil and water conservation as well as afforestation throughout Kenya.
  • A tree planting day was decreed by President Moi, aimed at a better climate for conservation in Kenya.

Explain the challenges encountered by Kenyans in the agricultural sector. (Explain the problems experienced Kenyans in the agricultural sector.)

  • Droughts and famines E.G in 1984 and 2006.
  • The population has grown faster than the gains made in the agricultural sector, which has resulted in many Kenyans remaining landless.
  • World market prices of Agricultural commodities have fallen drastically since the 1970s.
  • Corruption and mismanagement of cooperatives, resulting in meager earnings for tea, coffee and pyrethrum farmers.
  • Corrupt government officials have grabbed research-land.
  • Poor infrastructure, which has frustrated farmers as they are not able to access the market.
  • Politically instigated clashes E.G in the Rift valley in the 1990s, which discouraged farmers from intense cultivation.
  • Poor technology, which has contributed to poor yields, especially due to reliance on natural rains.
  • Destruction of farm produces by pests after harvest.
  • The cost of farm-inputs like fertilizers and pesticides has become too high for most farmers.
  • Competition from the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (Comesa) member-countries and from the more industrialized countries like the USA, which has frustrated Kenyan farmers, mainly because some of the competitors’ produce is cheaper than that of Kenyan farmers due to subsidies to farmers in rich countries.

Explain the steps taken by the Kenya government to promote agricultural development.

  • The government started a number of African settlement schemes on land acquired from the white settlers.
  • The process of land consolidation and registration was accelerated to give farmers title deeds for their land.
  • The government encouraged small-scale farming of coffee and tea to improve the standards of living in the rural areas.
  • Africans were encouraged to acquire grade-cattle, which they were forbidden to keep during colonialism.
  • Agricultural development co-operations (ADC) were started to manage large-scale farms belonging to the state. These farms were established in Western Kenya, Rift valley and Coast province. The farms acted as models for Kenyan farmers and were also used for production of seeds.
  • Research stations such as the Kenya Agricultural research institutes (KARI) were established to conduct agricultural research on pests, production of more drought-resistant crops and better breeds of livestock.
  • A number of irrigation projects were established, such as Bura, Ahero and Pekera to boost irrigation in marginal areas.
  • A number of development authorities were created to effectively manage the water catchment areas E.G the Tana and Athi River development Authority (TARDA), the Kerio valley Development Authority (KVDA) and the Lake Basin Development Authority (LBDA).
  • Agricultural education has been included in the education curriculum, right from the Primary school level to improve the sector through education.
  • A farmers’ bank: The Kenya Farmers Association (KFA) was set up to lend money to farmers.  Farmers were encouraged to form Producer Cooperatives to jointly market their commodities.

Explain the importance/benefits of Producer cooperatives to Kenyan farmers.

  • They help in marketing the produce of farmers more efficiently.
  • They provide seasonal credit to small-scale farmers.
  • They assist farmers to access farm-inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides.
  • They develop the infrastructure in their areas of operation E.G by constructing access roads in rural areas to assist farmers in delivering their products to the markets.
  • They have assisted rural communities to increase their incomes and improve their living standards.  They assist in processing farmers’ produce apart from facilitating transportation of the produce to the markets. A good example of such cooperatives is the Kenya Planters Cooperative Union (KPCU) that deals with coffee.

Explain the problems that producer cooperatives in Kenya face. (Explain the challenges/setbacks encountered by Producer cooperatives in Kenya since independence.)

  • Commodity price fluctuations in the world market, which have reduced the profits of producer societies since the 1980s.
  • The depreciation of the Kenya shilling, particularly in the 1990s, which rendered the costs of farm-inputs prohibitive to most farmers.
  • Corruption and embezzlement of farmers’ funds, which often lead to splitting up of Cooperatives as was in the 1990s.
  • Due to interference in the elections of management committees by politicians, good managers are not always elected to run the affairs of the societies.
  • Since the ownership of shares by individuals is usually small, many do not take keen interest in the affairs of the societies.

Analyse/discuss the cooperative movement in Kenya. (Discuss the development of the cooperative movement in Kenya.)

  • The cooperative movement was started by European settler-farmers in Kenya in early 20th century to service their agricultural and dairy needs. Among them were The Kenya Cooperative Creameries (KCC) and the Kenya Farmers Association (KFA). Through such cooperatives, farmers could market their produce, purchase farm-inputs and provide research services.
  • In 1913, the government brought all cooperative societies under its control through the Cooperative Societies Ordinance.
  • Through another Cooperatives Ordinance in 1948, the Department of Cooperatives was established. The 1948

Cooperatives ordinance also allowed Africans to form their own cooperatives such as the Women’s groups in Nyanza, which sold eggs to the colonial government. However, African cooperatives declined because they lacked leaders with managerial skills and were looked down upon by educated Africans as inferior organizations. The Maumau rebellion and the declaration of the state of emergency also caused such decline. By 1950, there only were 75 African cooperatives out of the 200 that had been started. But towards the end of the state of emergency, cooperative movements started picking up due to introduction of Land-consolidation programmes, by which land could be freely developed without restriction or communal control.

