THURSDAY: 27 April 2023. Afternoon Paper. Time Allowed: 3 hours.

Answer ALL questions. Marks allocated to each question are shown at the end of the question. Do NOT write anything on this paper.


1. Outline FOUR sources of power in an organisation. (4 marks)

2. With reference to policy development, identify FIVE challenges likely to be faced during the analysis of Stakeholders. (5 marks)

3. Describe FIVE objectives of the Public Procurement and Asset Disposal Act, 2015. (5 marks)

4. Examine SIX responsibilities of the County Governments with respect to County Public Funds as stipulated in the Public Finance Management Act, 2012. (6 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1. Identify FOUR types of public bodies in which the Auditor General is constitutionally mandated to perform an audit and report within six months after the end of each financial year. (4 marks)

2. Describe FIVE limitations of the application of the rationality approach in policy making. (5 marks)

3. Explain FIVE benefits of public policy in national development in your country. (5 marks)

4. With reference to the law governing Public Debts in your country, describe SIX roles of the Public Debt Management Office. (6 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1. Explain FIVE challenges affecting the County Assemblies in executing their mandates. (5 marks)

2. Explain FIVE reasons why a country may establish a comprehensive national development planning model. (5 marks)

3. With regard to Senate, assess FIVE responsibilities of the Committee of Finance and Budget. (10 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1. Identify FOUR legal instruments that guide public service ethics and integrity. (4 marks)

2. Explain SIX disadvantages of citizen participation in government decision making. (6 marks)

3. Describe FIVE objectives of devolution as enshrined in the constitution of your country. (10 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1. A contracting authority in public private partnerships is expected to carry out a feasibility study.
Identify FOUR considerations when undertaking such a study. (4 marks)

2. Explain FIVE qualities of a good county development plan. (5 marks)

3. Identify any FIVE approaches to policy analysis. (5 marks)

4. Highlight any SIX procurement methods available to public institutions in your country. (6 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)

(Visited 5 times, 1 visits today)