IFRS 11 Joint Arrangements

INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARD 11 JOINT ARRANGEMENTS

International Financial Reporting Standard 11

Joint Arrangements

Objective

1 The objective of this IFRS is to establish principles for financial reporting by entities that have an interest in arrangements that are controlled jointly (ie joint arrangements).

Meeting the objective

2 To meet the objective in paragraph 1, this IFRS defines joint control and requires an entity that is a party to a joint arrangement to determine the type of joint arrangement in which it is involved by assessing its rights and obligations and to account for those rights and obligations in accordance with that type of joint arrangement.

Scope

3                This IFRS shall be applied by all entities that are a party to a joint arrangement.

Joint arrangements

  • A joint arrangement is an arrangement of which two or more parties have joint control.
  • A joint arrangement has the following characteristics:
    • The parties are bound by a contractual arrangement (see paragraphs B2–B4).
    • The contractual arrangement gives two or more of those parties joint control of the arrangement (see paragraphs 7–13).
  • A joint arrangement is either a joint operation or a joint venture.

Joint control

  • Joint control is the contractually agreed sharing of control of an arrangement, which exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require the unanimous consent of the parties sharing control.
  • An entity that is a party to an arrangement shall assess whether the contractual arrangement gives all the parties, or a group of the parties, control of the arrangement collectively. All the parties, or a group of the parties, control the arrangement collectively when they must act together to direct the activities that significantly affect the returns of the arrangement (ie the relevant activities).
  • Once it has been determined that all the parties, or a group of the parties, control the arrangement collectively, joint control exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require the unanimous consent of the parties that control the arrangement collectively.
  • In a joint arrangement, no single party controls the arrangement on its own. A party with joint control of an arrangement can prevent any of the other parties, or a group of the parties, from controlling the arrangement.
  • An arrangement can be a joint arrangement even though not all of its parties have joint control of the arrangement. This IFRS distinguishes between parties that have joint control of a joint arrangement (joint operators or joint venturers) and parties that participate in, but do not have joint control of, a joint arrangement.
  • An entity will need to apply judgement when assessing whether all the parties, or a group of the parties, have joint control of an arrangement. An entity shall make this assessment by considering all facts and circumstances (see paragraphs B5–B11).
  • If facts and circumstances change, an entity shall reassess whether it still has joint control of the arrangement.

Types of joint arrangement

  • An entity shall determine the type of joint arrangement in which it is involved. The classification of a joint arrangement as a joint operation or a joint venture depends upon the rights and obligations of the parties to the arrangement.
  • A joint operation is a joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement. Those parties are called joint operators.
  • A joint venture is a joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the net assets of the arrangement. Those parties are called joint venturers.
  • An entity applies judgement when assessing whether a joint arrangement is a joint operation or a joint venture. An entity shall determine the type of joint arrangement in which it is involved by considering its rights and obligations arising from the arrangement. An entity assesses its rights and obligations by considering the structure and legal form of the arrangement, the terms agreed by the parties in the contractual arrangement and, when relevant, other facts and circumstances (see paragraphs B12–B33).
  • Sometimes the parties are bound by a framework agreement that sets up the general contractual terms for undertaking one or more activities. The framework agreement might set out that the parties establish different joint arrangements to deal with specific activities that form part of the agreement. Even though those joint arrangements are related to the same framework agreement, their type might be different if the parties’ rights and obligations

differ when undertaking the different activities dealt with in the framework agreement. Consequently, joint operations and joint ventures can coexist when the parties undertake different activities that form part of the same framework agreement.

  • If facts and circumstances change, an entity shall reassess whether the type of joint arrangement in which it is involved has changed.

Financial statements of parties to a joint arrangement

Joint operations

  • A joint operator shall recognise in relation to its interest in a joint operation:
    • its assets, including its share of any assets held jointly;
    • its liabilities, including its share of any liabilities incurred jointly;
    • its revenue from the sale of its share of the output arising from the joint operation;
    • its share of the revenue from the sale of the output by the joint operation; and
    • its expenses, including its share of any expenses incurred jointly.
  • A joint operator shall account for the assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses relating to its interest in a joint operation in accordance with the IFRSs applicable to the particular assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses.

21A When an entity acquires an interest in a joint operation in which the activity of the joint operation constitutes a business, as defined in IFRS 3 Business Combinations, it shall apply, to the extent of its share in accordance with paragraph 20, all of the principles on business combinations accounting in IFRS 3, and other IFRSs, that do not conflict with the guidance in this IFRS and disclose the information that is required in those IFRSs in relation to business combinations. This applies to the acquisition of both the initial interest and additional interests in a joint operation in which the activity of the joint operation constitutes a business. The accounting for the acquisition of an interest in such a joint operation is specified in paragraphs B33A–B33D.

