IFRS 17 Insurance Contracts

IFRS 17 INSURANCE CONTRACTS

International Financial Reporting Standard 17

Insurance Contracts

Objective

  • IFRS 17 Insurance Contracts establishes principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of insurance contracts within the scope of the Standard. The objective of IFRS 17 is to ensure that an entity provides relevant information that faithfully represents those contracts. This information gives a basis for users of financial statements to assess the effect that insurance contracts have on the entity’s financial position, financial performance and cash flows.
  • An entity shall consider its substantive rights and obligations, whether they arise from a contract, law or regulation, when applying IFRS 17. A contract is an agreement between two or more parties that creates enforceable rights and obligations. Enforceability of the rights and obligations in a contract is a matter of law. Contracts can be written, oral or implied by an entity’s customary business practices. Contractual terms include all terms in a contract, explicit or implied, but an entity shall disregard terms that have no commercial substance (ie no discernible effect on the economics of the contract). Implied terms in a contract include those imposed by law or regulation. The practices and processes for establishing contracts with customers vary across legal jurisdictions, industries and entities. In addition, they may vary within an entity (for example, they may depend on the class of customer or the nature of the promised goods or services).

Scope

  • An entity shall apply IFRS 17 to:
    • insurance contracts, including reinsurance contracts, it issues;
    • reinsurance contracts it holds; and
    • investment contracts with discretionary participation features it issues, provided the entity also issues insurance contracts.
  • All references in IFRS 17 to insurance contracts also apply to:
    • reinsurance contracts held, except:

(i) for references to insurance contracts issued; and (ii)  as described in paragraphs 60–70.

  • investment contracts with discretionary participation features as set out in paragraph 3(c), except for the reference to insurance contracts in paragraph 3(c) and as described in paragraph 71.
  • All references in IFRS 17 to insurance contracts issued also apply to insurance contracts acquired by the entity in a transfer of insurance contracts or a business combination other than reinsurance contracts held.
  • Appendix A defines an insurance contract and paragraphs B2–B30 of

Appendix B provide guidance on the definition of an insurance contract.

  • An entity shall not apply IFRS 17 to:
    • warranties provided by a manufacturer, dealer or retailer in connection with the sale of its goods or services to a customer (see IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers).
    • employers’ assets and liabilities from employee benefit plans (see IAS 19 Employee Benefits and IFRS 2 Share-based Payment) and retirement benefit obligations reported by defined benefit retirement plans (see IAS 26 Accounting and Reporting by Retirement Benefit Plans).
    • contractual rights or contractual obligations contingent on the future use of, or the right to use, a non-financial item (for example, some licence fees, royalties, variable and other contingent lease payments and similar items: see IFRS 15, IAS 38 Intangible Assets and IFRS 16

Leases).

  • residual value guarantees provided by a manufacturer, dealer or retailer and a lessee’s residual value guarantees when they are embedded in a lease (see IFRS 15 and IFRS 16).
  • financial guarantee contracts, unless the issuer has previously asserted explicitly that it regards such contracts as insurance contracts and has used accounting applicable to insurance contracts. The issuer shall choose to apply either IFRS 17 or IAS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation, IFRS 7 Financial Instruments: Disclosures and IFRS 9 Financial Instruments to such financial guarantee contracts. The issuer may make that choice contract by contract, but the choice for each contract is irrevocable.
  • contingent consideration payable or receivable in a business combination (see IFRS 3 Business Combinations).
  • insurance contracts in which the entity is the policyholder, unless those contracts are reinsurance contracts held (see paragraph 3(b)).
  • Some contracts meet the definition of an insurance contract but have as their primary purpose the provision of services for a fixed fee. An entity may choose to apply IFRS 15 instead of IFRS 17 to such contracts that it issues if, and only if, specified conditions are met. The entity may make that choice contract by contract, but the choice for each contract is irrevocable. The conditions are:
    • the entity does not reflect an assessment of the risk associated with an individual customer in setting the price of the contract with that customer;
    • the contract compensates the customer by providing services, rather than by making cash payments to the customer; and
    • the insurance risk transferred by the contract arises primarily from the customer’s use of services rather than from uncertainty over the cost of those services.

Combination of insurance contracts

9 A set or series of insurance contracts with the same or a related counterparty may achieve, or be designed to achieve, an overall commercial effect. In order to report the substance of such contracts, it may be necessary to treat the set or series of contracts as a whole. For example, if the rights or obligations in one contract do nothing other than entirely negate the rights or obligations in another contract entered into at the same time with the same counterparty, the combined effect is that no rights or obligations exist.

Separating components from an insurance contract (paragraphs B31–B35)

  • An insurance contract may contain one or more components that would be within the scope of another Standard if they were separate contracts. For example, an insurance contract may include an investment component or a service component (or both). An entity shall apply paragraphs 11–13 to identify and account for the components of the contract.
  • An entity shall:
    • apply IFRS 9 to determine whether there is an embedded derivative to be separated and, if there is, how to account for that derivative.
    • separate from a host insurance contract an investment component if, and only if, that investment component is distinct (see paragraphs B31–B32). The entity shall apply IFRS 9 to account for the separated investment component.
  • After applying paragraph 11 to separate any cash flows related to embedded derivatives and distinct investment components, an entity shall separate from the host insurance contract any promise to transfer distinct goods or non‑insurance services to a policyholder, applying paragraph 7 of IFRS 15. The entity shall account for such promises applying IFRS 15. In applying paragraph 7 of IFRS 15 to separate the promise, the entity shall apply paragraphs B33–B35 of IFRS 17 and, on initial recognition, shall:
    • apply IFRS 15 to attribute the cash inflows between the insurance component and any promises to provide distinct goods or non‑insurance services; and
    • attribute the cash outflows between the insurance component and any promised goods or non‑insurance services accounted for applying IFRS 15 so that:
      • cash outflows that relate directly to each component are attributed to that component; and
      • any remaining cash outflows are attributed on a systematic and rational basis, reflecting the cash outflows the entity would expect to arise if that component were a separate contract.
    • After applying paragraphs 11–12, an entity shall apply IFRS 17 to all remaining components of the host insurance contract. Hereafter, all references in IFRS 17 to embedded derivatives refer to derivatives that have not been separated from the host insurance contract and all references to investment components refer to investment components that have not been separated from the host insurance contract (except those references in paragraphs B31–B32).

Level of aggregation of insurance contracts

  • An entity shall identify portfolios of insurance contracts. A portfolio comprises contracts subject to similar risks and managed together. Contracts within a product line would be expected to have similar risks and hence would be expected to be in the same portfolio if they are managed together. Contracts in different product lines (for example single premium fixed annuities compared with regular term life assurance) would not be expected to have similar risks and hence would be expected to be in different portfolios.
  • Paragraphs 16–24 apply to insurance contracts issued. The requirements for the level of aggregation of reinsurance contracts held are set out in paragraph 61.
  • An entity shall divide a portfolio of insurance contracts issued into a minimum of:
    • a group of contracts that are onerous at initial recognition, if any;
    • a group of contracts that at initial recognition have no significant possibility of becoming onerous subsequently, if any; and
    • a group of the remaining contracts in the portfolio, if any.
  • If an entity has reasonable and supportable information to conclude that a set of contracts will all be in the same group applying paragraph 16, it may measure the set of contracts to determine if the contracts are onerous (see paragraph 47) and assess the set of contracts to determine if the contracts have no significant possibility of becoming onerous subsequently (see paragraph 19). If the entity does not have reasonable and supportable information to conclude that a set of contracts will all be in the same group, it shall determine the group to which contracts belong by considering individual contracts.
  • For contracts issued to which an entity applies the premium allocation approach (see paragraphs 53–59), the entity shall assume no contracts in the portfolio are onerous at initial recognition, unless facts and circumstances indicate otherwise. An entity shall assess whether contracts that are not onerous at initial recognition have no significant possibility of becoming onerous subsequently by assessing the likelihood of changes in applicable facts and circumstances.
  • For contracts issued to which an entity does not apply the premium allocation approach (see paragraphs 53–59), an entity shall assess whether contracts that are not onerous at initial recognition have no significant possibility of becoming onerous:
    • based on the likelihood of changes in assumptions which, if they occurred, would result in the contracts becoming onerous.
    • using information about estimates provided by the entity’s internal reporting. Hence, in assessing whether contracts that are not onerous at initial recognition have no significant possibility of becoming onerous:
      • an entity shall not disregard information provided by its internal reporting about the effect of changes in assumptions on different contracts on the possibility of their becoming onerous; but
      • an entity is not required to gather additional information beyond that provided by the entity’s internal reporting about the effect of changes in assumptions on different contracts.
    • If, applying paragraphs 14–19, contracts within a portfolio would fall into different groups only because law or regulation specifically constrains the entity’s practical ability to set a different price or level of benefits for policyholders with different characteristics, the entity may include those contracts in the same group. The entity shall not apply this paragraph by analogy to other items.
    • An entity is permitted to subdivide the groups described in paragraph 16. For example, an entity may choose to divide the portfolios into:
      • more groups that are not onerous at initial recognition—if the entity’s internal reporting provides information that distinguishes:
        • different levels of profitability; or
        • different possibilities of contracts becoming onerous after initial recognition; and
      • more than one group of contracts that are onerous at initial recognition—if the entity’s internal reporting provides information at a more detailed level about the extent to which the contracts are onerous.
    • An entity shall not include contracts issued more than one year apart in the same group. To achieve this the entity shall, if necessary, further divide the groups described in paragraphs 16–21.
    • A group of insurance contracts shall comprise a single contract if that is the result of applying paragraphs 14–22.
    • An entity shall apply the recognition and measurement requirements of IFRS 17 to the groups of contracts issued determined by applying paragraphs 14–23. An entity shall establish the groups at initial recognition, and shall not reassess the composition of the groups subsequently. To measure a group of contracts, an entity may estimate the fulfilment cash flows at a higher level of aggregation than the group or portfolio, provided the entity is able to include the appropriate fulfilment cash flows in the measurement of the group, applying paragraphs 32(a), 40(a)(i) and 40(b), by allocating such estimates to groups of contracts.

Recognition

  • An entity shall recognise a group of insurance contracts it issues from the earliest of the following:
    • the beginning of the coverage period of the group of contracts;
    • the date when the first payment from a policyholder in the group becomes due; and
    • for a group of onerous contracts, when the group becomes onerous.
  • If there is no contractual due date, the first payment from the policyholder is deemed to be due when it is received. An entity is required to determine whether any contracts form a group of onerous contracts applying paragraph 16 before the earlier of the dates set out in paragraphs 25(a) and 25(b) if facts and circumstances indicate there is such a group.
  • An entity shall recognise an asset or liability for any insurance acquisition cash flows relating to a group of issued insurance contracts that the entity pays or receives before the group is recognised, unless it chooses to recognise them as expenses or income applying paragraph 59(a). An entity shall derecognise the asset or liability resulting from such insurance acquisition cash flows when the group of insurance contracts to which the cash flows are allocated is recognised (see paragraph 38(b)).
  • In recognising a group of insurance contracts in a reporting period, an entity shall include only contracts issued by the end of the reporting period and shall make estimates for the discount rates at the date of initial recognition (see paragraph B73) and the coverage units provided in the reporting period (see paragraph B119). An entity may issue more contracts in the group after the end of a reporting period, subject to paragraph 22. An entity shall add the contracts to the group in the reporting period in which the contracts are issued. This may result in a change to the determination of the discount rates at the date of initial recognition applying paragraph B73. An entity shall apply the revised rates from the start of the reporting period in which the new contracts are added to the group.

Measurement (paragraphs B36–B119)

  • An entity shall apply paragraphs 30–52 to all groups of insurance contracts within the scope of IFRS 17, with the following exceptions:
    • for groups of insurance contracts meeting either of the criteria specified in paragraph 53, an entity may simplify the measurement of the group using the premium allocation approach in paragraphs 55–59.
    • for groups      of            reinsurance              contracts held,        an            entity      shall apply               paragraphs               32–46      as            required   by      paragraphs               63–70.

Paragraphs 45 (on insurance contracts with direct participation features) and 47–52 (on onerous contracts) do not apply to groups of reinsurance contracts held.

  • for groups of investment contracts with discretionary participation features, an entity shall apply paragraphs 32–52 as modified by paragraph 71.
  • When applying IAS 21 The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates to a group of insurance contracts that generate cash flows in a foreign currency, an entity shall treat the group of contracts, including the contractual service margin, as a monetary item.
  • In the financial statements of an entity that issues insurance contracts, the fulfilment cash flows shall not reflect the non-performance risk of that entity (non-performance risk is defined in IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement).