After Kenya’s independence, the government created the Ministry of cooperative development to facilitate growth of Cooperatives and streamline their management. As a result, many cooperative societies were formed, especially by African farmers in order to market their produce and to acquire farm-inputs and relevant knowledge on farming.

  • Through the cooperative Societies Act that was passed in 1966 and revised in 1967, the government outlined rules and regulations to guide the operations of the cooperative societies and promote their popularity and growth.
  • In 1968, the Cooperative Bank was established to provide loan facilities to help cooperative societies to finance their operations.
  • In 1969, The Cooperative Societies rules empowered the Commissioner of Cooperation development to control misappropriation of funds and to improve the overall efficiency of the cooperative movement by dismissing committees that were not effective.
  • In the sessional paper NO.8 of 1970, the government demanded and diversified the cooperative movement. As a result, many types of Cooperative societies were formed, E.G agriculture-related cooperatives, credit cooperatives and Consumer cooperative societies, which handle distribution of consumer goods.

What are the functions of cooperative societies in Kenya? (Explain the importance of cooperative societies in Kenya.)

  • They assist members to invest their money in tangible assets, E.G Mwalimu savings and Credit Society, whose building in Nairobi earns income, with profits shared out to members.
  • They give advance loans to members to enable them to attend to their personal financial commitments at manageable loan-repayment rates.
  • Agriculture-based cooperatives (as earlier stated) assist farmers to market their produce and increase the profit margin of their sales and to obtain farm-inputs at reduced rates. A good example is the Kenya Grain Growers Association.
  • They provide essential services to the members at minimal rates to enhance output, E.G Extension fieldworkers, who advise farmers on how to farm with maximum yields and assist by establishing essential services like cattle-dips and storage facilities.
  • They educate members to create general awareness regarding their activities and attempt to achieve this through organizing long and short training courses, regular seminars and workshops at its training college in Lang’ata and through field or correspondence in various parts of Kenya.
  • Creation of and providing job opportunities by employing many people in the various sectors of the cooperative movement.
  • They play an important role in defending the interests of members. Moreover, members earn dividends from the profits of the cooperatives’ investments like houses and land.

Explain the challenges/problems facing cooperatives in Kenya.

  • Rampant cases of fraud, dishonesty and favouritism in the management.
  • Lack of experience or understanding concerning business principles. The societies are unable to recruit experienced staff at competitive salaries.
  • Inefficiency in the management of some cooperative societies.
  • Fluctuation of world-prices of some agricultural products, which have badly affected agriculture-based cooperative societies.
  • Mismanagement and embezzlement of societies’ funds, bringing some cooperatives to their collapse.

What are Statutory bodies?

  • Statutory bodies are state-owned public operations established to perform specific socioeconomic roles. They are also known as Parastatals. They are established by acts of parliament, which clearly spell out their functions and terms of reference.

Name the parastatals that were established in Kenya during the colonial period.

Parastatals have been in Kenya since the colonial period, during which they mainly served the interests of the White settlers. Parastatals established during the colonial period include:

  • The Dairy Board,
  • The Kenya Meat Commission,
  • The Maize and Produce Board.

 Identify the parastatals that were created in Kenya after independence.

At independence, the Kenya government deliberately broadened existing parastatals and established new ones to stimulate Kenya’s economic growth by promoting African participation in them. Parastatals established after independence include:

  • The Industrial and Commercial Co-operation,
  • The Kenya National Assurance Company,
  • Agricultural Finance cooperation,
  • The Kenya Commercial Bank,
  • The Central Bank of Kenya.

State/explain the reasons for establishment of parastatals in Kenya. (Why were parastatals established in Kenya?)

  • Indigenization of the economy, which was predominantly in the hands of White and Asian communities. Indigenization was accomplished by providing Africans with loans and some skills to enable them to establish industrial and commercial enterprises and to enable African farmers to buy settler farms. The Industrial and Commercial Development Cooperation and Agricultural Finance cooperation were in charge of promoting indigenization.
  • To issue and regulate the flow of money and influence the direction of the country’s economy. Here, the central Bank of Kenya was instrumental.
  • To generate direct income to the government by making profit through competition by producing competitive goods and services to compete with private organizations. The Kenya Commercial Bank and the Kenya National Assurance Company helped in this objective.
  • To enhance state control of certain essential services, such as transport and communication. Here, the Kenya Posts and Telecommunication Cooperation, the Kenya Railways Cooperation and others of their kind are instrumental, for, through them, the government provides the public with telecommunication services, sometimes at subsidized cost. Most remote parts of the country have been opened up by these parastatals.
  • To ensure equitable distribution of certain essential commodities like sugar throughout the country by buying and evenly distributing the commodities. That is why the Kenya National Trading Cooperation was established.
  • To provide employment, training opportunities and relevant skills of self employment to many Africans, which also boosts the “Jua Kali” sector.