  • The accounting for transactions such as the sale, contribution or purchase of assets between an entity and a joint operation in which it is a joint operator is specified in paragraphs B34–B37.
  • A party that participates in, but does not have joint control of, a joint operation shall also account for its interest in the arrangement in accordance with paragraphs 20–22 if that party has rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the joint operation. If a party that participates in, but does not have joint control of, a joint operation does not have rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to that joint operation, it shall account for its interest in the joint operation in accordance with the IFRSs applicable to that interest.

Joint ventures

  • A joint venturer shall recognise its interest in a joint venture as an investment and shall account for that investment using the equity method in accordance with IAS 28 Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures unless the entity is exempted from applying the equity method as specified in that standard.
  • A party that participates in, but does not have joint control of, a joint venture shall account for its interest in the arrangement in accordance with IFRS 9 Financial Instruments, unless it has significant influence over the joint venture, in which case it shall account for it in accordance with IAS 28 (as amended in 2011).

Separate financial statements

  • In its separate financial statements, a joint operator or joint venturer shall account for its interest in:
    • a joint operation in accordance with paragraphs 20–22;
    • a joint venture in accordance with paragraph 10 of IAS 27 Separate Financial Statements.
  • In its separate financial statements, a party that participates in, but does not have joint control of, a joint arrangement shall account for its interest in:
    • a joint operation in accordance with paragraph 23;
    • a joint venture in accordance with IFRS 9, unless the entity has significant influence over the joint venture, in which case it shall apply paragraph 10 of IAS 27 (as amended in 2011).

Appendix A Defined terms

This appendix is an integral part of the IFRS.

joint arrangement An arrangement of which two or more parties have joint control.
joint control The contractually agreed sharing of control of an arrangement, which exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require the unanimous consent of the parties sharing control.
joint operation A joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement.
joint operator A party to a joint operation that has joint control of that joint operation.
joint venture A joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the net assets of the arrangement.
joint venturer A party to a joint venture that has joint control of that joint venture.
party to a joint arrangement An entity that participates in a joint arrangement, regardless of whether that entity has joint control of the arrangement.
separate vehicle A separately identifiable financial structure, including separate legal entities or entities recognised by statute, regardless of whether those entities have a legal personality.

The following terms are defined in IAS 27 (as amended in 2011), IAS 28 (as amended in

2011) or IFRS 10 Consolidated Financial Statements and are used in this IFRS with the meanings specified in those IFRSs:

  • control of an investee
  • equity method
  • power
  • protective rights
  • relevant activities • separate financial statements
  • significant influence.

Appendix B Application guidance

This appendix is an integral part of the IFRS. It describes the application of paragraphs 1–27 and has the same authority as the other parts of the IFRS.

B1 The examples in this appendix portray hypothetical situations. Although some aspects of the examples may be present in actual fact patterns, all relevant facts and circumstances of a particular fact pattern would need to be evaluated when applying IFRS 11.

Joint arrangements

Contractual arrangement (paragraph 5)

B2 Contractual arrangements can be evidenced in several ways. An enforceable contractual arrangement is often, but not always, in writing, usually in the form of a contract or documented discussions between the parties. Statutory mechanisms can also create enforceable arrangements, either on their own or in conjunction with contracts between the parties.

B3 When joint arrangements are structured through a separate vehicle (see paragraphs B19–B33), the contractual arrangement, or some aspects of the contractual arrangement, will in some cases be incorporated in the articles, charter or by-laws of the separate vehicle.

B4 The contractual arrangement sets out the terms upon which the parties participate in the activity that is the subject of the arrangement. The contractual arrangement generally deals with such matters as:

  • the purpose, activity and duration of the joint arrangement.
  • how the members of the board of directors, or equivalent governing body, of the joint arrangement, are appointed.
  • the decision-making process: the matters requiring decisions from the parties, the voting rights of the parties and the required level of support for those matters. The decision-making process reflected in the contractual arrangement establishes joint control of the arrangement (see paragraphs B5–B11).
  • the capital or other contributions required of the parties.
  • how the parties share assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses or profit or loss relating to the joint arrangement.

Joint control (paragraphs 7–13)

B5 In assessing whether an entity has joint control of an arrangement, an entity shall assess first whether all the parties, or a group of the parties, control the arrangement. IFRS 10 defines control and shall be used to determine whether all the parties, or a group of the parties, are exposed, or have rights, to

variable returns from their involvement with the arrangement and have the ability to affect those returns through their power over the arrangement. When all the parties, or a group of the parties, considered collectively, are able to direct the activities that significantly affect the returns of the arrangement (ie the relevant activities), the parties control the arrangement collectively.