Measurement on initial recognition (paragraphs B36–B95)

32                                        On initial recognition, an entity shall measure a group of insurance

contracts at the total of:

  • the fulfilment cash flows, which comprise:
    • estimates of future cash flows (paragraphs 33–35);
    • an adjustment to reflect the time value of money and the financial risks related to the future cash flows, to the extent that the financial risks are not included in the estimates of the future cash flows (paragraph 36); and
    • a risk adjustment for non-financial risk (paragraph 37).
  • the contractual service margin, measured applying paragraphs 38–39.
Estimates of future cash flows (paragraphs B36–B71)
  • An entity shall include in the measurement of a group of insurance contracts all the future cash flows within the boundary of each contract in the group (see paragraph 34). Applying paragraph 24, an entity may estimate the future cash flows at a higher level of aggregation and then

allocate the resulting fulfilment cash flows to individual groups of contracts. The estimates of future cash flows shall:

  • incorporate, in an unbiased way, all reasonable and supportable information available without undue cost or effort about the amount, timing and uncertainty of those future cash flows (see paragraphs B37–B41). To do this, an entity shall estimate the expected value (ie the probability-weighted mean) of the full range of possible outcomes.
  • reflect the perspective of the entity, provided that the estimates of any relevant market variables are consistent with observable market prices for those variables (see paragraphs B42–B53).
  • be current—the estimates shall reflect conditions existing at the measurement date, including assumptions at that date about the future (see paragraphs B54–B60).
  • be explicit—the entity shall estimate the adjustment for nonfinancial risk separately from the other estimates (see paragraph B90). The entity also shall estimate the cash flows separately from the adjustment for the time value of money and financial risk, unless the most appropriate measurement technique combines these estimates (see paragraph B46).
  • Cash flows are within the boundary of an insurance contract if they arise from substantive rights and obligations that exist during the reporting period in which the entity can compel the policyholder to pay the premiums or in which the entity has a substantive obligation to provide the policyholder with services (see paragraphs B61–B71). A substantive obligation to provide services ends when:
    • the entity has the practical ability to reassess the risks of the particular policyholder and, as a result, can set a price or level of benefits that fully reflects those risks; or
    • both of the following criteria are satisfied:
      • the entity has the practical ability to reassess the risks of the portfolio of insurance contracts that contains the contract and, as a result, can set a price or level of benefits that fully reflects the risk of that portfolio; and
      • the pricing of the premiums for coverage up to the date when the risks are reassessed does not take into account the risks that relate to periods after the reassessment date.
    • An entity shall not recognise as a liability or as an asset any amounts relating to expected premiums or expected claims outside the boundary of the insurance contract. Such amounts relate to future insurance contracts.
Discount rates (paragraphs B72–B85)

36 An entity shall adjust the estimates of future cash flows to reflect the time value of money and the financial risks related to those cash flows, to the extent that the financial risks are not included in the estimates of cash flows. The discount rates applied to the estimates of the future cash flows described in paragraph 33 shall:

  • reflect the time value of money, the characteristics of the cash flows and the liquidity characteristics of the insurance contracts;
  • be consistent with observable current market prices (if any) for financial instruments with cash flows whose characteristics are consistent with those of the insurance contracts, in terms of, for example, timing, currency and liquidity; and
  • exclude the effect of factors that influence such observable market prices but do not affect the future cash flows of the insurance contracts.
Risk adjustment for non-financial risk (paragraphs B86–B92)

37 An entity shall adjust the estimate of the present value of the future cash flows to reflect the compensation that the entity requires for bearing the uncertainty about the amount and timing of the cash flows that arises from non-financial risk.

Contractual service margin
  • The contractual service margin is a component of the asset or liability for the group of insurance contracts that represents the unearned profit the entity will recognise as it provides services in the future. An entity shall measure the contractual service margin on initial recognition of a group of insurance contracts at an amount that, unless paragraph 47 (on onerous contracts) applies, results in no income or expenses arising from:
    • the initial recognition of an amount for the fulfilment cash flows, measured by applying paragraphs 32–37;
    • the derecognition at the date of initial recognition of any asset or liability recognised for insurance acquisition cash flows applying paragraph 27; and
    • any cash flows arising from the contracts in the group at that date.
  • For insurance contracts acquired in a transfer of insurance contracts or a business combination, an entity shall apply paragraph 38 in accordance with paragraphs B93–B95.

Subsequent measurement

  • The carrying amount of a group of insurance contracts at the end of each reporting period shall be the sum of:
    • the liability for remaining coverage comprising:
      • the fulfilment cash flows related to future service allocated to the group at that date, measured applying paragraphs 33–37 and B36–B92;
      • the contractual service margin of the group at that date, measured applying paragraphs 43–46; and
    • the liability for incurred claims, comprising the fulfilment cash flows related to past service allocated to the group at that date, measured applying paragraphs 33–37 and B36–B92.
  • An entity shall recognise income and expenses for the following changes in the carrying amount of the liability for remaining coverage:
    • insurance revenue—for the reduction in the liability for remaining coverage because of services provided in the period, measured applying paragraphs B120–B124;
    • insurance service expenses—for losses on groups of onerous

contracts, and reversals of such losses (see paragraphs 47–52); and

  • insurance finance income or expenses—for the effect of the time value of money and the effect of financial risk as specified in paragraph 87.
  • An entity shall recognise income and expenses for the following changes in the carrying amount of the liability for incurred claims:
    • insurance service expenses—for the increase in the liability because of claims and expenses incurred in the period, excluding any investment components;
    • insurance service expenses—for any subsequent changes in fulfilment cash flows relating to incurred claims and incurred expenses; and
    • insurance finance income or expenses—for the effect of the time value of money and the effect of financial risk as specified in paragraph 87.
Contractual service margin (paragraphs B96–B119)
  • The contractual service margin at the end of the reporting period represents the profit in the group of insurance contracts that has not yet been recognised in profit or loss because it relates to the future service to be provided under the contracts in the group.
  • For insurance contracts without direct participation features, the carrying amount of the contractual service margin of a group of contracts at the end of the reporting period equals the carrying amount at the start of the reporting period adjusted for:
    • the effect of any new contracts added to the group (see paragraph 28);
    • interest accreted on the carrying amount of the contractual service margin during the reporting period, measured at the discount rates specified in paragraph B72(b);
    • the changes in fulfilment cash flows relating to future service as specified in paragraphs B96–B100, except to the extent that:
      • such increases in the fulfilment cash flows exceed the carrying amount of the contractual service margin, giving rise to a loss (see paragraph 48(a)); or
      • such decreases in the fulfilment cash flows are allocated to the loss component of the liability for remaining coverage applying paragraph 50(b).
    • the effect of any currency exchange differences on the contractual service margin; and
    • the amount recognised as insurance revenue because of the transfer of services in the period, determined by the allocation of the contractual service margin remaining at the end of the reporting period (before any allocation) over the current and remaining coverage period applying paragraph B119.
  • For insurance contracts with direct participation features (see paragraphs B101–B118), the carrying amount of the contractual service margin of a group of contracts at the end of the reporting period equals the carrying amount at the start of the reporting period adjusted for the amounts specified in subparagraphs (a)–(e) below. An entity is not required to identify these adjustments separately. Instead, a combined amount may be determined for some, or all, of the adjustments. The adjustments are:
    • the effect of any new contracts added to the group (see paragraph 28);
    • the entity’s share of the change in the fair value of the underlying items (see paragraph B104(b)(i)), except to the extent that:
      • paragraph B115 (on risk mitigation) applies;
      • the entity’s share of a decrease in the fair value of the underlying items exceeds the carrying amount of the contractual service margin, giving rise to a loss (see paragraph 48); or
      • the entity’s share of an increase in the fair value of the underlying items reverses the amount in (ii).
    • the changes in fulfilment cash flows relating to future service, as specified in paragraphs B101–B118, except to the extent that:
      • paragraph B115 (on risk mitigation) applies;
      • such increases in the fulfilment cash flows exceed the carrying amount of the contractual service margin, giving rise to a loss (see paragraph 48); or
      • such decreases in the fulfilment cash flows are allocated to the loss component of the liability for remaining coverage applying paragraph 50(b).
    • the effect of any currency exchange differences arising on the contractual service margin; and
    • the amount recognised as insurance revenue because of the transfer of services in the period, determined by the allocation of the contractual service margin remaining at the end of the reporting period (before any allocation) over the current and remaining coverage period, applying paragraph B119.
  • Some changes in the contractual service margin offset changes in the fulfilment cash flows for the liability for remaining coverage, resulting in no change in the total carrying amount of the liability for remaining coverage. To the extent that changes in the contractual service margin do not offset changes in the fulfilment cash flows for the liability for remaining coverage, an entity shall recognise income and expenses for the changes, applying paragraph 41.

Onerous contracts

  • An insurance contract is onerous at the date of initial recognition if the fulfilment cash flows allocated to the contract, any previously recognised acquisition cash flows and any cash flows arising from the contract at the date of initial recognition in total are a net outflow. Applying paragraph 16(a), an entity shall group such contracts separately from contracts that are not onerous. To the extent that paragraph 17 applies, an entity may identify the group of onerous contracts by measuring a set of contracts rather than individual contracts. An entity shall recognise a loss in profit or loss for the net outflow for the group of onerous contracts, resulting in the carrying amount of the liability for the group being equal to the fulfilment cash flows and the contractual service margin of the group being zero.
  • A group of insurance contracts becomes onerous (or more onerous) on subsequent measurement if the following amounts exceed the carrying amount of the contractual service margin:
    • unfavourable changes in the fulfilment cash flows allocated to the group arising from changes in estimates of future cash flows relating to future service; and
    • for a group of insurance contracts with direct participation features, the entity’s share of a decrease in the fair value of the underlying items.

Applying paragraphs 44(c)(i), 45(b)(ii) and 45(c)(ii), an entity shall recognise a loss in profit or loss to the extent of that excess.

  • An entity shall establish (or increase) a loss component of the liability for remaining coverage for an onerous group depicting the losses recognised applying paragraphs 47–48. The loss component determines the amounts that are presented in profit or loss as reversals of losses on onerous groups and are consequently excluded from the determination of insurance revenue.
  • After an entity has recognised a loss on an onerous group of insurance contracts, it shall allocate:
    • the subsequent changes in fulfilment cash flows of the liability for remaining coverage specified in paragraph 51 on a systematic basis between:
      • the loss component of the liability for remaining coverage; and
      • the liability for remaining coverage, excluding the loss component.
    • any subsequent decrease in fulfilment cash flows allocated to the group arising from changes in estimates of future cash flows relating to future service and any subsequent increases in the entity’s share in the fair value of the underlying items solely to the loss component until that component is reduced to zero. Applying paragraphs 44(c)(ii), 45(b)(iii) and 45(c)(iii), an entity shall adjust the contractual service margin only for the excess of the decrease over the amount allocated to the loss component.
  • The subsequent changes in the fulfilment cash flows of the liability for remaining coverage to be allocated applying paragraph 50(a) are:
    • estimates of the present value of future cash flows for claims and expenses released from the liability for remaining coverage because of incurred insurance service expenses;
    • changes in the risk adjustment for non-financial risk recognised in profit or loss because of the release from risk; and (c) insurance finance income or expenses.
  • The systematic allocation required by paragraph 50(a) shall result in the total amounts allocated to the loss component in accordance with paragraphs 48–50 being equal to zero by the end of the coverage period of a group of contracts.

Premium allocation approach

  • An entity may simplify the measurement of a group of insurance contracts using the premium allocation approach set out in paragraphs 55–59 if, and only if, at the inception of the group:
    • the entity reasonably expects that such simplification would produce a measurement of the liability for remaining coverage for the group that would not differ materially from the one that would be produced applying the requirements in paragraphs 32–52; or
    • the coverage period of each contract in the group (including coverage arising from all premiums within the contract boundary determined at that date applying paragraph 34) is one year or less.
  • The criterion in paragraph 53(a) is not met if at the inception of the group an entity expects significant variability in the fulfilment cash flows that would affect the measurement of the liability for remaining coverage during the period before a claim is incurred. Variability in the fulfilment cash flows increases with, for example:
    • the extent of future cash flows relating to any derivatives embedded in the contracts; and
    • the length of the coverage period of the group of contracts.
  • Using the premium allocation approach, an entity shall measure the liability for remaining coverage as follows:
    • on initial recognition, the carrying amount of the liability is:
      • the premiums, if any, received at initial recognition;
      • minus any insurance acquisition cash flows at that date, unless the entity chooses to recognise the payments as an expense applying paragraph 59(a); and
      • plus or minus any amount arising from the derecognition at that date of the asset or liability recognised for insurance acquisition cash flows applying paragraph 27.
    • at the end of each subsequent reporting period, the carrying amount of the liability is the carrying amount at the start of the reporting period:
      • plus the premiums received in the period;
      • minus insurance acquisition cash flows; unless the entity chooses to recognise the payments as an expense applying paragraph 59(a);
      • plus any amounts relating to the amortisation of insurance acquisition cash flows recognised as an expense in the reporting period; unless the entity chooses to recognise insurance acquisition cash flows as an expense applying paragraph 59(a);
      • plus any adjustment to a financing component, applying paragraph 56;
      • minus the amount recognised as insurance revenue for

coverage provided in that period (see paragraph B126); and

  • minus any investment component paid or transferred to the liability for incurred claims.
  • If insurance contracts in the group have a significant financing component, an entity shall adjust the carrying amount of the liability for remaining coverage to reflect the time value of money and the effect of financial risk using the discount rates specified in paragraph 36, as determined on initial recognition. The entity is not required to adjust the carrying amount of the liability for remaining coverage to reflect the time value of money and the effect of financial risk if, at initial recognition, the entity expects that the time between providing each part of the coverage and the related premium due date is no more than a year.
  • If at any time during the coverage period, facts and circumstances indicate that a group of insurance contracts is onerous, an entity shall calculate the difference between:
    • the carrying amount of the liability for remaining coverage determined applying paragraph 55; and
    • the fulfilment cash flows that relate to remaining coverage of the group, applying paragraphs 33–37 and B36–B92. However, if, in applying paragraph 59(b), the entity does not adjust the liability for incurred claims for the time value of money and the effect of financial risk, it shall not include in the fulfilment cash flows any such adjustment.
  • To the extent that the fulfilment cash flows described in paragraph 57(b) exceed the carrying amount described in paragraph 57(a), the entity shall recognise a loss in profit or loss and increase the liability for remaining coverage.
  • In applying the premium allocation approach, an entity:
    • may choose to recognise any insurance acquisition cash flows as expenses when it incurs those costs, provided that the coverage period of each contract in the group at initial recognition is no more than one year.
    • shall measure the liability for incurred claims for the group of insurance contracts at the fulfilment cash flows relating to incurred claims, applying paragraphs 33–37 and B36–B92. However, the entity is not required to adjust future cash flows for the time value of money and the effect of financial risk if those cash flows are expected to be paid or received in one year or less from the date the claims are incurred.