 Explain the problems/setbacks encountered by parastatals in Kenya. (Explain the factors that hinder/undermine parastatals in Kenya. Or: What factors make parastatals ineffective?)

  • Lack of qualified personnel to manage the organizations since the colonial government had not trained Africans for managerial tasks.
  • Mismanagement, favouritism and dishonesty in addition to overemployment of workers, which has led to gross financial mismanagement. This has caused some parastatals to be declared bankrupt and to be put under receivership.
  • Duplication of roles, whereby more than one parastatal are given the same task, which has caused tension between the organizations and frustration to the management staff.
  • Some parastatals have very little or nothing to do since there are too many of them.
  • Interference in the management of some cooperations by political leaders and other influential persons, which has led to employment of unqualified personnel and misappropriation of funds.

Natural disasters such as pests and prolonged drought, which affect yields and production and hinder the performance of Agriculture-based parastatals.

Internal and international economic conditions, e.g. high inflation rates that have led to increased production costs and low returns for parastatal organizations.

Explain how the Kenya government controls/monitors the activities of parastatals.

To enhance management and production, the government monitors/controls the activities of parastatals in the following ways:

  • Members of the board of directors in charge of running parastatals are directly appointed by the Minister under whose portfolio the organization falls. Every board is headed by a chairman directly appointed by the President.
  • The Inspectorate with State Cooperation in the Office of the President monitors the activities of parastatals and advises them on government policies.
  • Parastatals are required to prepare and submit to parliament detailed annual reports about their activities, sources of revenue and nature of expenditure. Parliament discusses the reports to ensure that the organizations are properly run.
  • All the accounts of parastatals are audited by the Controller & Auditor General of cooperations, who then prepares detailed reports of discussion by parliament.



What measures has the Kenya government taken to ensure that the country is industrialized? (State the measures taken by the Kenya government to bring industrial progress to the country.)

Various measures have been adopted by the Kenya government to industrialize the country since independence as follows:

  • The Sessional paper NO.10 of 1965 affirmed the policy of a free Market system in which foreign investors were welcomed to start industries in Kenya.
  • In 1963, the government created the Development Finance Company of Kenya (DFCK) and the Industrial Commercial Development Cooperation (ICDC) to finance indigenous Kenyans to establish industrial projects.
  • In 1964, the foreign Investment act provided an incentive to foreign investors by allowing them to repatriate their profits.
  • In 1966, the Kenya Industrial Estates (KIE) was established as a subsidiary of ICDC to facilitate small-scale industries by Kenyans. This led to expansion of industrial estates in Kakamega, Kisii, Kericho, Embu, Machakos, Malindi, Nyeri, Murang’a and Voi.
  • In 1970, a mechanism was established to protect local industries from imports. These included introduction of NO-OBJECTION certificates to vet imports.
  • The government established a number of statutory bodies (parastatals) such as the Kenya Ports Authority, Kenya Posts and Telecommunications Cooperation and the Kenya Pipeline Company to facilitate industrialization through port facilities, telecommunications and fuel provision respectively.
  • The government has promoted the Tourism industry through the creation of the Kenya Tourists board to market Kenya as a tourist destination.
  • Vocational training and higher institutions of learning were started to produce competent technical staff to industrialize the country.
  • The government has established export processing zones which specifically manufacture products for export. These firms have provided employment to many Kenyans in addition to providing a market for their products such as cotton and wool.
  • Foreign investors have been licensed to prospect for and exploit minerals to expand industrialization. In 2003, the Tiomin mining company from Canada was given the rights to mine Titanium in Kwale at the Kenyan coast.

The government embarked on a rural electrification programme since the 1990s to expand agro-based industries.

Explain the factors that have facilitated industrial development in Kenya since independence. (Explain the reasons for industrial expansion/growth in postcolonial Kenya.)

  • Existance of natural raw materials like Trona in lake Magadi.
  • Water surfaces like the Indian Ocean and lake Victoria, which provide fish for fish-processing industries apart from serving as waterways for sea/water transport.
  • Forests, which produce timber for papermaking and other requirements.
  • The beautiful scenery and game-parks, which have facilitated the tourism industry.
  • The permanent rivers, which have provided water for hydro-electric power.
  • The population, which has provided labour and a domestic market.
  • Rich agricultural farmland, which provides raw materials for agro-based industries.
  • Roads, railways and airports, which have provided the means of transport for both raw materials and passengers.

 Explain the impact/results of industrial development in Kenya since independence.

  • Many people have got jobs (salaried employment).
  • Diversification of the economy to avoid over-reliance on agriculture.
  • Infrastructure in the country has improved.
  • Urban centers have sprung up near major industries.
  • It has promoted self-reliance in some products such as cooking oil.

Explain the setbacks/hindrances to industrial development in Kenya. (What factors undermine Kenya’s effort to industrialize? Or: Explain the challenges/problems facing the Kenya government in its efforts to industrialize.)