B6 After concluding that all the parties, or a group of the parties, control the arrangement collectively, an entity shall assess whether it has joint control of the arrangement. Joint control exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require the unanimous consent of the parties that collectively control the arrangement. Assessing whether the arrangement is jointly controlled by all of its parties or by a group of the parties, or controlled by one of its parties alone, can require judgement.

B7 Sometimes the decision-making process that is agreed upon by the parties in their contractual arrangement implicitly leads to joint control. For example, assume two parties establish an arrangement in which each has 50 per cent of the voting rights and the contractual arrangement between them specifies that at least 51 per cent of the voting rights are required to make decisions about the relevant activities. In this case, the parties have implicitly agreed that they have joint control of the arrangement because decisions about the relevant activities cannot be made without both parties agreeing.

B8 In other circumstances, the contractual arrangement requires a minimum proportion of the voting rights to make decisions about the relevant activities. When that minimum required proportion of the voting rights can be achieved by more than one combination of the parties agreeing together, that arrangement is not a joint arrangement unless the contractual arrangement specifies which parties (or combination of parties) are required to agree unanimously to decisions about the relevant activities of the arrangement.

Application examples
Example 1

Assume that three parties establish an arrangement: A has 50 per cent of the voting rights in the arrangement, B has 30 per cent and C has 20 per cent. The contractual arrangement between A, B and C specifies that at least 75 per cent of the voting rights are required to make decisions about the relevant activities of the arrangement. Even though A can block any decision, it does not control the arrangement because it needs the agreement of B. The terms of their contractual arrangement requiring at least 75 per cent of the voting rights to make decisions about the relevant activities imply that A and B have joint control of the arrangement because decisions about the relevant activities of the arrangement cannot be made without both A and B agreeing.

continued…

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Application examples
Example 2

Assume an arrangement has three parties: A has 50 per cent of the voting rights in the arrangement and B and C each have 25 per cent. The contractual arrangement between A, B and C specifies that at least 75 per cent of the voting rights are required to make decisions about the relevant activities of the arrangement. Even though A can block any decision, it does not control the arrangement because it needs the agreement of either B or C. In this example, A, B and C collectively control the arrangement. However, there is more than one combination of parties that can agree to reach 75 per cent of the voting rights (ie either A and B or A and C). In such a situation, to be a joint arrangement the contractual arrangement between the parties would need to specify which combination of the parties is required to agree unanimously to decisions about the relevant activities of the arrangement.

Example 3

Assume an arrangement in which A and B each have 35 per cent of the voting rights in the arrangement with the remaining 30 per cent being widely dispersed. Decisions about the relevant activities require approval by a majority of the voting rights. A and B have joint control of the arrangement only if the contractual arrangement specifies that decisions about the relevant activities of the arrangement require both A and B agreeing.

B9 The requirement for unanimous consent means that any party with joint control of the arrangement can prevent any of the other parties, or a group of the parties, from making unilateral decisions (about the relevant activities) without its consent. If the requirement for unanimous consent relates only to decisions that give a party protective rights and not to decisions about the relevant activities of an arrangement, that party is not a party with joint control of the arrangement.

B10 A contractual arrangement might include clauses on the resolution of disputes, such as arbitration. These provisions may allow for decisions to be made in the absence of unanimous consent among the parties that have joint control. The existence of such provisions does not prevent the arrangement from being jointly controlled and, consequently, from being a joint arrangement.

B11 When an arrangement is outside the scope of IFRS 11, an entity accounts for its interest in the arrangement in accordance with relevant IFRSs, such as IFRS 10, IAS 28 (as amended in 2011) or IFRS 9.

Types of joint arrangement (paragraphs 14–19)

B12 Joint arrangements are established for a variety of purposes (eg as a way for parties to share costs and risks, or as a way to provide the parties with access to new technology or new markets), and can be established using different structures and legal forms.

B13 Some arrangements do not require the activity that is the subject of the arrangement to be undertaken in a separate vehicle. However, other arrangements involve the establishment of a separate vehicle.

B14 The classification of joint arrangements required by this IFRS depends upon the parties’ rights and obligations arising from the arrangement in the normal course of business. This IFRS classifies joint arrangements as either joint operations or joint ventures. When an entity has rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement, the arrangement is a joint operation. When an entity has rights to the net assets of the arrangement, the arrangement is a joint venture. Paragraphs B16–B33 set out the assessment an entity carries out to determine whether it has an interest in a joint operation or an interest in a joint venture.

Classification of a joint arrangement

B15 As stated in paragraph B14, the classification of joint arrangements requires the parties to assess their rights and obligations arising from the arrangement. When making that assessment, an entity shall consider the following:

  • the structure of the joint arrangement (see paragraphs B16–B21).
  • when the joint arrangement is structured through a separate vehicle:
    • the legal form of the separate vehicle (see paragraphs B22–B24);
    • the terms of the contractual arrangement (see paragraphs B25–B28); and
    • when relevant, other facts and circumstances (see paragraphs B29–B33).
Structure of the joint arrangement

Joint arrangements not structured through a separate vehicle

B16 A joint arrangement that is not structured through a separate vehicle is a joint operation. In such cases, the contractual arrangement establishes the parties’ rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement, and the parties’ rights to the corresponding revenues and obligations for the corresponding expenses.