Reinsurance contracts held

  • The requirements in IFRS 17 are modified for reinsurance contracts held, as set out in paragraphs 61–70.
  • An entity shall divide portfolios of reinsurance contracts held applying paragraphs 14–24, except that the references to onerous contracts in those paragraphs shall be replaced with a reference to contracts on which there is a net gain on initial recognition. For some reinsurance contracts held, applying paragraphs 14–24 will result in a group that comprises a single contract.
Recognition

62 Instead of applying paragraph 25, an entity shall recognise a group of reinsurance contracts held:

  • if the reinsurance contracts held provide proportionate coverage—at the beginning of the coverage period of the group of reinsurance contracts held or at the initial recognition of any underlying contract, whichever is the later; and
  • in all other cases—from the beginning of the coverage period of the group of reinsurance contracts held.
Measurement
  • In applying the measurement requirements of paragraphs 32–36 to reinsurance contracts held, to the extent that the underlying contracts are also measured applying those paragraphs, the entity shall use consistent assumptions to measure the estimates of the present value of the future cash flows for the group of reinsurance contracts held and the estimates of the present value of the future cash flows for the group(s) of underlying insurance contracts. In addition, the entity shall include in the estimates of the present value of the future cash flows for the group of reinsurance contracts held the effect of any risk of non-performance by the issuer of the reinsurance contract, including the effects of collateral and losses from disputes.
  • Instead of applying paragraph 37, an entity shall determine the risk adjustment for non-financial risk so that it represents the amount of risk being transferred by the holder of the group of reinsurance contracts to the issuer of those contracts.
  • The requirements of paragraph 38 that relate to determining the contractual service margin on initial recognition are modified to reflect the fact that for a group of reinsurance contracts held there is no unearned profit but instead a net cost or net gain on purchasing the reinsurance. Hence, on initial recognition:
    • the entity shall recognise any net cost or net gain on purchasing the group of reinsurance contracts held as a contractual service margin measured at an amount equal to the sum of the fulfilment cash flows, the amount derecognised at that date of any asset or liability previously recognised for cash flows related to the group of reinsurance contracts held, and any cash flows arising at that date; unless
    • the net cost of purchasing reinsurance coverage relates to events that occurred before the purchase of the group of reinsurance contracts, in which case, notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph B5, the entity shall recognise such a cost immediately in profit or loss as an expense.
  • Instead of applying paragraph 44, an entity shall measure the contractual service margin at the end of the reporting period for a group of reinsurance contracts held as the carrying amount determined at the start of the reporting period, adjusted for:
    • the effect of any new contracts added to the group (see paragraph 28);
    • interest accreted on the carrying amount of the contractual service margin, measured at the discount rates specified in paragraph B72(b); (c) changes in the fulfilment cash flows to the extent that the change:
      • relates to future service; unless
      • the change results from a change in fulfilment cash flows allocated to a group of underlying insurance contracts that does not adjust the contractual service margin for the group of underlying insurance contracts.
    • the effect of any currency exchange differences arising on the contractual service margin; and
    • the amount recognised in profit or loss because of services received in the period, determined by the allocation of the contractual service margin remaining at the end of the reporting period (before any allocation) over the current and remaining coverage period of the group of reinsurance contracts held, applying paragraph B119.
  • Changes in the fulfilment cash flows that result from changes in the risk of non-performance by the issuer of a reinsurance contract held do not relate to future service and shall not adjust the contractual service margin.
  • Reinsurance contracts held cannot be onerous. Accordingly, the requirements of paragraphs 47–52 do not apply.
Premium allocation approach for reinsurance contracts held
  • An entity may use the premium allocation approach set out in paragraphs 55–56 and 59 (adapted to reflect the features of reinsurance contracts held that differ from insurance contracts issued, for example the generation of expenses or reduction in expenses rather than revenue) to simplify the measurement of a group of reinsurance contracts held, if at the inception of the group:
    • the entity reasonably expects the resulting measurement would not differ materially from the result of applying the requirements in paragraphs 63–68; or
    • the coverage period of each contract in the group of reinsurance contracts held (including coverage from all premiums within the contract boundary determined at that date applying paragraph 34) is one year or less.
  • An entity cannot meet the condition in paragraph 69(a) if, at the inception of the group, an entity expects significant variability in the fulfilment cash flows that would affect the measurement of the asset for remaining coverage during the period before a claim is incurred. Variability in the fulfilment cash flows increases with, for example:
    • the extent of future cash flows relating to any derivatives embedded in the contracts; and
    • the length of the coverage period of the group of reinsurance contracts held.

Investment contracts with discretionary participation features

71 An investment contract with discretionary participation features does not include a transfer of significant insurance risk. Consequently, the requirements in IFRS 17 for insurance contracts are modified for investment contracts with discretionary participation features as follows:

  • the date of initial recognition (see paragraph 25) is the date the entity becomes party to the contract.
  • the contract boundary (see paragraph 34) is modified so that cash flows are within the contract boundary if they result from a substantive obligation of the entity to deliver cash at a present or future date. The entity has no substantive obligation to deliver cash if it has the practical ability to set a price for the promise to deliver the cash that fully reflects the amount of cash promised and related risks.
  • the allocation of the contractual service margin (see paragraphs 44(e) and 45(e)) is modified so that the entity shall recognise the contractual service margin over the duration of the group of contracts in a systematic way that reflects the transfer of investment services under the contract.

Modification and derecognition

Modification of an insurance contract

  • If the terms of an insurance contract are modified, for example by agreement between the parties to the contract or by a change in regulation, an entity shall derecognise the original contract and recognise the modified contract as a new contract, applying IFRS 17 or other applicable Standards if, and only if, any of the conditions in (a)–(c) are satisfied. The exercise of a right included in the terms of a contract is not a modification. The conditions are that:
    • if the modified terms had been included at contract inception:
      • the modified contract would have been excluded from the

scope of IFRS 17, applying paragraphs 3–8;

  • an entity would have separated different components from the host insurance contract applying paragraphs 10–13, resulting in a different insurance contract to which IFRS 17 would have applied;
  • the modified contract would have had a substantially different contract boundary applying paragraph 34; or
  • the modified contract would have been included in a different group of contracts applying paragraphs 14–24.
  • the original contract met the definition of an insurance contract with direct participation features, but the modified contract no longer meets that definition, or vice versa; or
  • the entity applied the premium allocation approach in paragraphs 53–59 or paragraphs 69–70 to the original contract, but the modifications mean that the contract no longer meets the eligibility criteria for that approach in paragraph 53 or paragraph 69.
  • If a contract modification meets none of the conditions in paragraph 72, the entity shall treat changes in cash flows caused by the modification as changes in estimates of fulfilment cash flows by applying paragraphs 40–52.

Derecognition

  • An entity shall derecognise an insurance contract when, and only when:
    • it is extinguished, ie when the obligation specified in the insurance contract expires or is discharged or cancelled; or (b) any of the conditions in paragraph 72 are met.
  • When an insurance contract is extinguished, the entity is no longer at risk and is therefore no longer required to transfer any economic resources to satisfy the insurance contract. For example, when an entity buys reinsurance, it shall derecognise the underlying insurance contract(s) when, and only when, the underlying insurance contract(s) is or are extinguished.
  • An entity derecognises an insurance contract from within a group of contracts by applying the following requirements in IFRS 17:
    • the fulfilment cash flows allocated to the group are adjusted to eliminate the present value of the future cash flows and risk adjustment for non-financial risk relating to the rights and obligations that have been derecognised from the group, applying paragraphs 40(a) (i) and 40(b);
    • the contractual service margin of the group is adjusted for the change in fulfilment cash flows described in (a), to the extent required by paragraphs 44(c) and 45(c), unless paragraph 77 applies; and
    • the number of coverage units for expected remaining coverage is adjusted to reflect the coverage units derecognised from the group, and the amount of the contractual service margin recognised in profit or loss in the period is based on that adjusted number, applying paragraph B119.
  • When an entity derecognises an insurance contract because it transfers the contract to a third party or derecognises an insurance contract and recognises a new contract applying paragraph 72, the entity shall instead of applying paragraph 76(b):
    • adjust the contractual service margin of the group from which the contract has been derecognised, to the extent required by paragraphs 44(c) and 45(c), for the difference between (i) and either (ii) for contracts transferred to a third party or (iii) for contracts derecognised applying paragraph 72:
      • the change in the carrying amount of the group of insurance contracts resulting from the derecognition of the contract, applying paragraph 76(a).
      • the premium charged by the third party.
      • the premium the entity would have charged had it entered into a contract with equivalent terms as the new contract at the date of the contract modification, less any additional premium charged for the modification.
    • measure the new contract recognised applying paragraph 72 assuming that the entity received the premium described in (a)(iii) at the date of the modification.

Presentation in the statement of financial position

  • An entity shall present separately in the statement of financial position the carrying amount of groups of:
    • insurance contracts issued that are assets;
    • insurance contracts issued that are liabilities;
    • reinsurance contracts held that are assets; and (d) reinsurance contracts held that are liabilities.
  • An entity shall include any assets or liabilities for insurance acquisition cash flows recognised applying paragraph 27 in the carrying amount of the related groups of insurance contracts issued, and any assets or liabilities for cash flows related to groups of reinsurance contracts held (see paragraph 65(a)) in the carrying amount of the groups of reinsurance contracts held.

Recognition and presentation in the statement(s) of financial performance (paragraphs B120–B136)

  • Applying paragraphs 41 and 42, an entity shall disaggregate the amounts recognised in the statement(s) of profit or loss and other comprehensive income (hereafter referred to as the statement(s) of financial performance) into:
    • an insurance service result (paragraphs 83–86), comprising insurance revenue and insurance service expenses; and
    • insurance finance income or expenses (paragraphs 87–92).
  • An entity is not required to disaggregate the change in the risk adjustment for non-financial risk between the insurance service result and insurance finance income or expenses. If an entity does not make such a disaggregation, it shall include the entire change in the risk adjustment for non-financial risk as part of the insurance service result.
  • An entity shall present income or expenses from reinsurance contracts held separately from the expenses or income from insurance contracts issued.

Insurance service result

  • An entity shall present in profit or loss insurance revenue arising from the groups of insurance contracts issued. Insurance revenue shall depict the provision of coverage and other services arising from the group of insurance contracts at an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those services. Paragraphs B120–B127 specify how an entity measures insurance revenue.
  • An entity shall present in profit or loss insurance service expenses arising from a group of insurance contracts issued, comprising incurred claims (excluding repayments of investment components), other incurred insurance service expenses and other amounts as described in paragraph 103(b).
  • Insurance revenue and insurance service expenses presented in profit or loss shall exclude any investment components. An entity shall not present premium information in profit or loss if that information is inconsistent with paragraph 83.
  • An entity may present the income or expenses from a group of reinsurance contracts held (see paragraphs 60–70), other than insurance finance income or expenses, as a single amount; or the entity may present separately the amounts recovered from the reinsurer and an allocation of the premiums paid that together give a net amount equal to that single amount. If an entity presents separately the amounts recovered from the reinsurer and an allocation of the premiums paid, it shall:
    • treat reinsurance cash flows that are contingent on claims on the underlying contracts as part of the claims that are expected to be reimbursed under the reinsurance contract held;
    • treat amounts from the reinsurer that it expects to receive that are not contingent on claims of the underlying contracts (for example, some types of ceding commissions) as a reduction in the premiums to be paid to the reinsurer; and
    • not present the allocation of premiums paid as a reduction in revenue.

Insurance finance income or expenses (see paragraphs B128–B136)

  • Insurance finance income or expenses comprises the change in the carrying amount of the group of insurance contracts arising from:
    • the effect of the time value of money and changes in the time value of money; and
    • the effect of financial risk and changes in financial risk; but
    • excluding any such changes for groups of insurance contracts with direct participation features that would adjust the contractual service margin but do not do so when applying paragraphs 45(b)(ii), 45(b)(iii), 45(c)(ii) or 45(c)(iii). These are included in insurance service expenses.
  • Unless paragraph 89 applies, an entity shall make an accounting policy choice between:
    • including insurance finance income or expenses for the period in

profit or loss; or

  • disaggregating insurance finance income or expenses for the period to include in profit or loss an amount determined by a systematic allocation of the expected total insurance finance income or expenses over the duration of the group of contracts, applying paragraphs B130–B133.
  • For insurance contracts with direct participation features, for which the entity holds the underlying items, an entity shall make an accounting policy choice between:
    • including insurance finance income or expenses for the period in

profit or loss; or

  • disaggregating insurance finance income or expenses for the period to include in profit or loss an amount that eliminates accounting mismatches with income or expenses included in profit or loss on the underlying items held, applying paragraphs B134–B136.
  • If an entity chooses the accounting policy set out in paragraph 88(b) or in paragraph 89(b), it shall include in other comprehensive income the difference between the insurance finance income or expenses measured on the basis set out in those paragraphs and the total insurance finance income or expenses for the period.
  • If an entity transfers a group of insurance contracts or derecognises an insurance contract applying paragraph 77:
    • it shall reclassify to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment (see IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements) any remaining amounts for the group (or contract) that were previously recognised in other comprehensive income because the entity chose the accounting policy set out in paragraph 88(b).
    • it shall not reclassify to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment (see IAS 1) any remaining amounts for the group (or contract) that were previously recognised in other comprehensive income because the entity chose the accounting policy set out in paragraph 89(b).
  • Paragraph 30 requires an entity to treat an insurance contract as a monetary item under IAS 21 for the purpose of translating foreign exchange items into the entity’s functional currency. An entity includes exchange differences on changes in the carrying amount of groups of insurance contracts in the statement of profit or loss, unless they relate to changes in the carrying amount of groups of insurance contracts included in other comprehensive income applying paragraph 90, in which case they shall be included in other comprehensive income.