  • Repatriation of capital by most multinational co-operations to their home-countries instead of investing it in Kenya.
  • Many companies use imported materials for their operations, E.G Motor-vehicle manufacturers.
  • The senior managerial positions of most large firms are taken up by foreigners, who pass policies that are not friendly to Kenya.
  • The majority of the big industries are located near major urban centers. Thus, the ripple effects of industrial expansion does not reach the rural areas.
  • Mismanagement of major industries, which leads to their collapse. A good example here is the Kenya Meat Commission, which was revived in 2006 after it collapsed in the 1980s.
  • The Kenya Industrial Estates lacks finances to support entrepreneurs.
  • Kenyan industries are adversely affected by competition from the more industrialized countries, which sell their goods cheaply.
  • The domestic market in Kenya is small, mainly due to low purchasing power.



Since independence, Kenya has made great social development in education, health, housing and recreation.


The education system inherited at independence was not suitable in developing skilled manpower needed in the civil service, commerce and industry.

Identify the education commissions and committees that were set up in Kenya after independence.

(Describe the education commissions and committees that were set up in postcolonial Kenya.)

The Kenya government set up several commissions and committees, each of which made elaborate reports on the required educational reforms. Among such commissions were:

The Kenya Education Commission (also known as the Ominde Commission), Chaired by Professor Ominde in 1964.

The National Committee on Education Objectives and Policies (1976), chaired by Peter Gachathi (also known as the Gachathi commission).

  • The Presidential working Party on the second University (1982), chaired by Professor Mackay (it was also known as the Mackay Commission).
  • The Kamunge commission (1988).
  • The Davy Koech Commission (1999).
  • The Karira Commission (1983).

 What were the results of establishment/setting up of education commissions and committees in Kenya after independence?

Most of the changes recommended by these commissions were used, due to which:

  • Education was expanded at all levels. For instance, by 1986, there were 10354 primary schools compared to 6058 at independence.
  • Harambee institutes of science and technology have been established in almost every district to equip secondary school-leavers with skills that would enable them to secure employment.
  • Postsecondary school training colleges and institutions were opened up to train middle-cadre personnel in agriculture, veterinary, water and technology, medicine, mass communication, ETC.
  • Three national polytechnics were established in Nairobi, Mombasa and Eldoret to offer middle and highlevel technical training to produce personnel skilled to serve in schools, colleges, industries and in some government departments where their technical knowledge is needed.

Describe the departments and institutions that were established by the Ministry of Education in Kenya after independence.

To polish up the system of education,  the Ministry of Education established the following departments and institutions:

  • The Inspectorate, which supervises implementation of educational reforms and recommends various teaching and learning materials to institutions of learning.
  • The Kenya Institute of Education (KIE) which develops relevant curriculum and teaching & learning materials for use in schools and colleges.
  • The Kenya National Examination Council, which develops, administers and certifies national examinations.
  • The Kenya Literature Bureau, which publishes materials for use in schools and colleges.
  • The department of Adult education, which was set up by the Ministry of Culture and Social Services to develop and supervise the implementation of adult education programmes in order to help the government in eliminating illiteracy among adults, who would then be meaningfully involved in nation building.

 Discuss the educational changes introduced by the Kenya government after independence. (Describe/explain the changes that were made by the Kenya government in the Education sector after independence.)

  • The Kenya government set up several commissions and committees, each of which made elaborate reports on the required educational reforms.
  • The Ministry of education established various departments and institutions such as the Ominde Commission and the Department of Adult Education to polish up the system of education.
  • In 1985, the 8-4-4 system of education was effected to offer a curriculum that emphasizes practical and vocational subjects such as Crafts, Artwork, Metalwork, agriculture, Carpentry and home-science.
  • The 8-4-4 curriculum was designed to enable school leavers to acquire vocational skills to enable them to secure employment in the formal and informal sectors or be self-employed altogether.
  • In the funding of education, free primary school education was introduced. Due to increased expenditure as a result of tremendous expansion in education, the government was compelled to introduce cost sharing at all levels of education, especially from secondary school upwards. Free primary school education was re- introduced in 2003, after the NARC government assumed or took over leadership of this country after 40 years of the Kanu government.

In what ways have health services been expanded in Kenya since 1963? (Explain how health services in Kenya were expanded after independence.)

Since independence, health services in Kenya have been expanded in many ways Such as:

  • Training of many health personnel and building of hospitals in district headquarters, with dispensaries and health-centers in locations and sub locations.
  • Improvement in the quality of healthcare through programmes such as immunization against preventable diseases, provision of Family Planning services and education on the value of improved nutrition.
  • Provision of health services to the rural population through Harambee efforts and private initiative. Because of this, life expectancy has increased while infant mortality has fallen.
  • Provision of health services by some municipalities for their residents through health-related departments E.G Environmental health, which organizes inspection of food premises such as hotels and kiosks as well as restaurants.
  • Licensing of organizations and individuals to run clinics, nursing and maternity homes and hospitals. Their services compliment those of the government.
  • Establishment of Community Health-Worker support units by nongovernmental voluntary organizations such as African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF) to support public health projects in Kenya.
  • Formation of a special national fund for the disabled to provide financial assistance to the associations of the disabled.
  • Continuous assistance by international health agencies such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Organization. (UNO) of various health projects for alleviation of various health related problems in Kenya.
  • Establishment of medical research institutes all over Kenya, which have greatly contributed to the improvement of health services. Such institutes include the Clinical Research Centre of Nairobi, the Alupe Leprosy research centre in Teso and the Malaria and other Protozoal Research Centre in Kisumu. These and others are coordinated by the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI).