B17 The contractual arrangement often describes the nature of the activities that are the subject of the arrangement and how the parties intend to undertake those activities together. For example, the parties to a joint arrangement could agree to manufacture a product together, with each party being responsible for a specific task and each using its own assets and incurring its own liabilities. The contractual arrangement could also specify how the revenues and expenses that are common to the parties are to be shared among them. In such a case, each joint operator recognises in its financial statements the assets and liabilities used for the specific task, and recognises its share of the revenues and expenses in accordance with the contractual arrangement.

B18 In other cases, the parties to a joint arrangement might agree, for example, to share and operate an asset together. In such a case, the contractual arrangement establishes the parties’ rights to the asset that is operated jointly, and how output or revenue from the asset and operating costs are shared among the parties. Each joint operator accounts for its share of the joint asset and its agreed share of any liabilities, and recognises its share of the output, revenues and expenses in accordance with the contractual arrangement.

Joint arrangements structured through a separate vehicle

B19 A joint arrangement in which the assets and liabilities relating to the arrangement are held in a separate vehicle can be either a joint venture or a joint operation.

B20 Whether a party is a joint operator or a joint venturer depends on the party’s rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement that are held in the separate vehicle.

B21 As stated in paragraph B15, when the parties have structured a joint arrangement in a separate vehicle, the parties need to assess whether the legal form of the separate vehicle, the terms of the contractual arrangement and, when relevant, any other facts and circumstances give them:

  • rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement (ie the arrangement is a joint operation); or
  • rights to the net assets of the arrangement (ie the arrangement is a joint venture).

Classification of a joint arrangement: assessment of the parties’ rights and obligations arising from the arrangement

The legal form of the separate vehicle

B22 The legal form of the separate vehicle is relevant when assessing the type of joint arrangement. The legal form assists in the initial assessment of the parties’ rights to the assets and obligations for the liabilities held in the separate vehicle, such as whether the parties have interests in the assets held in the separate vehicle and whether they are liable for the liabilities held in the separate vehicle.

B23 For example, the parties might conduct the joint arrangement through a separate vehicle, whose legal form causes the separate vehicle to be considered in its own right (ie the assets and liabilities held in the separate vehicle are the assets and liabilities of the separate vehicle and not the assets and liabilities of the parties). In such a case, the assessment of the rights and obligations conferred upon the parties by the legal form of the separate vehicle indicates that the arrangement is a joint venture. However, the terms agreed by the parties in their contractual arrangement (see paragraphs B25–B28) and, when relevant, other facts and circumstances (see paragraphs B29–B33) can override the assessment of the rights and obligations conferred upon the parties by the legal form of the separate vehicle.

B24 The assessment of the rights and obligations conferred upon the parties by the legal form of the separate vehicle is sufficient to conclude that the arrangement is a joint operation only if the parties conduct the joint arrangement in a separate vehicle whose legal form does not confer separation between the parties and the separate vehicle (ie the assets and liabilities held in the separate vehicle are the parties’ assets and liabilities).

Assessing the terms of the contractual arrangement

B25 In many cases, the rights and obligations agreed to by the parties in their contractual arrangements are consistent, or do not conflict, with the rights and obligations conferred on the parties by the legal form of the separate vehicle in which the arrangement has been structured.

B26 In other cases, the parties use the contractual arrangement to reverse or modify the rights and obligations conferred by the legal form of the separate vehicle in which the arrangement has been structured.

Application example
Example 4

Assume that two parties structure a joint arrangement in an incorporated entity. Each party has a 50 per cent ownership interest in the incorporated entity. The incorporation enables the separation of the entity from its owners and as a consequence the assets and liabilities held in the entity are the assets and liabilities of the incorporated entity. In such a case, the assessment of the rights and obligations conferred upon the parties by the legal form of the separate vehicle indicates that the parties have rights to the net assets of the arrangement.

However, the parties modify the features of the corporation through their contractual arrangement so that each has an interest in the assets of the incorporated entity and each is liable for the liabilities of the incorporated entity in a specified proportion. Such contractual modifications to the features of a corporation can cause an arrangement to be a joint operation.

B27 The following table compares common terms in contractual arrangements of parties to a joint operation and common terms in contractual arrangements of parties to a joint venture. The examples of the contractual terms provided in the following table are not exhaustive.