Disclosure

  • The objective of the disclosure requirements is for an entity to disclose information in the notes that, together with the information provided in the statement of financial position, statement(s) of financial performance and statement of cash flows, gives a basis for users of financial statements to assess the effect that contracts within the scope of IFRS 17 have on the entity’s financial position, financial performance and cash flows. To achieve that objective, an entity shall disclose qualitative and quantitative information about:
    • the amounts recognised in its financial statements for contracts within the scope of IFRS 17 (see paragraphs 97–116);
    • the significant judgements, and changes in those judgements, made when applying IFRS 17 (see paragraphs 117–120); and
    • the nature and extent of the risks from contracts within the scope of IFRS 17 (see paragraphs 121–132).
  • An entity shall consider the level of detail necessary to satisfy the disclosure objective and how much emphasis to place on each of the various requirements. If the disclosures provided, applying paragraphs 97–132, are not enough to meet the objective in paragraph 93, an entity shall disclose additional information necessary to meet that objective.
  • An entity shall aggregate or disaggregate information so that useful information is not obscured either by the inclusion of a large amount of insignificant detail or by the aggregation of items that have different characteristics.
  • Paragraphs 29–31 of IAS 1 set out requirements relating to materiality and aggregation of information. Examples of aggregation bases that might be appropriate for information disclosed about insurance contracts are:
    • type of contract (for example, major product lines);
    • geographical area (for example, country or region); or
    • reportable segment, as defined in IFRS 8 Operating Segments.

Explanation of recognised amounts

  • Of the disclosures required by paragraphs 98–109, only those in paragraphs 98–100 and 102–105 apply to contracts to which the premium allocation approach has been applied. If an entity uses the premium allocation approach, it shall also disclose:
    • which of the criteria in paragraphs 53 and 69 it has satisfied;
    • whether it makes an adjustment for the time value of money and the effect of financial risk applying paragraphs 56, 57(b) and 59(b); and
    • the method it has chosen to recognise insurance acquisition cash flows applying paragraph 59(a).
  • An entity shall disclose reconciliations that show how the net carrying amounts of contracts within the scope of IFRS 17 changed during the period because of cash flows and income and expenses recognised in the statement(s) of financial performance. Separate reconciliations shall be disclosed for insurance contracts issued and reinsurance contracts held. An entity shall adapt the requirements of paragraphs 100–109 to reflect the features of reinsurance contracts held that differ from insurance contracts issued; for example, the generation of expenses or reduction in expenses rather than revenue.
  • An entity shall provide enough information in the reconciliations to enable users of financial statements to identify changes from cash flows and amounts that are recognised in the statement(s) of financial performance. To comply with this requirement, an entity shall:
    • disclose, in a table, the reconciliations set out in paragraphs 100–105; and
    • for each reconciliation, present the net carrying amounts at the beginning and at the end of the period, disaggregated into a total for groups of contracts that are assets and a total for groups of contracts that are liabilities, that equal the amounts presented in the statement of financial position applying paragraph 78.
  • An entity shall disclose reconciliations from the opening to the closing balances separately for each of:
    • the net liabilities (or assets) for the remaining coverage component, excluding any loss component.
    • any loss component (see paragraphs 47–52 and 57–58).
    • the liabilities for incurred claims. For insurance contracts to which the premium allocation approach described in paragraphs 53–59 or 69–70 has been applied, an entity shall disclose separate reconciliations for:
      • the estimates of the present value of the future cash flows; and (ii) the risk adjustment for non-financial risk.
    • For insurance contracts other than those to which the premium allocation approach described in paragraphs 53–59 or 69–70 has been applied, an entity shall also disclose reconciliations from the opening to the closing balances separately for each of:
      • the estimates of the present value of the future cash flows;
      • the risk adjustment for non-financial risk; and (c) the contractual service margin.
    • The objective of the reconciliations in paragraphs 100–101 is to provide different types of information about the insurance service result.
    • An entity shall separately disclose in the reconciliations required in paragraph 100 each of the following amounts related to insurance services, if applicable:
      • insurance revenue.
      • insurance service expenses, showing separately:
        • incurred claims (excluding investment components) and other incurred insurance service expenses;
        • amortisation of insurance acquisition cash flows;
        • changes that relate to past service, ie changes in fulfilment cash flows relating to the liability for incurred claims; and
        • changes that relate to future service, ie losses on onerous groups of contracts and reversals of such losses.
      • investment components excluded from insurance revenue and insurance service expenses.
    • An entity shall separately disclose in the reconciliations required in paragraph 101 each of the following amounts related to insurance services, if applicable:
      • changes that relate to future service, applying paragraphs B96–B118, showing separately:
        • changes in estimates that adjust the contractual service margin;
        • changes in estimates that do not adjust the contractual service margin, ie losses on groups of onerous contracts and reversals of such losses; and
        • the effects of contracts initially recognised in the period.
      • changes that relate to current service, ie:
        • the amount of the contractual service margin recognised in

profit or loss to reflect the transfer of services;

  • the change in the risk adjustment for non-financial risk that does not relate to future service or past service; and
  • experience adjustments (see paragraphs B97(c) and B113(a)).
  • changes that relate to past service, ie changes in fulfilment cash flows relating to incurred claims (see paragraphs B97(b) and B113(a)).
  • To complete the reconciliations in paragraphs 100–101, an entity shall also disclose separately each of the following amounts not related to insurance services provided in the period, if applicable:
    • cash flows in the period, including:
      • premiums received for insurance contracts issued (or paid

for reinsurance contracts held);

  • insurance acquisition cash flows; and
  • incurred claims paid and other insurance service expenses paid for insurance contracts issued (or recovered under reinsurance contracts held), excluding insurance acquisition cash flows.
  • the effect of changes in the risk of non-performance by the issuer of reinsurance contracts held;
  • insurance finance income or expenses; and
  • any additional line items that may be necessary to understand the change in the net carrying amount of the insurance contracts.
  • For insurance contracts issued other than those to which the premium allocation approach described in paragraphs 53–59 has been applied, an entity shall disclose an analysis of the insurance revenue recognised in the period comprising:
    • the amounts relating to the changes in the liability for remaining coverage as specified in paragraph B124, separately disclosing:
      • the insurance service expenses incurred during the period as specified in paragraph B124(a);
      • the change in the risk adjustment for non-financial risk, as specified in paragraph B124(b); and
      • the amount of the contractual service margin recognised in profit or loss because of the transfer of services in the period, as specified in paragraph B124(c).
    • the allocation of the portion of the premiums that relate to the recovery of insurance acquisition cash flows.
  • For insurance contracts other than those to which the premium allocation approach described in paragraphs 53–59 or 69–70 has been applied, an entity shall disclose the effect on the statement of financial position separately for insurance contracts issued and reinsurance contracts held that are initially recognised in the period, showing their effect at initial recognition on:
    • the estimates of the present value of future cash outflows, showing separately the amount of the insurance acquisition cash flows;
    • the estimates of the present value of future cash inflows;
    • the risk adjustment for non-financial risk; and (d) the contractual service margin.
  • In the disclosures required by paragraph 107, an entity shall separately disclose amounts resulting from:
    • contracts acquired from other entities in transfers of insurance contracts or business combinations; and (b) groups of contracts that are onerous.
  • For insurance contracts other than those to which the premium allocation approach described in paragraphs 53–59 or 69–70 has been applied, an entity shall disclose an explanation of when it expects to recognise the contractual service margin remaining at the end of the reporting period in profit or loss, either quantitatively, in appropriate time bands, or by providing qualitative information. Such information shall be provided separately for insurance contracts issued and reinsurance contracts held.
Insurance finance income or expenses
  • An entity shall disclose and explain the total amount of insurance finance income or expenses in the reporting period. In particular, an entity shall explain the relationship between insurance finance income or expenses and the investment return on its assets, to enable users of its financial statements to evaluate the sources of finance income or expenses recognised in profit or loss and other comprehensive income.
  • For contracts with direct participation features, the entity shall describe the composition of the underlying items and disclose their fair value.
  • For contracts with direct participation features, if an entity chooses not to adjust the contractual service margin for some changes in the fulfilment cash flows, applying paragraph B115, it shall disclose the effect of that choice on the adjustment to the contractual service margin in the current period.
  • For contracts with direct participation features, if an entity changes the basis of disaggregation of insurance finance income or expenses between profit or loss and other comprehensive income, applying paragraph B135, it shall disclose, in the period when the change in approach occurred:
    • the reason why the entity was required to change the basis of

disaggregation;

  • the amount of any adjustment for each financial statement line item affected; and
  • the carrying amount of the group of insurance contracts to which the change applied at the date of the change.
Transition amounts
  • An entity shall provide disclosures that enable users of financial statements to identify the effect of groups of insurance contracts measured at the transition date applying the modified retrospective approach (see paragraphs C6–C19) or the fair value approach (see paragraphs C20–C24) on the contractual service margin and insurance revenue in subsequent periods. Hence an entity shall disclose the reconciliation of the contractual service margin applying paragraph 101(c), and the amount of insurance revenue applying paragraph 103(a), separately for:
    • insurance contracts that existed at the transition date to which the entity has applied the modified retrospective approach;
    • insurance contracts that existed at the transition date to which the entity has applied the fair value approach; and (c) all other insurance contracts.
  • For all periods in which disclosures are made applying paragraphs 114(a) or 114(b), to enable users of financial statements to understand the nature and significance of the methods used and judgements applied in determining the transition amounts, an entity shall explain how it determined the measurement of insurance contracts at the transition date.
  • An entity that chooses to disaggregate insurance finance income or expenses between profit or loss and other comprehensive income applies paragraphs C18(b), C19(b), C24(b) and C24(c) to determine the cumulative difference between the insurance finance income or expenses that would have been recognised in profit or loss and the total insurance finance income or expenses at the transition date for the groups of insurance contracts to which the disaggregation applies. For all periods in which amounts determined applying these paragraphs exist, the entity shall disclose a reconciliation from the opening to the closing balance of the cumulative amounts included in other comprehensive income for financial assets measured at fair value

through other comprehensive income related to the groups of insurance contracts. The reconciliation shall include, for example, gains or losses recognised in other comprehensive income in the period and gains or losses previously recognised in other comprehensive income in previous periods reclassified in the period to profit or loss.

Significant judgements in applying IFRS 17

  • An entity shall disclose the significant judgements and changes in judgements made in applying IFRS 17. Specifically, an entity shall disclose the inputs, assumptions and estimation techniques used, including:
    • the methods used to measure insurance contracts within the scope of IFRS 17 and the processes for estimating the inputs to those methods. Unless impracticable, an entity shall also provide quantitative information about those inputs.
    • any changes in the methods and processes for estimating inputs used to measure contracts, the reason for each change, and the type of contracts affected.
    • to the extent not covered in (a), the approach used:
      • to distinguish changes in estimates of future cash flows arising from the exercise of discretion from other changes in estimates of future cash flows for contracts without direct participation features (see paragraph B98);
      • to determine the risk adjustment for non-financial risk, including whether changes in the risk adjustment for nonfinancial risk are disaggregated into an insurance service component and an insurance finance component or are presented in full in the insurance service result;
      • to determine discount rates; and
      • to determine investment components.
    • If, applying paragraph 88(b) or paragraph 89(b), an entity chooses to disaggregate insurance finance income or expenses into amounts presented in profit or loss and amounts presented in other comprehensive income, the entity shall disclose an explanation of the methods used to determine the insurance finance income or expenses recognised in profit or loss.
    • An entity shall disclose the confidence level used to determine the risk adjustment for non-financial risk. If the entity uses a technique other than the confidence level technique for determining the risk adjustment for nonfinancial risk, it shall disclose the technique used and the confidence level corresponding to the results of that technique.
    • An entity shall disclose the yield curve (or range of yield curves) used to discount cash flows that do not vary based on the returns on underlying items, applying paragraph 36. When an entity provides this disclosure in aggregate for a number of groups of insurance contracts, it shall provide such disclosures in the form of weighted averages, or relatively narrow ranges.

Nature and extent of risks that arise from contracts within the scope of IFRS 17

  • An entity shall disclose information that enables users of its financial statements to evaluate the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of future cash flows that arise from contracts within the scope of IFRS 17. Paragraphs 122–132 contain requirements for disclosures that would normally be necessary to meet this requirement.
  • These disclosures focus on the insurance and financial risks that arise from insurance contracts and how they have been managed. Financial risks typically include, but are not limited to, credit risk, liquidity risk and market risk.
  • If the information disclosed about an entity’s exposure to risk at the end of the reporting period is not representative of its exposure to risk during the period, the entity shall disclose that fact, the reason why the period-end exposure is not representative, and further information that is representative of its risk exposure during the period.
  • For each type of risk arising from contracts within the scope of IFRS 17, an entity shall disclose:
    • the exposures to risks and how they arise;
    • the entity’s objectives, policies and processes for managing the risks and the methods used to measure the risks; and
    • any changes in (a) or (b) from the previous period.
  • For each type of risk arising from contracts within the scope of IFRS 17, an entity shall disclose:
    • summary quantitative information about its exposure to that risk at the end of the reporting period. This disclosure shall be based on the information provided internally to the entity’s key management personnel.
    • the disclosures required by paragraphs 127–132, to the extent not provided applying (a) of this paragraph.
  • An entity shall disclose information about the effect of the regulatory frameworks in which it operates; for example, minimum capital requirements or required interest-rate guarantees. If an entity applies paragraph 20 in determining the groups of insurance contracts to which it applies the recognition and measurement requirements of IFRS 17, it shall disclose that fact.
All types of risk—concentrations of risk

127 An entity shall disclose information about concentrations of risk arising from contracts within the scope of IFRS 17, including a description of how the entity determines the concentrations, and a description of the shared characteristic that identifies each concentration (for example, the type of insured event, industry, geographical area, or currency). Concentrations of financial risk might arise, for example, from interest-rate guarantees that come into effect at the same level for a large number of contracts. Concentrations of financial risk might also arise from concentrations of nonfinancial risk; for example, if an entity provides product liability protection to pharmaceutical companies and also holds investments in those companies.