 Explain how the Kenya government re-affirm the right and freedom of the individual in propagating national culture. (In what ways is national culture expressed/exhibited in Kenya?)

Because of cultural problems created by the colonial experience, the Kenya government has emphasized the role of culture in many official documents such as the Kenya Constitution to re-affirm the right and freedom of the individual in propagating national culture in various ways such as:

  • Music and Dances. Today, there are many traditional Music & Dance groups and also instrumentalists, several of which perform in hotels to entertain and introduce guests to Kenyan culture by reciting and singing traditional poems and songs accompanied by traditional instruments like the drum, the Lyre and the Harp among many others.
  • Annual Drama and Music festivals involving teachers, training colleges, secondary & primary schools and other groups outside the School system are organized by the Ministry of Education and the Department of Culture in the Ministry of Culture and Social Services.
  • The Kenya National Theatre promotes theatrical performances by staging local and foreign plays using professional and amateur groups such as the Traveling Theatres of Nairobi and Kenyatta University, the Little Theatre Club in Mombasa and the Ramogi Cultural Society in Kisumu.
  • Kenyan sculptors have produced pieces of sculpture that have penetrated the Sculpture Market locally and overseas, which has attracted several talented young Kenyans to Creative Art and made Kenya famous internationally. Famous pieces of sculpture from Kenya include The Kisii soapstone Carvings, the “bird Of Peace” and the  “Fruits Of Independence”.
  • Painting & Art. The Department of Culture in the Ministry of Culture and Social Services has assisted young artists to exhibit their work in local art galleries. Several art-exhibitions have been stepped up all over Kenya to enlighten the public on the importance of appreciating and preserving  Kenyan contemporary and traditional art which has attracted local and international demand.
  • Crafts. The department of culture in collaboration with interested agencies has and still is encouraging traditional skills of production such as basketry and pottery and researches on traditional medicines and foodproduction. Of late, the Ministry of  technical training and applied technology has been established to promote local craftsmen, particularly those of the Jua-kali sector.
  • Cultural festivals. The Department of culture supports local annual festivals like those held in Kisii, Busia and Vihiga, which depict the culture of the participants. The department has constructed rural and urban cultural centers to ensure that future generations have a cultural base  upon which the Kenyan nation is built.
  • Research and Documentation. The department of culture has embarked on research and writing down our traditional ways of life and knowledge I.E aspects of oral tradition such as traditional songs and dances, stories, proverbs, riddles and others. Most cultural and historical research  is done by the University of Nairobi,  especially at the Institute of African Studies.
  • Cultural Exchange Programmes. The Kenya government signed cultural exchange agreements with Russia, Germany, France, China, the Democratic Republic of Congo, the USA, Britain, Ethiopia and others. This has resulted in mutual exchange of artists, especially musicians and dancers.
  • Social change and cultural contests have brought about modern types of music, dance, games and sports. Kenya has had to join the rest of the world in upholding them.
  • The Cinema. Through the Films cooperation and the Institute of Mass communication, the Kenya government encourages making and showing of local films alongside foreign ones to Movie-goers in urban centers and film-watchers in the rural.
  • In the past, Kenya could not participate in many sporting events due to lack of facilities for training. The Ministry of culture and social services then embarked on the construction of facilities like Stadia all over Kenya E.G Moi International Sports centre in Kasarani and the Nyayo national Stadium. Kenya is famous worldwide for its outstanding sportsmen and women, who have set new World records in the Olympics, Commonwealth and All-Africa games in Athletics, Boxing, Hockey, ETC. In fact, Kenyan runners have dominated all races by sometimes scooping all the medals.

What major sociocultural challenges/setbacks has Kenya encountered since independence? (Describe/explain the social and cultural difficulties/problems experienced in postcolonial Kenya.)

  • The fast-rising population, which presents challenges of food, health  and education provision.
  • Spread of H.I.V & AIDS, which has increased the Health bill.
  • Some cultural practices such as female Circumcision and Early marriages, which have retarded
  • Corruption, which has led to the depletion of the few resources available.
  • Increase in crime-rate.
  • The fact that most Kenyans, particularly the youth, ape or try to take up foreign cultures at the expense of traditional ones. Some of such foreign culture interferes with rather than perfecting the behaviour of many Kenyans, leading to a lot of deviancy and permissiveness.