Assessing the terms of the contractual arrangement
  Joint operation Joint venture
The terms of the

contractual arrangement

The contractual arrangement provides the parties to the joint arrangement with rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement. The contractual arrangement provides the parties to the joint arrangement with rights to the net assets of the arrangement (ie it is the separate vehicle, not the parties, that has rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement).
Rights to assets The contractual arrangement establishes that the parties to the joint arrangement share all interests (eg rights, title or ownership) in the assets relating to the arrangement in a specified proportion (eg in proportion to the parties’ ownership interest in the arrangement or in proportion to the activity carried out through the arrangement that is directly attributed to them). The contractual arrangement establishes that the assets brought into the arrangement or subsequently acquired by the joint arrangement are the arrangement’s assets. The parties have no interests (ie no rights, title or ownership) in the assets of the arrangement.

continued…

 

Assessing the terms of the contractual arrangement
  Joint operation Joint venture
Obligations for liabilities The contractual arrangement establishes that the parties to the joint arrangement share all liabilities, obligations, costs and expenses in a specified proportion (eg in proportion to the parties’ ownership interest in the arrangement or in proportion to the activity carried out through the arrangement that is directly attributed to them). The contractual arrangement establishes that the joint arrangement is liable for the debts and obligations of the arrangement.
The contractual arrangement establishes that the parties to the joint arrangement are liable to the arrangement only to the extent of their respective investments in the arrangement or to their respective obligations to contribute any unpaid or additional capital to the arrangement, or both.
The contractual arrangement establishes that the parties to the joint arrangement are liable for claims raised by third parties. The contractual arrangement states that creditors of the joint arrangement do not have rights of recourse against any party with respect to debts or obligations of the arrangement.

continued… …continued

Assessing the terms of the contractual arrangement
  Joint operation Joint venture
Revenues, expenses, profit or loss The contractual arrangement establishes the allocation of revenues and expenses on the basis of the relative performance of each party to the joint arrangement. For example, the contractual arrangement might establish that revenues and expenses are allocated on the basis of the capacity that each party uses in a plant operated jointly, which could differ from their ownership interest in the joint arrangement. In other instances, the parties might have agreed to share the profit or loss relating to the arrangement on the basis of a specified proportion such as the parties’ ownership interest in the arrangement. This would not prevent the arrangement from being a joint operation if the parties have rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement. The contractual arrangement establishes each party’s share in the profit or loss relating to the activities of the arrangement.

continued…

Assessing the terms of the contractual arrangement
  Joint operation Joint venture
Guarantees The parties to joint arrangements are often required to provide guarantees to third parties that, for example, receive a service from, or provide financing to, the joint arrangement. The provision of such guarantees, or the commitment by the parties to provide them, does not, by itself, determine that the joint arrangement is a joint operation. The feature that determines whether the joint arrangement is a joint operation or a joint venture is whether the parties have obligations for the liabilities relating to the arrangement (for some of which the parties might or might not have provided a guarantee).

B28 When the contractual arrangement specifies that the parties have rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement, they are parties to a joint operation and do not need to consider other facts and circumstances (paragraphs B29–B33) for the purposes of classifying the joint arrangement.

Assessing other facts and circumstances

B29 When the terms of the contractual arrangement do not specify that the parties have rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement, the parties shall consider other facts and circumstances to assess whether the arrangement is a joint operation or a joint venture.

B30 A joint arrangement might be structured in a separate vehicle whose legal form confers separation between the parties and the separate vehicle. The contractual terms agreed among the parties might not specify the parties’ rights to the assets and obligations for the liabilities, yet consideration of other facts and circumstances can lead to such an arrangement being classified as a joint operation. This will be the case when other facts and circumstances give the parties rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement.

B31 When the activities of an arrangement are primarily designed for the provision of output to the parties, this indicates that the parties have rights to substantially all the economic benefits of the assets of the arrangement. The parties to such arrangements often ensure their access to the outputs provided by the arrangement by preventing the arrangement from selling output to third parties.

B32 The effect of an arrangement with such a design and purpose is that the liabilities incurred by the arrangement are, in substance, satisfied by the cash flows received from the parties through their purchases of the output. When the parties are substantially the only source of cash flows contributing to the

continuity of the operations of the arrangement, this indicates that the parties have an obligation for the liabilities relating to the arrangement.

Application example
Example 5

Assume that two parties structure a joint arrangement in an incorporated entity (entity C) in which each party has a 50 per cent ownership interest. The purpose of the arrangement is to manufacture materials required by the parties for their own, individual manufacturing processes. The arrangement ensures that the parties operate the facility that produces the materials to the quantity and quality specifications of the parties.

The legal form of entity C (an incorporated entity) through which the activities are conducted initially indicates that the assets and liabilities held in entity C are the assets and liabilities of entity C. The contractual arrangement between the parties does not specify that the parties have rights to the assets or obligations for the liabilities of entity C. Accordingly, the legal form of entity C and the terms of the contractual arrangement indicate that the arrangement is a joint venture.