Insurance and market risks—sensitivity analysis
  • An entity shall disclose information about sensitivities to changes in risk exposures arising from contracts within the scope of IFRS 17. To comply with this requirement, an entity shall disclose:
    • a sensitivity analysis that shows how profit or loss and equity would have been affected by changes in risk exposures that were reasonably possible at the end of the reporting period:
      • for insurance risk—showing the effect for insurance contracts issued, before and after risk mitigation by reinsurance contracts held; and
      • for each type of market risk—in a way that explains the relationship between the sensitivities to changes in risk exposures arising from insurance contracts and those arising from financial assets held by the entity.
    • the methods and assumptions used in preparing the sensitivity

analysis; and

  • changes from the previous period in the methods and assumptions used in preparing the sensitivity analysis, and the reasons for such changes.
  • If an entity prepares a sensitivity analysis that shows how amounts different from those specified in paragraph 128(a) are affected by changes in risk exposures and uses that sensitivity analysis to manage risks arising from contracts within the scope of IFRS 17, it may use that sensitivity analysis in place of the analysis specified in paragraph 128(a). The entity shall also disclose:
    • an explanation of the method used in preparing such a sensitivity analysis and of the main parameters and assumptions underlying the information provided; and
    • an explanation of the objective of the method used and of any limitations that may result in the information provided.
Insurance risk—claims development

130 An entity shall disclose actual claims compared with previous estimates of the undiscounted amount of the claims (ie claims development). The disclosure about claims development shall start with the period when the earliest material claim(s) arose and for which there is still uncertainty about the amount and timing of the claims payments at the end of the reporting period; but the disclosure is not required to start more than 10 years before the end of the reporting period. The entity is not required to disclose information about the development of claims for which uncertainty about the amount and timing of the claims payments is typically resolved within one year. An entity shall reconcile the disclosure about claims development with the aggregate carrying amount of the groups of insurance contracts, which the entity discloses applying paragraph 100(c).

Credit risk—other information

131 For credit risk that arises from contracts within the scope of IFRS 17, an entity shall disclose:

  • the amount that best represents its maximum exposure to credit risk at the end of the reporting period, separately for insurance contracts issued and reinsurance contracts held; and
  • information about the credit quality of reinsurance contracts held that are assets.
Liquidity risk—other information

132 For liquidity risk arising from contracts within the scope of IFRS 17, an entity shall disclose:

  • a description of how it manages the liquidity risk.
  • separate maturity analyses for groups of insurance contracts issued that are liabilities and groups of reinsurance contracts held that are liabilities that show, as a minimum, net cash flows of the groups for each of the first five years after the reporting date and in aggregate beyond the first five years. An entity is not required to include in these analyses liabilities for remaining                coverage measured applying paragraphs 55–59. The analyses may take the form of:
    • an analysis, by estimated timing, of the remaining contractual undiscounted net cash flows; or
    • an analysis, by estimated timing, of the estimates of the present value of the future cash flows.
  • the amounts that are payable on demand, explaining the relationship between such amounts and the carrying amount of the related groups of contracts, if not disclosed applying (b) of this paragraph.

Appendix A Defined terms

This appendix is an integral part of IFRS 17 Insurance Contracts.

contractual service margin A component of the carrying amount of the asset or liability for a group of insurance contracts representing the unearned profit the entity will recognise as it provides services under the insurance contracts in the group.
coverage period The period during which the entity provides coverage for insured events. This period includes the coverage that relates to all premiums within the boundary of the insurance contract.
experience adjustment A difference between:

(a)           for premium receipts (and any related cash flows such as insurance acquisition cash flows and insurance premium taxes)—the estimate at the beginning of the period of the amounts expected in the period and the actual cash flows in the period; or

(b)          for insurance service expenses (excluding insurance acquisition expenses)—the estimate at the beginning of the period of the amounts expected to be incurred in the period and the actual amounts incurred in the period.

financial risk The risk of a possible future change in one or more of a specified interest rate, financial instrument price, commodity price, currency exchange rate, index of prices or rates, credit rating or credit index or other variable, provided in the case of a non-financial variable that the variable is not specific to a party to the contract.
fulfilment cash flows An explicit, unbiased and probability-weighted estimate (ie expected value) of the present value of the future cash outflows minus the present value of the future cash inflows that will arise as the entity fulfils insurance contracts, including a risk adjustment for non-financial risk.
group of insurance contracts A set of insurance contracts resulting from the division of a portfolio of insurance contracts into, at a minimum, contracts written within a period of no longer than one year and that, at initial recognition:
  • are onerous, if any;
  • have no significant possibility of becoming onerous

subsequently, if any; or

  • do not fall into either (a) or (b), if any.
insurance acquisition cash flows Cash flows arising from the costs of selling, underwriting and starting a group of insurance contracts that are directly attributable to the portfolio of insurance contracts to which the group belongs. Such cash flows include cash flows that are not directly attributable to individual contracts or groups of insurance contracts within the portfolio.
insurance contract A contract under which one party (the issuer) accepts significant insurance risk from another party (the policyholder) by agreeing to compensate the policyholder if a specified uncertain future event (the insured event) adversely affects the policyholder.
insurance contract with direct

participation features

An insurance contract for which, at inception:

(a)           the contractual terms specify that the policyholder participates in a share of a clearly identified pool of underlying items;

(b)          the entity expects to pay to the policyholder an amount equal to a substantial share of the fair value returns on the underlying items; and

(c)           the entity expects a substantial proportion of any change in the amounts to be paid to the policyholder to vary with the change in fair value of the underlying items.

insurance contract without direct participation features An insurance contract that is not an insurance contract with direct participation features.
insurance risk Risk, other than financial risk, transferred from the holder of a contract to the issuer.
insured event An uncertain future event covered by an insurance contract that creates insurance risk.
investment component The amounts that an insurance contract requires the entity to repay to a policyholder even if an insured event does not occur.
investment contract with discretionary participation features A financial instrument that provides a particular investor with the contractual right to receive, as a supplement to an amount not subject to the discretion of the issuer, additional amounts:
  • that are expected to be a significant portion of the total contractual benefits;
  • the timing or amount of which are contractually at the discretion of the issuer; and
  • that are contractually based on:
    • the returns on a specified pool of contracts or a specified type of contract;
    • realised and/or unrealised investment returns on a specified pool of assets held by the issuer; or
    • the profit or loss of the entity or fund that issues the contract.
liability for incurred claims An entity’s obligation to investigate and pay valid claims for insured events that have already occurred, including events that have occurred but for which claims have not been reported, and other incurred insurance expenses.
liability for remaining coverage An entity’s obligation to investigate and pay valid claims under existing insurance contracts for insured events that have not yet occurred (ie the obligation that relates to the unexpired portion of the coverage period).
policyholder A party that has a right to compensation under an insurance contract if an insured event occurs.
portfolio of insurance contracts Insurance contracts subject to similar risks and managed together.
reinsurance contract An insurance contract issued by one entity (the reinsurer) to compensate another entity for claims arising from one or more insurance contracts issued by that other entity (underlying contracts).
risk adjustment for non-financial risk The compensation an entity requires for bearing the uncertainty about the amount and timing of the cash flows that arises from non-financial risk as the entity fulfils insurance contracts.
underlying items Items that determine some of the amounts payable to a policyholder. Underlying items can comprise any items; for example, a reference portfolio of assets, the net assets of the entity, or a specified subset of the net assets of the entity.

Appendix B Application guidance

This appendix is an integral part of IFRS 17 Insurance Contracts.

B1                  This appendix provides guidance on the following:

  • definition of an insurance contract (see paragraphs B2–B30);
  • separation of components from an insurance contract (see paragraphs B31–B35);
  • measurement (see paragraphs B36–B119);
  • insurance revenue (see paragraphs B120–B127);
  • insurance finance income or expenses (see paragraphs B128–B136); and (f) interim financial statements (see paragraph B137).

Definition of an insurance contract (Appendix A)

B2 This section provides guidance on the definition of an insurance contract as specified in Appendix A. It addresses the following:

  • uncertain future event (see paragraphs B3–B5);
  • payments in kind (see paragraph B6);
  • the distinction between insurance risk and other risks (see paragraphs B7–B16);
  • significant insurance risk (see paragraphs B17–B23);
  • changes in the level of insurance risk (see paragraphs B24–B25); and (f) examples of insurance contracts (see paragraphs B26–B30).

Uncertain future event

B3 Uncertainty (or risk) is the essence of an insurance contract. Accordingly, at least one of the following is uncertain at the inception of an insurance contract:

  • the probability of an insured event occurring;
  • when the insured event will occur; or
  • how much the entity will need to pay if the insured event occurs.

B4 In some insurance contracts, the insured event is the discovery of a loss during the term of the contract, even if that loss arises from an event that occurred before the inception of the contract. In other insurance contracts, the insured event is an event that occurs during the term of the contract, even if the resulting loss is discovered after the end of the contract term.

B5 Some insurance contracts cover events that have already occurred but the financial effect of which is still uncertain. An example is an insurance contract that provides coverage against an adverse development of an event that has already occurred. In such contracts, the insured event is the determination of the ultimate cost of those claims.

Payments in kind

B6 Some insurance contracts require or permit payments to be made in kind. In such cases, the entity provides goods or services to the policyholder to settle the entity’s obligation to compensate the policyholder for insured events. An example is when the entity replaces a stolen article instead of reimbursing the policyholder for the amount of its loss. Another example is when an entity uses its own hospitals and medical staff to provide medical services covered by the insurance contract. Such contracts are insurance contracts, even though the claims are settled in kind. Fixed-fee service contracts that meet the conditions specified in paragraph 8 are also insurance contracts, but applying paragraph 8, an entity may choose to account for them applying either IFRS 17 or IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers.

The distinction between insurance risk and other risks

B7 The definition of an insurance contract requires that one party accepts significant insurance risk from another party. IFRS 17 defines insurance risk as ‘risk, other than financial risk, transferred from the holder of a contract to the issuer’. A contract that exposes the issuer to financial risk without significant insurance risk is not an insurance contract.

B8 The definition of financial risk in Appendix A refers to financial and nonfinancial variables. Examples of non-financial variables not specific to a party to the contract include an index of earthquake losses in a particular region or temperatures in a particular city. Financial risk excludes risk from nonfinancial variables that are specific to a party to the contract, such as the occurrence or non-occurrence of a fire that damages or destroys an asset of that party. Furthermore, the risk of changes in the fair value of a nonfinancial asset is not a financial risk if the fair value reflects changes in the market prices for such assets (ie a financial variable) and the condition of a specific non-financial asset held by a party to a contract (ie a non-financial variable). For example, if a guarantee of the residual value of a specific car in which the policyholder has an insurable interest exposes the guarantor to the risk of changes in the car’s physical condition, that risk is insurance risk, not financial risk.

B9 Some contracts expose the issuer to financial risk in addition to significant insurance risk. For example, many life insurance contracts guarantee a minimum rate of return to policyholders, creating financial risk, and at the same time promise death benefits that may significantly exceed the policyholder’s account balance, creating insurance risk in the form of mortality risk. Such contracts are insurance contracts.

B10 Under some contracts, an insured event triggers the payment of an amount linked to a price index. Such contracts are insurance contracts, provided that the payment contingent on the insured event could be significant. For example, a life-contingent annuity linked to a cost-of-living index transfers insurance risk because the payment is triggered by an uncertain future event —the survival of the person who receives the annuity. The link to the price index is a derivative, but it also transfers insurance risk because the number of payments to which the index applies depends on the survival of the annuitant. If the resulting transfer of insurance risk is significant, the derivative meets the definition of an insurance contract, in which case it shall not be separated from the host contract (see paragraph 11(a)).

B11 Insurance risk is the risk the entity accepts from the policyholder. This means the entity must accept, from the policyholder, a risk to which the policyholder was already exposed. Any new risk created by the contract for the entity or the policyholder is not insurance risk.

B12 The definition of an insurance contract refers to an adverse effect on the policyholder. This definition does not limit the payment by the entity to an amount equal to the financial effect of the adverse event. For example, the definition includes ‘new for old’ coverage that pays the policyholder an amount that permits the replacement of a used and damaged asset with a new one. Similarly, the definition does not limit the payment under a life insurance contract to the financial loss suffered by the deceased’s dependants, nor does it exclude contracts that specify the payment of predetermined amounts to quantify the loss caused by death or an accident.

B13 Some contracts require a payment if a specified uncertain future event occurs, but do not require an adverse effect on the policyholder as a precondition for the payment. This type of contract is not an insurance contract even if the holder uses it to mitigate an underlying risk exposure. For example, if the holder uses a derivative to hedge an underlying financial or non-financial variable correlated with the cash flows from an asset of the entity, the derivative is not an insurance contract because the payment is not conditional on whether the holder is adversely affected by a reduction in the cash flows from the asset. The definition of an insurance contract refers to an uncertain future event for which an adverse effect on the policyholder is a contractual precondition for payment. A contractual precondition does not require the entity to investigate whether the event actually caused an adverse effect, but it does permit the entity to deny the payment if it is not satisfied that the event did cause an adverse effect.

B14 Lapse or persistency risk (the risk that the policyholder will cancel the contract earlier or later than the issuer had expected when pricing the contract) is not insurance risk because the resulting variability in the payment to the policyholder is not contingent on an uncertain future event that adversely affects the policyholder. Similarly, expense risk (ie the risk of unexpected increases in the administrative costs associated with the servicing of a contract, rather than in the costs associated with insured events) is not insurance risk because an unexpected increase in such expenses does not adversely affect the policyholder.

B15 Consequently, a contract that exposes the entity to lapse risk, persistency risk or expense risk is not an insurance contract unless it also exposes the entity to significant insurance risk. However, if the entity mitigates its risk by using a second contract to transfer part of the non-insurance risk to another party, the second contract exposes the other party to insurance risk.

B16 An entity can accept significant insurance risk from the policyholder only if the entity is separate from the policyholder. In the case of a mutual entity, the mutual entity accepts risk from each policyholder and pools that risk. Although policyholders bear that pooled risk collectively because they hold the residual interest in the entity, the mutual entity is a separate entity that has accepted the risk.

Significant insurance risk

B17 A contract is an insurance contract only if it transfers significant insurance risk. Paragraphs B7–B16 discuss insurance risk. Paragraphs B18–B23 discuss the assessment of whether the insurance risk is significant.