However, with the promotion of Kenyan cultural programmes in the mass media (particularly on radio and Television), it is hoped that almost all these challenges will be remedied, putting Kenya back on her cultural feet. The youth need to be assisted to be aware that failure stems from a broken focus and that as Africans, they are purposed to exist and that Black Is Beautiful in its own right.

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What is Philosophy? (Define the term Philosophy. Or: Explain the meaning of the term Philosophy.)

  • Philosophy is a Greek term that means love for Wisdom. Wisdom is the highest knowledge about people, things and God the Creator. Therefore, philosophy aims at explaining the meaning of human existence.

What is a national philosophy? (Define the term National Philosophy. Or: Explain the meaning of the term National Philosophy.)

  • A national philosophy is a system of ideological beliefs and values that are widely accepted within a country, championed particularly by the Ruling party leadership.

 In what ways is a national philosophy important? (Explain the importance of a national philosophy.)

  • It guides the nation towards achievement of set goals.
  • It serves as a motivating factor for the citizens to work collectively.
  • It helps make citizens focused and to have a purpose.
  • It gives meaning to national endeavors and aspirations.
  • It is a yardstick to evaluate national activities and undertakings.
  • It gives a nation an identity.
  • It enhances proper utilization of national resources.
  • It facilitates equitable distribution of national resources.
  • It promotes national unity and integration.
  • It encourages patriotism and positive nationalism.

Identify three national philosophies that are used in Kenya.

  • African socialism,
  • Harambee,
  • Nyayoism

Harambee and Nyayoism are closely related.

                        AFRICAN SOCIALISM

 What is African Socialism?

(Explain the meaning of African socialism as presented in Sessional Paper NO.10 Or: What is African Socialism according to Sessional Paper NO.10?)

  • African socialism is an African philosophy coined by KANU in its manifesto of 1963 after Kenya’s attainment of independence.
  • In 1965, the ideas of the 1963 KANU manifesto were identified and published as sessional paper NO.10 titled African Socialism and its Application to Planning in Kenya.
  • According to sessional paper NO.10, African socialism is a system that is neither imported from nor a blueprint of any foreign country or ideology. It is a positively African system that encourages political, economic and social values essential in African society, capable of incorporating useful and comfortable techniques from whatever source.

Describe/explain the major conditions that  African Socialism set off to fulfill with regard to sessional paper NO.10. 

  • It must draw on the best of African traditions.
  • It must be adaptable to new and rapidly changing circumstances.
  • It must not rest its success on a satellite relationship with any other country or group of countries.

Explain the factors that influenced the adoption of African Socialism in Kenya. (Explain the reasons why African Socialism was adopted in Kenya. Or:

What were the motives for adoption of African Socialism in Kenya? or:

Explain why Kenyan nationalist leaders adopted African Socialism.)

  • Desire to create a new society, different and free from the colonial one.
  • Desire for a just and humane society in which all were considered equal before the law.
  • Recognition of the traditional practice of national social responsibility, with power equally shared among and for the benefit of all Kenyans.
  • To ensure equitable distribution of resources and freedom to own property.
  • Desire for a united and free Kenya where individual rights and freedoms will be granted through a democratic political system.

 Identify the objectives of the Kenyan society according to Sessional paper NO.10.

  • Human dignity and freedom.
  • High, growing and equitably distributed income per capita.
  • Freedom from want, disease and exploitation.
  • Political equality.
  • Equal opportunities.
  • Social justice.

What are the features of African Socialism? (Describe/explain the features of African Socialism. Or: Explain the policies that characterize African Socialism.)

According to sessional paper no.10, African socialism is characterized by the following policies:

  • Political democracy, in which all are free and equal.
  • Mutual social responsibility, derived from African communalism, in which people work to serve others and not for personal gain.
  • Free and varied ownership, E.G free enterprise, nationalism and partnership.
  • Diffusion of ownership whereby economic powers should not be concentrated on a few people.
  • Equality, to be attained in resource use by having a range of controls to ensure that property is used in the interest of the society.
  • Progressive Taxation, adopted to ensure equal distribution of wealth and income.

These are the main ones among many other policies of African socialism as contained in sessional paper  NO.10, all of which have both long term and short-term objectives, most of which have already been achieved.

In what ways is African Socialism important? (Explain the importance of African Socialism. Or: Explain how African Socialism has contributed to social and economic development in Kenya.)

African Socialism is applied to planning in various areas. It has contributed immensely to social and economic development in Kenya, which makes it important in the following ways:

  • It encouraged unity and peaceful co-existence.
  • It has promoted mutual social responsibility through self reliance and hard work.
  • It has helped ensure respect for the rights and freedoms of citizens.
  • It has promoted African culture, based on African traditions.
  • It has boosted fairness and justice through strategies such as District Focus for Rural Development.
  • It has promoted development of the cooperative movement, which has speeded up social and economic growth.
  • It has improved social development in education and health. Education has assisted in achieving social needs.
  • It has promoted agriculture by addressing the problem of land ownership, whereby the landless were settled in settlement schemes as both small and large scale farmers, mainly of cash crops like coffee were encouraged through various incentives.
  • It promoted the policy of africanization as Africans replaced foreigners in commercial and industrial development.
  • It has promoted the democratic process in governance through activities that encourage participation of all citizens in governing their country.