However, the parties also consider the following aspects of the arrangement:

•       The parties agreed to purchase all the output produced by entity C in a ratio of 50:50. Entity C cannot sell any of the output to third parties, unless this is approved by the two parties to the arrangement. Because the purpose of the arrangement is to provide the parties with output they require, such sales to third parties are expected to be uncommon and not material.

•       The price of the output sold to the parties is set by both parties at a level that is designed to cover the costs of production and administrative expenses incurred by entity C. On the basis of this operating model, the arrangement is intended to operate at a break-even level.

continued…

 

Application example
From the fact pattern above, the following facts and circumstances are relevant:

•       The obligation of the parties to purchase all the output produced by entity C reflects the exclusive dependence of entity C upon the parties for the generation of cash flows and, thus, the parties have an obligation to fund the settlement of the liabilities of entity C.

•       The fact that the parties have rights to all the output produced by entity C means that the parties are consuming, and therefore have rights to, all the economic benefits of the assets of entity C.

These facts and circumstances indicate that the arrangement is a joint operation. The conclusion about the classification of the joint arrangement in these circumstances would not change if, instead of the parties using their share of the output themselves in a subsequent manufacturing process, the parties sold their share of the output to third parties.

If the parties changed the terms of the contractual arrangement so that the arrangement was able to sell output to third parties, this would result in entity C assuming demand, inventory and credit risks. In that scenario, such a change in the facts and circumstances would require reassessment of the classification of the joint arrangement. Such facts and circumstances would indicate that the arrangement is a joint venture.

B33 The following flow chart reflects the assessment an entity follows to classify an arrangement when the joint arrangement is structured through a separate vehicle

Financial statements of parties to a joint arrangement (paragraphs 21A–22)

Accounting for acquisitions of interests in joint operations

B33A When an entity acquires an interest in a joint operation in which the activity of the joint operation constitutes a business, as defined in IFRS 3, it shall apply, to the extent of its share in accordance with paragraph 20, all of the principles on business combinations accounting in IFRS 3, and other IFRSs, that do not conflict with the guidance in this IFRS and disclose the information required by those IFRSs in relation to business combinations. The principles on business combinations accounting that do not conflict with the guidance in this IFRS include but are not limited to:

 

  • measuring identifiable assets and liabilities at fair value, other than items for which exceptions are given in IFRS 3 and other IFRSs;
  • recognising acquisition-related costs as expenses in the periods in which the costs are incurred and the services are received, with the exception that the costs to issue debt or equity securities are recognised in accordance with IAS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation and IFRS 9;[1]
  • recognising deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities that arise from the initial recognition of assets or liabilities, except for deferred tax liabilities that arise from the initial recognition of goodwill, as required by IFRS 3 and IAS 12 Income Taxes for business combinations;
  • recognising the excess of the consideration transferred over the net of the acquisition-date amounts of the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed, if any, as goodwill; and
  • testing for impairment a cash-generating unit to which goodwill has been allocated at least annually, and whenever there is an indication that the unit may be impaired, as required by IAS 36 Impairment of Assets for goodwill acquired in a business combination.

B33B Paragraphs 21A and B33A also apply to the formation of a joint operation if, and only if, an existing business, as defined in IFRS 3, is contributed to the joint operation on its formation by one of the parties that participate in the joint operation. However, those paragraphs do not apply to the formation of a joint operation if all of the parties that participate in the joint operation only contribute assets or groups of assets that do not constitute businesses to the joint operation on its formation.

B33C A joint operator might increase its interest in a joint operation in which the activity of the joint operation constitutes a business, as defined in IFRS 3, by acquiring an additional interest in the joint operation. In such cases, previously held interests in the joint operation are not remeasured if the joint operator retains joint control.

B33CA A party that participates in, but does not have joint control of, a joint operation might obtain joint control of the joint operation in which the activity of the joint operation constitutes a business as defined in IFRS 3. In such cases, previously held interests in the joint operation are not remeasured.

B33D Paragraphs 21A and B33A–B33C do not apply on the acquisition of an interest in a joint operation when the parties sharing joint control, including the entity acquiring the interest in the joint operation, are under the common control of the same ultimate controlling party or parties both before and after the acquisition, and that control is not transitory.

Accounting for sales or contributions of assets to a joint operation

B34 When an entity enters into a transaction with a joint operation in which it is a joint operator, such as a sale or contribution of assets, it is conducting the transaction with the other parties to the joint operation and, as such, the joint operator shall recognise gains and losses resulting from such a transaction only to the extent of the other parties’ interests in the joint operation.