B18 Insurance risk is significant if, and only if, an insured event could cause the issuer to pay additional amounts that are significant in any single scenario, excluding scenarios that have no commercial substance (ie no discernible effect on the economics of the transaction). If an insured event could mean significant additional amounts would be payable in any scenario that has commercial substance, the condition in the previous sentence can be met even if the insured event is extremely unlikely, or even if the expected (ie probability-weighted) present value of the contingent cash flows is a small proportion of the expected present value of the remaining cash flows from the insurance contract.

B19 In addition, a contract transfers significant insurance risk only if there is a scenario that has commercial substance in which the issuer has a possibility of a loss on a present value basis. However, even if a reinsurance contract does not expose the issuer to the possibility of a significant loss, that contract is deemed to transfer significant insurance risk if it transfers to the reinsurer substantially all the insurance risk relating to the reinsured portions of the underlying insurance contracts.

B20 The additional amounts described in paragraph B18 are determined on a present-value basis. If an insurance contract requires payment when an event with uncertain timing occurs and if the payment is not adjusted for the time value of money, there may be scenarios in which the present value of the payment increases, even if its nominal value is fixed. An example is insurance that provides a fixed death benefit when the policyholder dies, with no expiry date for the cover (often referred to as whole-life insurance for a fixed amount). It is certain that the policyholder will die, but the date of death is uncertain. Payments may be made when an individual policyholder dies earlier than expected. Because those payments are not adjusted for the time value of money, significant insurance risk could exist even if there is no overall loss on the portfolio of contracts. Similarly, contractual terms that delay timely reimbursement to the policyholder can eliminate significant

insurance risk. An entity shall use the discount rates required in paragraph 36 to determine the present value of the additional amounts.

B21 The additional amounts described in paragraph B18 refer to the present value of amounts that exceed those that would be payable if no insured event had occurred (excluding scenarios that lack commercial substance). Those additional amounts include claims handling and assessment costs, but exclude:

  • the loss of the ability to charge the policyholder for future service. For example, in an investment-linked life insurance contract, the death of the policyholder means that the entity can no longer perform investment management services and collect a fee for doing so. However, this economic loss for the entity does not result from insurance risk, just as a mutual fund manager does not take on insurance risk in relation to the possible death of a client. Consequently, the potential loss of future investment management fees is not relevant when assessing how much insurance risk is transferred by a contract.
  • a waiver, on death, of charges that would be made on cancellation or surrender. Because the contract brought those charges into existence, their waiver does not compensate the policyholder for a pre-existing risk. Consequently, they are not relevant when assessing how much insurance risk is transferred by a contract.
  • a payment conditional on an event that does not cause a significant loss to the holder of the contract. For example, consider a contract that requires the issuer to pay CU1 million[1] if an asset suffers physical damage that causes an insignificant economic loss of CU1 to the holder. In this contract, the holder transfers the insignificant risk of losing CU1 to the issuer. At the same time, the contract creates a non‑insurance risk that the issuer will need to pay CU999,999 if the specified event occurs. Because there is no scenario in which an insured event causes a significant loss to the holder of the contract, the issuer does not accept significant insurance risk from the holder and this contract is not an insurance contract.
  • possible reinsurance recoveries. The entity accounts for these separately.

B22 An entity shall assess the significance of insurance risk contract by contract. Consequently, the insurance risk can be significant even if there is minimal probability of significant losses for a portfolio or group of contracts.

B23 It follows from paragraphs B18–B22 that, if a contract pays a death benefit that exceeds the amount payable on survival, the contract is an insurance contract unless the additional death benefit is not significant (judged by reference to the contract itself rather than to an entire portfolio of contracts). As noted in paragraph B21(b), the waiver on death of cancellation or surrender

charges is not included in this assessment if that waiver does not compensate the policyholder for a pre-existing risk. Similarly, an annuity contract that pays out regular

[1] CU denotes currency unit.

sums for the rest of a policyholder’s life is an insurance contract, unless the aggregate life-contingent payments are insignificant.

Changes in the level of insurance risk

B24 For some contracts, the transfer of insurance risk to the issuer occurs after a period of time. For example, consider a contract that provides a specified investment return and includes an option for the policyholder to use the proceeds of the investment on maturity to buy a life-contingent annuity at the same rates the entity charges other new annuitants at the time the policyholder exercises that option. Such a contract transfers insurance risk to the issuer only after the option is exercised, because the entity remains free to price the annuity on a basis that reflects the insurance risk that will be transferred to the entity at that time. Consequently, the cash flows that would occur on the exercise of the option fall outside the boundary of the contract, and before exercise there are no insurance cash flows within the boundary of the contract. However, if the contract specifies the annuity rates (or a basis other than market rates for setting the annuity rates), the contract transfers insurance risk to the issuer because the issuer is exposed to the risk that the annuity rates will be unfavourable to the issuer when the policyholder exercises the option. In that case, the cash flows that would occur when the option is exercised are within the boundary of the contract.

B25 A contract that meets the definition of an insurance contract remains an insurance contract until all rights and obligations are extinguished (ie discharged, cancelled or expired), unless the contract is derecognised applying paragraphs 74–77, because of a contract modification.

Examples of insurance contracts

B26 The following are examples of contracts that are insurance contracts if the transfer of insurance risk is significant:

  • insurance against theft or damage.
  • insurance against product liability, professional liability, civil liability or legal expenses.
  • life insurance and prepaid funeral plans (although death is certain, it is uncertain when death will occur or, for some types of life insurance, whether death will occur within the period covered by the insurance).
  • life-contingent annuities and pensions, ie contracts that provide compensation for the uncertain future event—the survival of the annuitant or pensioner—to provide the annuitant or pensioner with a level of income that would otherwise be adversely affected by his or her survival. (Employers’ liabilities that arise from employee benefit plans and retirement benefit obligations reported by defined benefit retirement plans are outside the scope of IFRS 17, applying paragraph 7(b)).
  • insurance against disability and medical costs.
  • surety bonds, fidelity bonds, performance bonds and bid bonds, ie contracts that compensate the holder if another party fails to perform a contractual obligation; for example, an obligation to construct a building.
  • product warranties. Product warranties issued by another party for goods sold by a manufacturer, dealer or retailer are within the scope of IFRS 17. However, product warranties issued directly by a manufacturer, dealer or retailer are outside the scope of IFRS 17 applying paragraph 7(a), and are instead within the scope of IFRS 15 or IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets.
  • title insurance (insurance against the discovery of defects in the title to land or buildings that were not apparent when the insurance contract was issued). In this case, the insured event is the discovery of a defect in the title, not the defect itself.
  • travel insurance (compensation in cash or in kind to policyholders for losses suffered in advance of, or during, travel).
  • catastrophe bonds that provide for reduced payments of principal, interest or both, if a specified event adversely affects the issuer of the bond (unless the specified event does not create significant insurance risk; for example, if the event is a change in an interest rate or a foreign exchange rate).
  • insurance swaps and other contracts that require a payment depending on changes in climatic, geological or other physical variables that are specific to a party to the contract.

B27                   The following are examples of items that are not insurance contracts:

  • investment contracts that have the legal form of an insurance contract but do not transfer significant insurance risk to the issuer. For example, life insurance contracts in which the entity bears no significant mortality or morbidity risk are not insurance contracts; such contracts are financial instruments or service contracts— see paragraph B28. Investment contracts with discretionary participation features do not meet the definition of an insurance contract; however, they are within the scope of IFRS 17 provided they are issued by an entity that also issues insurance contracts, applying paragraph 3(c).
  • contracts that have the legal form of insurance, but return all significant insurance risk to the policyholder through non-cancellable and enforceable mechanisms that adjust future payments by the policyholder to the issuer as a direct result of insured losses. For example, some financial reinsurance contracts or some group contracts return all significant insurance risk to the policyholders; such contracts are normally financial instruments or service contracts (see paragraph B28).
  • self-insurance (ie retaining a risk that could have been covered by insurance). In such situations, there is no insurance contract because there is no agreement with another party. Thus, if an entity issues an insurance contract to its parent, subsidiary or fellow subsidiary, there is no insurance contract in the consolidated financial statements because there is no contract with another party. However, for the individual or separate financial statements of the issuer or holder, there is an insurance contract.
  • contracts (such as gambling contracts) that require a payment if a specified uncertain future event occurs, but do not require, as a contractual precondition for payment, the event to adversely affect the policyholder. However, this does not exclude from the definition of an insurance contract contracts that specify a predetermined payout to quantify the loss caused by a specified event such as a death or an accident (see paragraph B12).
  • derivatives that expose a party to financial risk but not insurance risk, because the derivatives require that party to make (or give them the right to receive) payment solely based on the changes in one or more of a specified interest rate, a financial instrument price, a commodity price, a foreign exchange rate, an index of prices or rates, a credit rating or a credit index or any other variable, provided that, in the case of a non-financial variable, the variable is not specific to a party to the contract.
  • credit-related guarantees that require payments even if the holder has not incurred a loss on the failure of the debtor to make payments when due; such contracts are accounted for applying IFRS 9 Financial Instruments (see paragraph B29).
  • contracts that require a payment that depends on a climatic, geological or any other physical variable not specific to a party to the contract (commonly described as weather derivatives).
  • contracts that provide for reduced payments of principal, interest or both, that depend on a climatic, geological or any other physical variable, the effect of which is not specific to a party to the contract (commonly referred to as catastrophe bonds).

B28 An entity shall apply other applicable Standards, such as IFRS 9 and IFRS 15, to the contracts described in paragraph B27.

B29 The credit-related guarantees and credit insurance contracts discussed in paragraph B27(f) can have various legal forms, such as that of a guarantee, some types of letters of credit, a credit default contract or an insurance contract. Those contracts are insurance contracts if they require the issuer to make specified payments to reimburse the holder for a loss that the holder incurs because a specified debtor fails to make payment when due to the policyholder applying the original or modified terms of a debt instrument. However, such insurance contracts are excluded from the scope of IFRS 17 unless the issuer has previously asserted explicitly that it regards the

contracts as insurance contracts and has used accounting applicable to insurance contracts (see paragraph 7(e)).

B30 Credit-related guarantees and credit insurance contracts that require payment, even if the policyholder has not incurred a loss on the failure of the debtor to make payments when due, are outside the scope of IFRS 17 because they do not transfer significant insurance risk. Such contracts include those that require payment:

  • regardless of whether the counterparty holds the underlying debt instrument; or
  • on a change in the credit rating or the credit index, rather than on the failure of a specified debtor to make payments when due.

Separating components from an insurance contract (paragraphs 10–13)

Investment components (paragraph 11(b))

B31 Paragraph 11(b) requires an entity to separate a distinct investment component from the host insurance contract. An investment component is distinct if, and only if, both the following conditions are met:

  • the investment component and the insurance component are not highly interrelated.
  • a contract with equivalent terms is sold, or could be sold, separately in the same market or the same jurisdiction, either by entities that issue insurance contracts or by other parties. The entity shall take into account all information reasonably available in making this determination. The entity is not required to undertake an exhaustive search to identify whether an investment component is sold separately.

B32            An investment component and an insurance component are highly interrelated if, and only if:

  • the entity is unable to measure one component without considering the other. Thus, if the value of one component varies according to the value of the other, an entity shall apply IFRS 17 to account for the combined investment and insurance component; or
  • the policyholder is unable to benefit from one component unless the other is also present. Thus, if the lapse or maturity of one component in a contract causes the lapse or maturity of the other, the entity shall apply IFRS 17 to account for the combined investment component and insurance component.

Promises to transfer distinct goods or non-insurance services (paragraph 12)

B33 Paragraph 12 requires an entity to separate from an insurance contract a promise to transfer distinct goods or non-insurance services to a policyholder. For the purpose of separation, an entity shall not consider activities that an entity must undertake to fulfil a contract unless the entity transfers a good or service to the policyholder as those activities occur. For example, an entity may need to perform various administrative tasks to set up a contract. The performance of those tasks does not transfer a service to the policyholder as the tasks are performed.

B34 A good or non-insurance service promised to a policyholder is distinct if the policyholder can benefit from the good or service either on its own or together with other resources readily available to the policyholder. Readily available resources are goods or services that are sold separately (by the entity or by another entity), or resources that the policyholder has already got (from the entity or from other transactions or events).

B35 A good or non-insurance service that is promised to the policyholder is not distinct if:

  • the cash flows and risks associated with the good or service are highly interrelated with the cash flows and risks associated with the insurance components in the contract; and
  • the entity provides a significant service in integrating the good or noninsurance service with the insurance components.

Measurement (paragraphs 29–71)

Estimates of future cash flows (paragraphs 33–35) B36 This section addresses:

  • unbiased use of all reasonable and supportable information available without undue cost or effort (see paragraphs B37–B41);
  • market variables and non-market variables (see paragraphs B42–B53);
  • using current estimates (see paragraphs B54–B60); and
  • cash flows within the contract boundary (see paragraphs B61–B71).
Unbiased use of all reasonable and supportable information available without undue cost or effort (paragraph 33(a))

B37 The objective of estimating future cash flows is to determine the expected value, or probability-weighted mean, of the full range of possible outcomes, considering all reasonable and supportable information available at the reporting date without undue cost or effort. Reasonable and supportable information available at the reporting date without undue cost or effort includes information about past events and current conditions, and forecasts of future conditions (see paragraph B41). Information available from an

entity’s own information systems is considered to be available without undue cost or effort.

B38 The starting point for an estimate of the cash flows is a range of scenarios that reflects the full range of possible outcomes. Each scenario specifies the amount and timing of the cash flows for a particular outcome, and the estimated probability of that outcome. The cash flows from each scenario are discounted and weighted by the estimated probability of that outcome to derive an expected present value. Consequently, the objective is not to develop a most likely outcome, or a more-likely-than-not outcome, for future cash flows.

