TUESDAY: 25 April 2023. Afternoon Paper. Time Allowed: 3 hours.

Answer ALL questions. Marks allocated to each question are shown at the end of the question. Do NOT write anything on this paper.


1. Explain FOUR instances where a conflict of interest may arise in a consulting engagement. (4 marks)

2. There are several characteristics of services which differentiate them from a product.

Analyse FOUR characteristics of services according to Kotler and Keller, 2007. (4 marks)

3. Certain data interpretation problems or “pitfalls” exist and can occur when analysing data.

With reference to the above statement, identify FIVE risks one should take precaution against. (5 marks)

4. With reference to consulting, summarise SEVEN contents of a technical proposal. (7 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1. Professional responsibility refers to the ethical and legal obligations that individuals and organisations have in their professional roles.

With reference to the above statement, identify FOUR ways in which a member of the Institute of Certified Secretaries may exhibit professional responsibility. (4 marks)

2. The adoption of a new service or idea does not happen simultaneously across all people in a system.

With reference to the above statement, highlight FIVE characteristics of laggard adopters according to the diffusion of innovation theory. (5 marks)

3. Explain SIX barriers to effective coaching in an organisation. (6 marks)

4. According to Tuckman’s theory, there are FIVE stages of group development.

Identify these stages. (5 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1. Outline FIVE types of negotiation skills. (5 marks)

2. Highlight FIVE strategies that a facilitator can use to make a training session more effective. (5 marks)

3. Researchers argue that, if you assume a positivist approach to your study, then it is your belief that you are independent of your research and your research is purely objective.

With reference to the above statement, outline FIVE principles of positivism research philosophy. (5 marks)

4. Explain FIVE reasons for writing a report after undertaking a research. (5 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1. Explain FOUR benefits of action research to an organisation. (4 marks)

2. Outline FIVE qualities of a good advisor. (5 marks)

3. Highlight FIVE tips consultants use, to successfully improve productivity and profitability in project
management. (5 marks)

4. Discuss THREE roles of an internal consultant as defined by Edgar H. Schein in 1969. (6 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1. List FIVE steps used to terminate a contract at expiry of the term. (5 marks)

2. Explain FIVE demerits of stratified sampling. (5 marks)

3. Enumerate FIVE benefits of referencing when writing a research report. (5 marks)

4.  Evaluate FIVE elements of a good business plan. (5 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)

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