What role has African Socialism played in the democratic process in Kenya? (How has African Socialism promoted the democratic process in Kenya?)

African Socialism has promoted the democratic process in governance through activities that encourage participation of all citizens in governing their country such as:

  • The electoral process.
  • Establishment of a multiparty system of government.
  • Growth of the civil society.
  • Free print and electronic media.
  • Civic education.
  • Frequent, free and fair elections.


What is Harambe?

  • Harambe is a Kiswahili slogan that means pulling or working together. It is a call to hard work. It was popularized by Mzee Jomo Kenyatta: the first president of independent Kenya, who made it a national motto in 1963 on realizing that it was only by pulling together that development would be reached.

Explain the origin and development of Harambe.

  • As a principle, Harambee stems from the African traditions and practices, characterized by the communal work and the Community spirit. For instance, pre-colonial communities cooperated in building houses or clearing and digging land through the spirit of Togetherness. It was this traditional sense of unity that influenced Mzee Kenyatta to adopt and use it to create the true fruits of Uhuru.
  • Harambee is founded on the spirit of mutual social responsibility and is indeed African socialism in practice. It has provided the guiding principles for national development by serving as a mobilizing force that brings the people of Kenya together to achieve a common goal.
  • The Harambee spirit embodies ideals of assistance, joint effort, mutual social responsibility and community self-reliance. It has provided Kenyans with the drive for cooperation between individuals and communities.

Harambee implied Freedom And hard Work (“Uhuru na Kazi”).

Explain the aims/objectives of Harambe. (State the purpose of Harambe.)

  • Promotion of self reliance.
  • Promotion of national unity.
  • Promotion of national development (Nation building) in all aspects through pooling resources together.
  • Promotion of constructive nationalism.

State/explain the principles of Harambe.

  • Mobilization and involvement of people in project initiation and implementation.
  • Collective rather than individual gain. That is why Harambe is mostly directed towards communal rather than personal projects.
  • Involvement of participants in decision making. Project choice must be guided by the felt needs of the majority.
  • Maximum utilization of local resources like labour, materials and money in implementation of the projects.  Unity in action, the essence of Harambe, strengthened by the Nyayo philosophy of peace, love and unity.

Explain the role of Harambe in Kenya’s development. (Explain how Harambe promoted development in Kenya. Or: What is the importance of Harambe?)

  • It promotes unity.
  • It has promoted agriculture, mainly through irrigation and encouragement of both small and large scale farmers.
  • It has encouraged or promoted democratic participation in national development.
  • It encourages mutual social responsibility as people cooperate and participate in a project. It has developed education through building of classrooms, laboratories and libraries. Students have been able to pursue higher education through Harambe funds and government bursaries.

Medical services have been promoted through the building of hospitals, dispensaries and Nyayo wards.

  • Rural access roads and bridges have been constructed through Harambe.
  • Churches and other religious centers have been built, boosting spiritual nourishment.
  • The welfare of people with special needs has been addressed. In 1989, president Daniel Arap Moi organized and conducted a Harambe to raise money for persons with disability.
  • It is because of Harambe that leaders now have a forum to educate the public on issues of national concern.  HIV/AIDS as well as drug abuse have been kept under control with human rights upheld.
  • It has improved people’s living standards, mainly through provision of piped water, electricity, farmland, grade cattle and construction of modest houses.
  • It promotes self reliance and African socialism.

Explain the factors that undermined the Harambe spirit (Identify the setbacks/weaknesses of the Harambe spirit.)

Since its inception, the Harambe spirit was and still is undermined by various factors such as the following:

  • Misappropriation (misuse) of Harambe funds.
  • It elicited a negative attitude from the people since they were forced to contribute.
  • It was abused as even the rich organized Harambe for themselves.
  • Harambe became unpopular and monotonous due to the frequency and due to rampant poverty.
  • Harambes became an avenue for corruption for leaders who would use all means(including force) to get money to contribute, especially when the president was presiding.



Explain the origin and development of Nyayoism.

  • Nyayoism is derived from the Kiswahili word “Nyayo”, which means “Footsteps”.
  • It was introduced by president Daniel Arap Moi after the passing away of Mzee Jomo Kenyatta: the first president of independent Kenya. In it, Moi pledged to follow the footsteps of Mzee Jomo Kenyatta and the social economic and political policies that Kenya had adopted.
  • According to President Moi, Nyayoism is a pragmatic philosophy that crystallizes and articulates what has always been African, indigenous and formative in our societies.
  • It is based on African traditional pillars of peace, love and unity, embodied in an African political economic system that is positively African, not being imported from any country, or being a blue-print of any foreign ideology, but capable of incorporating useful and compatible techniques, rooted in African past, but new in its tribal application to the management of Kenya.
  • It simply means being mindful of other people’s welfare, based on African socialism. Describe the sources of Nyayoism.
  • The 1965 sessional paper NO.10 on African socialism, which advocated collective responsibility, cooperation and sharing.
  • The biblical teachings on the ten commandments, the love of God, fellow men and oneself. The virtue of love would unite Kenyans to build the nation.
  • Moi’s political career, which became a source of inspiration. Moi explained that Nyayoism is a philosophy of active nationalism for nation building.