B35 When such transactions provide evidence of a reduction in the net realisable value of the assets to be sold or contributed to the joint operation, or of an impairment loss of those assets, those losses shall be recognised fully by the joint operator.

Accounting for purchases of assets from a joint operation

B36 When an entity enters into a transaction with a joint operation in which it is a joint operator, such as a purchase of assets, it shall not recognise its share of the gains and losses until it resells those assets to a third party.

B37 When such transactions provide evidence of a reduction in the net realisable value of the assets to be purchased or of an impairment loss of those assets, a joint operator shall recognise its share of those losses.

Appendix C Effective date, transition and withdrawal of other IFRSs

This appendix is an integral part of the IFRS and has the same authority as the other parts of the IFRS.

Effective date

C1 An entity shall apply this IFRS for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2013. Earlier application is permitted. If an entity applies this IFRS earlier, it shall disclose that fact and apply IFRS 10, IFRS 12 Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities, IAS 27 (as amended in 2011) and IAS 28 (as amended in 2011) at the same time.

C1A Consolidated Financial Statements, Joint Arrangements and Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities: Transition Guidance (Amendments to IFRS 10, IFRS 11 and IFRS 12), issued in June 2012, amended paragraphs C2–C5, C7–C10 and C12 and added paragraphs C1B and C12A–C12B. An entity shall apply those amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2013. If an entity applies IFRS 11 for an earlier period, it shall apply those amendments for that earlier period.

C1AA Accounting for Acquisitions of Interests in Joint Operations (Amendments to IFRS 11), issued in May 2014, amended the heading after paragraph B33 and added paragraphs 21A, B33A–B33D and C14A and their related headings. An entity shall apply those amendments prospectively in annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2016. Earlier application is permitted. If an entity applies those amendments in an earlier period it shall disclose that fact.

C1AB Annual Improvements to IFRS Standards 2015–2017 Cycle, issued in December 2017, added paragraph B33CA. An entity shall apply those amendments to transactions in which it obtains joint control on or after the beginning of the first annual reporting period beginning on or after 1 January 2019. Earlier application is permitted. If an entity applies those amendments earlier, it shall disclose that fact.

Transition

C1B Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph 28 of IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors, when this IFRS is first applied, an entity need only present the quantitative information required by paragraph 28(f) of IAS 8 for the annual period immediately preceding the first annual period for which IFRS 11 is applied (the ‘immediately preceding period’). An entity may also present this information for the current period or for earlier comparative periods, but is not required to do so.

Joint ventures—transition from proportionate consolidation to the equity method

C2 When changing from proportionate consolidation to the equity method, an entity shall recognise its investment in the joint venture as at the beginning of the immediately preceding period. That initial investment shall be measured as the aggregate of the carrying amounts of the assets and liabilities that the entity had previously proportionately consolidated, including any goodwill arising from acquisition. If the goodwill previously belonged to a larger cashgenerating unit, or to a group of cash-generating units, the entity shall allocate goodwill to the joint venture on the basis of the relative carrying amounts of the joint venture and the cash-generating unit or group of cashgenerating units to which it belonged.

C3 The opening balance of the investment determined in accordance with paragraph C2 is regarded as the deemed cost of the investment at initial recognition. An entity shall apply paragraphs 40–43 of IAS 28 (as amended in 2011) to the opening balance of the investment to assess whether the investment is impaired and shall recognise any impairment loss as an adjustment to retained earnings at the beginning of the immediately preceding period. The initial recognition exception in paragraphs 15 and 24 of IAS 12 Income Taxes does not apply when the entity recognises an investment in a joint venture resulting from applying the transition requirements for joint ventures that had previously been proportionately consolidated.

C4 If aggregating all previously proportionately consolidated assets and liabilities results in negative net assets, an entity shall assess whether it has legal or constructive obligations in relation to the negative net assets and, if so, the entity shall recognise the corresponding liability. If the entity concludes that it does not have legal or constructive obligations in relation to the negative net assets, it shall not recognise the corresponding liability but it shall adjust retained earnings at the beginning of the immediately preceding period. The entity shall disclose this fact, along with its cumulative unrecognised share of losses of its joint ventures as at the beginning of the immediately preceding period and at the date at which this IFRS is first applied.

C5 An entity shall disclose a breakdown of the assets and liabilities that have been aggregated into the single line investment balance as at the beginning of the immediately preceding period. That disclosure shall be prepared in an aggregated manner for all joint ventures for which an entity applies the transition requirements referred to in paragraphs C2–C6.

C6 After initial recognition, an entity shall account for its investment in the joint venture using the equity method in accordance with IAS 28 (as amended in 2011).