B39 When considering the full range of possible outcomes, the objective is to incorporate all reasonable and supportable information available without undue cost or effort in an unbiased way, rather than to identify every possible scenario. In practice, developing explicit scenarios is unnecessary if the resulting estimate is consistent with the measurement objective of considering all reasonable and supportable information available without undue cost or effort when determining the mean. For example, if an entity estimates that the probability distribution of outcomes is broadly consistent with a probability distribution that can be described completely with a small number of parameters, it will be sufficient to estimate the smaller number of parameters. Similarly, in some cases, relatively simple modelling may give an answer within an acceptable range of precision, without the need for many detailed simulations. However, in some cases, the cash flows may be driven by complex underlying factors and may respond in a non-linear fashion to changes in economic conditions. This may happen if, for example, the cash flows reflect a series of interrelated options that are implicit or explicit. In such cases, more sophisticated stochastic modelling is likely to be necessary to satisfy the measurement objective.

B40 The scenarios developed shall include unbiased estimates of the probability of catastrophic losses under existing contracts. Those scenarios exclude possible claims under possible future contracts.

B41 An entity shall estimate the probabilities and amounts of future payments under existing contracts on the basis of information obtained including:

  • information about claims already reported by policyholders.
  • other information about the known or estimated characteristics of the insurance contracts.
  • historical data about the entity’s own experience, supplemented when necessary with historical data from other sources. Historical data is adjusted to reflect current conditions, for example, if:
    • the characteristics of the insured population differ (or will differ, for example, because of adverse selection) from those of the population that has been used as a basis for the historical data;
    • there are indications that historical trends will not continue, that new trends will emerge or that economic, demographic and other changes may affect the cash flows that arise from the existing insurance contracts; or
    • there have been changes in items such as underwriting procedures and claims management procedures that may affect the relevance of historical data to the insurance contracts.
  • current price information, if available, for reinsurance contracts and other financial instruments (if any) covering similar risks, such as catastrophe bonds and weather derivatives, and recent market prices for transfers of insurance contracts. This information shall be adjusted to reflect the differences between the cash flows that arise from those reinsurance contracts or other financial instruments, and the cash flows that would arise as the entity fulfils the underlying contracts with the policyholder.

Market variables and non-market variables B42 IFRS 17 identifies two types of variables:

  • market variables—variables that can be observed in, or derived directly from, markets (for example, prices of publicly traded securities and interest rates); and
  • non-market variables—all other variables (for example, the frequency and severity of insurance claims and mortality).

B43 Market variables will generally give rise to financial risk (for example, observable interest rates) and non-market variables will generally give rise to non-financial risk (for example, mortality rates). However, this will not always be the case. For example, there may be assumptions that relate to financial risks for which variables cannot be observed in, or derived directly from, markets (for example, interest rates that cannot be observed in, or derived directly from, markets).

Market variables (paragraph 33(b))

B44 Estimates of market variables shall be consistent with observable market prices at the measurement date. An entity shall maximise the use of observable inputs and shall not substitute its own estimates for observable market data except as described in paragraph 79 of IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement. Consistent with IFRS 13, if variables need to be derived (for example, because no observable market variables exist) they shall be as consistent as possible with observable market variables.

B45 Market prices blend a range of views about possible future outcomes and also reflect the risk preferences of market participants. Consequently, they are not a single-point forecast of the future outcome. If the actual outcome differs from the previous market price, this does not mean that the market price was ‘wrong’.

B46 An important application of market variables is the notion of a replicating asset or a replicating portfolio of assets. A replicating asset is one whose cash flows exactly match, in all scenarios, the contractual cash flows of a group of insurance contracts in amount, timing and uncertainty. In some cases, a replicating asset may exist for some of the cash flows that arise from a group of insurance contracts. The fair value of that asset reflects both the expected present value of the cash flows from the asset and the risk associated with those cash flows. If a replicating portfolio of assets exists for some of the cash flows that arise from a group of insurance contracts, the entity can use the fair value of those assets to measure the relevant fulfilment cash flows instead of explicitly estimating the cash flows and discount rate.

B47 IFRS 17 does not require an entity to use a replicating portfolio technique. However, if a replicating asset or portfolio does exist for some of the cash flows that arise from insurance contracts and an entity chooses to use a different technique, the entity shall satisfy itself that a replicating portfolio technique would be unlikely to lead to a materially different measurement of those cash flows.

B48 Techniques other than a replicating portfolio technique, such as stochastic modelling techniques, may be more robust or easier to implement if there are significant interdependencies between cash flows that vary based on returns on assets and other cash flows. Judgement is required to determine the technique that best meets the objective of consistency with observable market variables in specific circumstances. In particular, the technique used must result in the measurement of any options and guarantees included in the insurance contracts being consistent with observable market prices (if any) for such options and guarantees.

Non-market variables

B49 Estimates of non-market variables shall reflect all reasonable and supportable evidence available without undue cost or effort, both external and internal.

B50 Non-market external data (for example, national mortality statistics) may have more or less relevance than internal data (for example, internally developed mortality statistics), depending on the circumstances. For example, an entity that issues life insurance contracts shall not rely solely on national mortality statistics, but shall consider all other reasonable and supportable internal and external sources of information available without undue cost or effort when developing unbiased estimates of probabilities for mortality scenarios for its insurance contracts. In developing those probabilities, an entity shall give more weight to the more persuasive information. For example:

  • internal mortality statistics may be more persuasive than national mortality data if national data is derived from a large population that is not representative of the insured population. This might be because, for example, the demographic characteristics of the insured population could significantly differ from those of the national population, meaning that an entity would need to place more weight on the internal data and less weight on the national statistics.
  • conversely, if the internal statistics are derived from a small population with characteristics that are believed to be close to those of the national population, and the national statistics are current, an entity shall place more weight on the national statistics.

B51 Estimated probabilities for non-market variables shall not contradict observable market variables. For example, estimated probabilities for future inflation rate scenarios shall be as consistent as possible with probabilities implied by market interest rates.

B52 In some cases, an entity may conclude that market variables vary independently of non-market variables. If so, the entity shall consider scenarios that reflect the range of outcomes for the non-market variables, with each scenario using the same observed value of the market variable.

B53 In other cases, market variables and non-market variables may be correlated. For example, there may be evidence that lapse rates (a non-market variable) are correlated with interest rates (a market variable). Similarly, there may be evidence that claim levels for house or car insurance are correlated with economic cycles and therefore with interest rates and expense amounts. The entity shall ensure that the probabilities for the scenarios and the risk adjustments for the non-financial risk that relates to the market variables are consistent with the observed market prices that depend on those market variables.

Using current estimates (paragraph 33(c))

B54 In estimating each cash flow scenario and its probability, an entity shall use all reasonable and supportable information available without undue cost or effort. An entity shall review the estimates that it made at the end of the previous reporting period and update them. In doing so, an entity shall consider whether:

  • the updated estimates faithfully represent the conditions at the end of the reporting period.
  • the changes in estimates faithfully represent the changes in conditions during the period. For example, suppose that estimates were at one end of a reasonable range at the beginning of the period. If the conditions have not changed, shifting the estimates to the other end of the range at the end of the period would not faithfully represent what has happened during the period. If an entity’s most recent estimates are different from its previous estimates, but conditions have not changed, it shall assess whether the new probabilities assigned to each scenario are justified. In updating its estimates of those probabilities, the entity shall consider both the evidence that supported its previous estimates and all newly available evidence, giving more weight to the more persuasive evidence.

B55 The probability assigned to each scenario shall reflect the conditions at the end of the reporting period. Consequently, applying IAS 10 Events after the Reporting Period, an event occurring after the end of the reporting period that resolves an uncertainty that existed at the end of the reporting period does

not provide evidence of the conditions that existed at that date. For example, there may be a 20 per cent probability at the end of the reporting period that a major storm will strike during the remaining six months of an insurance contract. After the end of the reporting period but before the financial statements are authorised for issue, a major storm strikes. The fulfilment cash flows under that contract shall not reflect the storm that, with hindsight, is known to have occurred. Instead, the cash flows included in the measurement include the 20 per cent probability apparent at the end of the reporting period (with disclosure applying IAS 10 that a non-adjusting event occurred after the end of the reporting period).

B56 Current estimates of expected cash flows are not necessarily identical to the most recent actual experience. For example, suppose that mortality experience in the reporting period was 20 per cent worse than the previous mortality experience and previous expectations of mortality experience. Several factors could have caused the sudden change in experience, including:

  • lasting changes in mortality;
  • changes in the characteristics of the insured population (for example, changes in underwriting or distribution, or selective lapses by policyholders in unusually good health);
  • random fluctuations; or
  • identifiable non-recurring causes.

B57 An entity shall investigate the reasons for the change in experience and develop new estimates of cash flows and probabilities in the light of the most recent experience, the earlier experience and other information. The result for the example in paragraph B56 would typically be that the expected present value of death benefits changes, but not by as much as 20 per cent. In the example in paragraph B56, if mortality rates continue to be significantly higher than the previous estimates for reasons that are expected to continue, the estimated probability assigned to the high-mortality scenarios will increase.

B58 Estimates of non-market variables shall include information about the current level of insured events and information about trends. For example, mortality rates have consistently declined over long periods in many countries. The determination of the fulfilment cash flows reflects the probabilities that would be assigned to each possible trend scenario, taking account of all reasonable and supportable information available without undue cost or effort.

B59 Similarly, if cash flows allocated to a group of insurance contracts are sensitive to inflation, the determination of the fulfilment cash flows shall reflect current estimates of possible future inflation rates. Because inflation rates are likely to be correlated with interest rates, the measurement of fulfilment cash flows shall reflect the probabilities for each inflation scenario in a way that is consistent with the probabilities implied by the market interest rates used in estimating the discount rate (see paragraph B51).

B60 When estimating the cash flows, an entity shall take into account current expectations of future events that might affect those cash flows. The entity shall develop cash flow scenarios that reflect those future events, as well as unbiased estimates of the probability of each scenario. However, an entity shall not take into account current expectations of future changes in legislation that would change or discharge the present obligation or create new obligations under the existing insurance contract until the change in legislation is substantively enacted.

Cash flows within the contract boundary (paragraph 34)

B61 Estimates of cash flows in a scenario shall include all cash flows within the boundary of an existing contract and no other cash flows. An entity shall apply paragraph 2 in determining the boundary of an existing contract.

B62 Many insurance contracts have features that enable policyholders to take actions that change the amount, timing, nature or uncertainty of the amounts they will receive. Such features include renewal options, surrender options, conversion options and options to stop paying premiums while still receiving benefits under the contracts. The measurement of a group of insurance contracts shall reflect, on an expected value basis, the entity’s current estimates of how the policyholders in the group will exercise the options available, and the risk adjustment for non-financial risk shall reflect the entity’s current estimates of how the actual behaviour of the policyholders may differ from the expected behaviour. This requirement to determine the expected value applies regardless of the number of contracts in a group; for example it applies even if the group comprises a single contract. Thus, the measurement of a group of insurance contracts shall not assume a 100 per cent probability that policyholders will:

  • surrender their contracts, if there is some probability that some of the policyholders will not; or
  • continue their contracts, if there is some probability that some of the policyholders will not.

B63 When an issuer of an insurance contract is required by the contract to renew or otherwise continue the contract, it shall apply paragraph 34 to assess whether premiums and related cash flows that arise from the renewed contract are within the boundary of the original contract.

B64 Paragraph 34 refers to an entity’s practical ability to set a price at a future date (a renewal date) that fully reflects the risks in the contract from that date. An entity has that practical ability in the absence of constraints that prevent the entity from setting the same price it would for a new contract with the same characteristics as the existing contract issued on that date, or if it can amend the benefits to be consistent with the price it will charge. Similarly, an entity has that practical ability to set a price when it can reprice an existing contract so that the price reflects overall changes in the risks in a portfolio of insurance contracts, even if the price set for each individual policyholder does not reflect the change in risk for that specific policyholder. When assessing whether the entity has the practical ability to set a price that

fully reflects the risks in the contract or portfolio, it shall consider all the risks that it would consider when underwriting equivalent contracts on the renewal date for the remaining coverage. In determining the estimates of future cash flows at the end of a reporting period, an entity shall reassess the boundary of an insurance contract to include the effect of changes in circumstances on the entity’s substantive rights and obligations.

B65 Cash flows within the boundary of an insurance contract are those that relate directly to the fulfilment of the contract, including cash flows for which the entity has discretion over the amount or timing. The cash flows within the boundary include:

  • premiums (including premium adjustments and instalment premiums) from a policyholder and any additional cash flows that result from those premiums.
  • payments to (or on behalf of) a policyholder, including claims that have already been reported but have not yet been paid (ie reported claims), incurred claims for events that have occurred but for which claims have not been reported and all future claims for which the entity has a substantive obligation (see paragraph 34).
  • payments to (or on behalf of) a policyholder that vary depending on returns on underlying items.
  • payments to (or on behalf of) a policyholder resulting from derivatives, for example, options and guarantees embedded in the contract, to the extent that those options and guarantees are not separated from the insurance contract (see paragraph 11(a)).
  • an allocation of insurance acquisition cash flows attributable to the portfolio to which the contract belongs.
  • claim handling costs (ie the costs the entity will incur in investigating, processing and resolving claims under existing insurance contracts, including legal and loss-adjusters’ fees and internal costs of investigating claims and processing claim payments).
  • costs the entity will incur in providing contractual benefits paid in kind.
  • policy administration and maintenance costs, such as costs of premium billing and handling policy changes (for example, conversions and reinstatements). Such costs also include recurring commissions that are expected to be paid to intermediaries if a particular policyholder continues to pay the premiums within the boundary of the insurance contract.
  • transaction-based taxes (such as premium taxes, value added taxes and goods and services taxes) and levies (such as fire service levies and guarantee fund assessments) that arise directly from existing insurance contracts, or that can be attributed to them on a reasonable and consistent basis.
  • payments by the insurer in a fiduciary capacity to meet tax obligations incurred by the policyholder, and related receipts.
  • potential cash inflows from recoveries (such as salvage and subrogation) on future claims covered by existing insurance contracts and, to the extent that they do not qualify for recognition as separate assets, potential cash inflows from recoveries on past claims.
  • an allocation of fixed and variable overheads (such as the costs of accounting, human resources, information technology and support, building depreciation, rent, and maintenance and utilities) directly attributable to fulfilling insurance contracts. Such overheads are allocated to groups of contracts using methods that are systematic and rational, and are consistently applied to all costs that have similar characteristics.
  • any other costs specifically chargeable to the policyholder under the terms of the contract.