Describe the pillars of Nyayoism.

These are:

Peace, I.E the state of being free from war and disorder. Nyayoism advocates peace as the only tool for development. It discourages political instability. A peaceful environment enhances unity, trade, social interaction and cooperation.

Love, which is extolled by the philosophy as a virtue that enhances trust and willingness to work together. Love encourages the practice of being mindful of other people’s welfare as well as the African practice of communalism. It discourages discrimination, oppression, corruption and all forms of exploitation.

Unity. This feeling of togetherness is derived from the belief that we are created by one God. Here, there is unity, there is strength, rooted in understanding of our common purpose, loyalties and mutual dependence.

Explain the role of Nyayoism in Kenya’s development.

  • It enhanced cooperation and unity as in it, being mindful of other people’s welfare was emphasized.
  • It enhanced the spirit of African socialism.
  • It promoted mutual social responsibility and self reliance.
  • it encouraged the Harambe spirit to promote people’s welfare.
  • Education was boosted through the building of schools, some of which were named after Moi, E.G Moi Girls Eldoret.
  • Through Harambes, Moi built Nyayo wards across the country.
  • Public transport was improved by the introduction of Nyayo Buses.
  • Agriculture was improved as president Moi led in soil Conservation measures such as building of gabions. He even set up the Nyayo Tea Zones to promote tea production.
  • President Moi set up funds to cater for the disadvantaged.
  • Nyayoism encouraged the establishment of the Jua Kali sector and parastatals to provide employment opportunities.

Explain the factors that undermined the Nyayo spirit. (Explain the challenges/setbacks encountered by the Nyayo spirit. Or: What problems did the Nyayo spirit face?)

In spite of its various achievements, the Nyayo spirit was undermined by various factors such as the following:

  • The inclusive humans and respectful society targeted by the philosophy was not attained, probably due to difficulties in applying the philosophy.
  • The Nyayo pillars of peace, love and unity were difficult to apply as people attached various meanings to them, which made it difficult to monitor and evaluate them. Some people have even argued that it is not possible to love everyone equally.
  • Corruption became rampant in Kenya during Moi’s reign, negating the spirit of being mindful of other people’s welfare. Things were worsened by the world economic recession, which slowed down the pace of development.
  • The establishment of institutions of learning, Nyayo wards, Nyayo Tea Zones and Nyayo buses was not realized throughout the country.
  • The World Bank and the international Monitory Fund (IMF) withheld loans and grants to Kenya, citing poor governance and lack of transparency and accountability by President Moi’s government.
  • Although the Nyayo philosophy was a driving force in the initial ten years of president Moi’s twenty-four year rule, Moi’s government gradually adopted measures that appeared to antagonize the very philosophy he articulated.

Explain the effects/impact of national philosophies in Kenya.


  • Education was promoted through the Harambe spirit and being mindful of other people’s welfare. Medical services (hospitals, dispensaries and Nyayo wards) were provided.
  • Unity, cooperation and collective responsibility were enhanced as Kenyans pooled resources together out of love.
  • Harambes have been held to build churches and other religious centers to boost spiritual growth.
  • People’s living standards have improved. Through sharing, people have collected funds for individuals to buy land, build houses, conduct weddings, and clear medical bills.
  • The spirit of cooperation and being mindful of other people’s welfare has been inculcated, E.G president Moi organized various fund-raising drives for the disadvantaged as well as famine relief, disaster and the heart fund.
  • Culture has been promoted since the philosophies are drawn from African traditions, especially communalism or sharing.
  • Religious tolerance has been promoted.


  • Promotion of nationalism and patriotism.
  • Democratization of and political equality in Kenya.
  • International cooperation and understanding for the spirit of working together inspired Kenyans to spearhead peace initiatives for other communities.


  • Africanization and self reliance as Kenyans took over initiatives and industry, replacing foreigners after independence.
  • Growth of the cooperative movement, which led to expansion of agriculture.
  • Construction of more access roads and introduction of Nyayo buses, which boosted transport and communication.
  • A peaceful environment, which promoted trade and tourism.
  • National economy policies have been influenced by the philosophies, particularly African socialism.

Explain the demerits/disadvantages of national philosophies in Kenya. (What were the weaknesses of national philosophies in Kenya?)

  • Promotion of overdependence on foreign aid.
  • Fuelling corruption, E.G abuse of the Harambe spirit.
  • Exploitation of the citizenry by leaders, E.G through forced Harambes.
  • Lack of concrete solutions to emerging issues E.G HIV/AIDS, corruption and ethnic clashes.