Joint operations—transition from the equity method to accounting for assets and liabilities

C7 When changing from the equity method to accounting for assets and liabilities in respect of its interest in a joint operation, an entity shall, at the beginning of the immediately preceding period, derecognise the investment that was previously accounted for using the equity method and any other items that formed part of the entity’s net investment in the arrangement in accordance with paragraph 38 of IAS 28 (as amended in 2011) and recognise its share of each of the assets and the liabilities in respect of its interest in the joint operation, including any goodwill that might have formed part of the carrying amount of the investment.

C8 An entity shall determine its interest in the assets and liabilities relating to the joint operation on the basis of its rights and obligations in a specified proportion in accordance with the contractual arrangement. An entity measures the initial carrying amounts of the assets and liabilities by disaggregating them from the carrying amount of the investment at the beginning of the immediately preceding period on the basis of the information used by the entity in applying the equity method.

C9 Any difference arising from the investment previously accounted for using the equity method together with any other items that formed part of the entity’s net investment in the arrangement in accordance with paragraph 38 of IAS 28 (as amended in 2011), and the net amount of the assets and liabilities, including any goodwill, recognised shall be:

  • offset against any goodwill relating to the investment with any remaining difference adjusted against retained earnings at the beginning of the immediately preceding period, if the net amount of the assets and liabilities, including any goodwill, recognised is higher than the investment (and any other items that formed part of the entity’s net investment) derecognised.
  • adjusted against retained earnings at the beginning of the immediately preceding period, if the net amount of the assets and liabilities, including any goodwill, recognised is lower than the investment (and any other items that formed part of the entity’s net investment) derecognised.

C10 An entity changing from the equity method to accounting for assets and liabilities shall provide a reconciliation between the investment derecognised, and the assets and liabilities recognised, together with any remaining difference adjusted against retained earnings, at the beginning of the immediately preceding period.

C11 The initial recognition exception in paragraphs 15 and 24 of IAS 12 does not apply when the entity recognises assets and liabilities relating to its interest in a joint operation.

Transition provisions in an entity’s separate financial statements

C12 An entity that, in accordance with paragraph 10 of IAS 27, was previously accounting in its separate financial statements for its interest in a joint operation as an investment at cost or in accordance with IFRS 9 shall:

  • derecognise the investment and recognise the assets and the liabilities in respect of its interest in the joint operation at the amounts determined in accordance with paragraphs C7–C9.
  • provide a reconciliation between the investment derecognised, and the assets and liabilities recognised, together with any remaining difference adjusted in retained earnings, at the beginning of the immediately preceding period.

C13 The initial recognition exception in paragraphs 15 and 24 of IAS 12 does not apply when the entity recognises assets and liabilities relating to its interest in a joint operation in its separate financial statements resulting from applying the transition requirements for joint operations referred to in paragraph C12.

References to the ‘immediately preceding period’

C13A Notwithstanding the references to the ‘immediately preceding period’ in paragraphs C2–C12, an entity may also present adjusted comparative information for any earlier periods presented, but is not required to do so. If an entity does present adjusted comparative information for any earlier periods, all references to the ‘immediately preceding period’ in paragraphs C2–C12 shall be read as the ‘earliest adjusted comparative period presented’.

C13B If an entity presents unadjusted comparative information for any earlier periods, it shall clearly identify the information that has not been adjusted, state that it has been prepared on a different basis, and explain that basis.

References to IFRS 9

C14 If an entity applies this IFRS but does not yet apply IFRS 9, any reference to IFRS 9 shall be read as a reference to IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement.

Accounting for acquisitions of interests in joint operations

C14A Accounting for Acquisitions of Interests in Joint Operations (Amendments to IFRS 11), issued in May 2014, amended the heading after paragraph B33 and added paragraphs 21A, B33A–B33D, C1AA and their related headings. An entity shall apply those amendments prospectively for acquisitions of interests in joint operations in which the activities of the joint operations constitute businesses, as defined in IFRS 3, for those acquisitions occurring from the beginning of the first period in which it applies those amendments. Consequently, amounts recognised for acquisitions of interests in joint operations occurring in prior periods shall not be adjusted.

Withdrawal of other IFRSs

C15              This IFRS supersedes the following IFRSs:

  • IAS 31 Interests in Joint Ventures; and
  • SIC‑13 Jointly Controlled Entities—Non-Monetary Contributions by Venturers.

Appendix D Amendments to other IFRSs

This appendix sets out amendments to other IFRSs that are a consequence of the Board issuing IFRS 11. An entity shall apply the amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2013. If an entity applies IFRS 11 for an earlier period, it shall apply the amendments for that earlier period. Amended paragraphs are shown with new text underlined and deleted text struck through.

* * * * *

The amendments contained in this appendix when this IFRS was issued in 2011 have been incorporated into the relevant IFRSs published in this volume.

[1] If an entity applies these amendments but does not yet apply IFRS 9, the reference in these amendments to IFRS 9 shall be read as a reference to IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement.

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