B66 The following cash flows shall not be included when estimating the cash flows that will arise as the entity fulfils an existing insurance contract:

  • investment returns. Investments are recognised, measured and presented separately.
  • cash flows (payments or receipts) that arise under reinsurance contracts held. Reinsurance contracts held are recognised, measured and presented separately.
  • cash flows that may arise from future insurance contracts, ie cash flows outside the boundary of existing contracts (see paragraphs 34–35).
  • cash flows relating to costs that cannot be directly attributed to the portfolio of insurance contracts that contain the contract, such as some product development and training costs. Such costs are recognised in profit or loss when incurred.
  • cash flows that arise from abnormal amounts of wasted labour or other resources that are used to fulfil the contract. Such costs are recognised in profit or loss when incurred.
  • income tax payments and receipts the insurer does not pay or receive in a fiduciary capacity. Such payments and receipts are recognised, measured and presented separately applying IAS 12 Income Taxes.
  • cash flows between different components of the reporting entity, such as policyholder funds and shareholder funds, if those cash flows do not change the amount that will be paid to the policyholders.
  • cash flows arising from components separated from the insurance contract and accounted for using other applicable Standards (see paragraphs 10–13).
Contracts with cash flows that affect or are affected by cash flows to policyholders of other contracts

B67 Some insurance contracts affect the cash flows to policyholders of other contracts by requiring:

  • the policyholder to share with policyholders of other contracts the returns on the same specified pool of underlying items; and
  • either:
    • the policyholder to bear a reduction in their share of the returns on the underlying items because of payments to policyholders of other contracts that share in that pool, including payments arising under guarantees made to

policyholders of those other contracts; or

  • policyholders of other contracts to bear a reduction in their share of returns on the underlying items because of payments to the policyholder, including payments arising from guarantees made to the policyholder.

B68 Sometimes, such contracts will affect the cash flows to policyholders of contracts in other groups. The fulfilment cash flows of each group reflect the extent to which the contracts in the group cause the entity to be affected by expected cash flows, whether to policyholders in that group or to policyholders in another group. Hence the fulfilment cash flows for a group:

  • include payments arising from the terms of existing contracts to policyholders of contracts in other groups, regardless of whether those payments are expected to be made to current or future policyholders; and
  • exclude payments to policyholders in the group that, applying (a), have been included in the fulfilment cash flows of another group.

B69 For example, to the extent that payments to policyholders in one group are reduced from a share in the returns on underlying items of CU350 to CU250 because of payments of a guaranteed amount to policyholders in another group, the fulfilment cash flows of the first group would include the payments of CU100 (ie would be CU350) and the fulfilment cash flows of the second group would exclude CU100 of the guaranteed amount.

B70 Different practical approaches can be used to determine the fulfilment cash flows of groups of contracts that affect or are affected by cash flows to policyholders of contracts in other groups. In some cases, an entity might be able to identify the change in the underlying items and resulting change in the cash flows only at a higher level of aggregation than the groups. In such cases, the entity shall allocate the effect of the change in the underlying items to each group on a systematic and rational basis.

B71 After all the coverage has been provided to the contracts in a group, the fulfilment cash flows may still include payments expected to be made to current policyholders in other groups or future policyholders. An entity is not required to continue to allocate such fulfilment cash flows to specific groups

but can instead recognise and measure a liability for such fulfilment cash flows arising from all groups.

Discount rates (paragraph 36)

B72                  An entity shall use the following discount rates in applying IFRS 17:

  • to measure the fulfilment cash flows—current discount rates applying paragraph 36;
  • to determine the interest to accrete on the contractual service margin applying paragraph 44(b) for insurance contracts without direct participation features—discount rates determined at the date of initial recognition of a group of contracts, applying paragraph 36 to nominal cash flows that do not vary based on the returns on any underlying items;
  • to measure the changes to the contractual service margin applying paragraph B96(a)–B96(c) for insurance contracts without direct participation features—discount rates applying paragraph 36 determined on initial recognition;
  • for groups of contracts applying the premium allocation approach that have a significant financing component, to adjust the carrying amount of the liability for remaining coverage applying paragraph 56— discount rates applying paragraph 36 determined on initial recognition;
  • if an entity chooses to disaggregate insurance finance income or expenses between profit or loss and other comprehensive income (see paragraph 88), to determine the amount of the insurance finance income or expenses included in profit or loss:
    • for groups of insurance contracts for which changes in assumptions that relate to financial risk do not have a substantial effect on the amounts paid to policyholders, applying paragraph B131—discount rates determined at the date of initial recognition of a group of contracts, applying paragraph 36 to nominal cash flows that do not vary based on the returns on any underlying items;
    • for groups of insurance contracts for which changes in assumptions that relate to financial risk have a substantial effect on the amounts paid to policyholders, applying paragraph B132(a)(i)—discount rates that allocate the remaining revised expected finance income or expenses over the remaining duration of the group of contracts at a constant rate; and
    • for groups of contracts applying the premium allocation approach applying paragraphs 59(b) and B133—discount rates determined at the date of the incurred claim, applying paragraph 36 to nominal cash flows that do not vary based on the returns on any underlying items.

B73 To determine the discount rates at the date of initial recognition of a group of contracts described in paragraphs B72(b)–B72(e), an entity may use weightedaverage discount rates over the period that contracts in the group are issued, which applying paragraph 22 cannot exceed one year.

B74 Estimates of discount rates shall be consistent with other estimates used to measure insurance contracts to avoid double counting or omissions; for example:

  • cash flows that do not vary based on the returns on any underlying items shall be discounted at rates that do not reflect any such variability;
  • cash flows that vary based on the returns on any financial underlying items shall be:
    • discounted using rates that reflect that variability; or
    • adjusted for the effect of that variability and discounted at a rate that reflects the adjustment made.
  • nominal cash flows (ie those that include the effect of inflation) shall be discounted at rates that include the effect of inflation; and
  • real cash flows (ie those that exclude the effect of inflation) shall be discounted at rates that exclude the effect of inflation.

B75 Paragraph B74(b) requires cash flows that vary based on the returns on underlying items to be discounted using rates that reflect that variability, or to be adjusted for the effect of that variability and discounted at a rate that reflects the adjustment made. The variability is a relevant factor regardless of whether it arises because of contractual terms or because the entity exercises discretion, and regardless of whether the entity holds the underlying items.

B76 Cash flows that vary with returns on underlying items with variable returns, but that are subject to a guarantee of a minimum return, do not vary solely based on the returns on the underlying items, even when the guaranteed amount is lower than the expected return on the underlying items. Hence, an entity shall adjust the rate that reflects the variability of the returns on the underlying items for the effect of the guarantee, even when the guaranteed amount is lower than the expected return on the underlying items.

B77 IFRS 17 does not require an entity to divide estimated cash flows into those that vary based on the returns on underlying items and those that do not. If an entity does not divide the estimated cash flows in this way, the entity shall apply discount rates appropriate for the estimated cash flows as a whole; for example, using stochastic modelling techniques or risk-neutral measurement techniques.

B78 Discount rates shall include only relevant factors, ie factors that arise from the time value of money, the characteristics of the cash flows and the liquidity characteristics of the insurance contracts. Such discount rates may not be directly observable in the market. Hence, when observable market rates for an instrument with the same characteristics are not available, or observable market rates for similar instruments are available but do not separately identify the factors that distinguish the instrument from the insurance contracts, an entity shall estimate the appropriate rates. IFRS 17 does not require a particular estimation technique for determining discount rates. In applying an estimation technique, an entity shall:

  • maximise the use of observable inputs (see paragraph B44) and reflect all reasonable and supportable information on non-market variables available without undue cost or effort, both external and internal (see paragraph B49). In particular, the discount rates used shall not contradict any available and relevant market data, and any non-market variables used shall not contradict observable market variables.
  • reflect current market conditions from the perspective of a market participant.
  • exercise judgement to assess the degree of similarity between the features of the insurance contracts being measured and the features of the instrument for which observable market prices are available and adjust those prices to reflect the differences between them.

B79 For cash flows of insurance contracts that do not vary based on the returns on underlying items, the discount rate reflects the yield curve in the appropriate currency for instruments that expose the holder to no or negligible credit risk, adjusted to reflect the liquidity characteristics of the group of insurance contracts. That adjustment shall reflect the difference between the liquidity characteristics of the group of insurance contracts and the liquidity characteristics of the assets used to determine the yield curve. Yield curves reflect assets traded in active markets that the holder can typically sell readily at any time without incurring significant costs. In contrast, under some insurance contracts the entity cannot be forced to make payments earlier than the occurrence of insured events, or dates specified in the contracts.

B80 Hence, for cash flows of insurance contracts that do not vary based on the returns on underlying items, an entity may determine discount rates by adjusting a liquid risk-free yield curve to reflect the differences between the liquidity characteristics of the financial instruments that underlie the rates observed in the market and the liquidity characteristics of the insurance contracts (a bottom-up approach).

B81 Alternatively, an entity may determine the appropriate discount rates for insurance contracts based on a yield curve that reflects the current market rates of return implicit in a fair value measurement of a reference portfolio of assets (a top-down approach). An entity shall adjust that yield curve to eliminate any factors that are not relevant to the insurance contracts, but is not required to adjust the yield curve for differences in liquidity characteristics of the insurance contracts and the reference portfolio.

B82                 In estimating the yield curve described in paragraph B81:

  • if there are observable market prices in active markets for assets in the reference portfolio, an entity shall use those prices (consistent with paragraph 69 of IFRS 13).
  • if a market is not active, an entity shall adjust observable market prices for similar assets to make them comparable to market prices for the assets being measured (consistent with paragraph 83 of IFRS 13).
  • if there is no market for assets in the reference portfolio, an entity shall apply an estimation technique. For such assets (consistent with paragraph 89 of IFRS 13) an entity shall:
    • develop unobservable inputs using the best information available in the circumstances. Such inputs might include the entity’s own data and, in the context of IFRS 17, the entity might place more weight on long-term estimates than on shortterm fluctuations; and
    • adjust those data to reflect all information about market participant assumptions that is reasonably available.

B83 In adjusting the yield curve, an entity shall adjust market rates observed in recent transactions in instruments with similar characteristics for movements in market factors since the transaction date, and shall adjust observed market rates to reflect the degree of dissimilarity between the instrument being measured and the instrument for which transaction prices are observable. For cash flows of insurance contracts that do not vary based on the returns on the assets in the reference portfolio, such adjustments include:

  • adjusting for differences between the amount, timing and uncertainty of the cash flows of the assets in the portfolio and the amount, timing and uncertainty of the cash flows of the insurance contracts; and
  • excluding market risk premiums for credit risk, which are relevant only to the assets included in the reference portfolio.

B84 In principle, for cash flows of insurance contracts that do not vary based on the returns of the assets in the reference portfolio, there should be a single illiquid risk-free yield curve that eliminates all uncertainty about the amount and timing of cash flows. However, in practice the top-down approach and the bottom-up approach may result in different yield curves, even in the same currency. This is because of the inherent limitations in estimating the adjustments made under each approach, and the possible lack of an adjustment for different liquidity characteristics in the top-down approach. An entity is not required to reconcile the discount rate determined under its chosen approach with the discount rate that would have been determined under the other approach.

B85 IFRS 17 does not specify restrictions on the reference portfolio of assets used in applying paragraph B81. However, fewer adjustments would be required to eliminate factors that are not relevant to the insurance contracts when the reference portfolio of assets has similar characteristics. For example, if the

cash flows from the insurance contracts do not vary based on the returns on underlying items, fewer adjustments would be required if an entity used debt instruments as a starting point rather than equity instruments. For debt instruments, the objective would be to eliminate from the total bond yield the effect of credit risk and other factors that are not relevant to the insurance contracts. One way to estimate the effect of credit risk is to use the market price of a credit derivative as a reference point.

Risk adjustment for non-financial risk (paragraph 37)

B86 The risk adjustment for non-financial risk relates to risk arising from insurance contracts other than financial risk. Financial risk is included in the estimates of the future cash flows or the discount rate used to adjust the cash flows. The risks covered by the risk adjustment for non-financial risk are insurance risk and other non-financial risks such as lapse risk and expense risk (see paragraph B14).

B87 The risk adjustment for non-financial risk for insurance contracts measures the compensation that the entity would require to make the entity indifferent between:

  • fulfilling a liability that has a range of possible outcomes arising from non-financial risk; and
  • fulfilling a liability that will generate fixed cash flows with the same expected present value as the insurance contracts.

For example, the risk adjustment for non-financial risk would measure the compensation the entity would require to make it indifferent between fulfilling a liability that—because of non-financial risk—has a 50 per cent probability of being CU90 and a 50 per cent probability of being CU110, and fulfilling a liability that is fixed at CU100. As a result, the risk adjustment for non-financial risk conveys information to users of financial statements about the amount charged by the entity for the uncertainty arising from nonfinancial risk about the amount and timing of cash flows.

B88 Because the risk adjustment for non-financial risk reflects the compensation the entity would require for bearing the non-financial risk arising from the uncertain amount and timing of the cash flows, the risk adjustment for nonfinancial risk also reflects:

  • the degree of diversification benefit the entity includes when determining the compensation it requires for bearing that risk; and
  • both favourable and unfavourable outcomes, in a way that reflects the entity’s degree of risk aversion.

B89 The purpose of the risk adjustment for non-financial risk is to measure the effect of uncertainty in the cash flows that arise from insurance contracts, other than uncertainty arising from financial risk. Consequently, the risk adjustment for non-financial risk shall reflect all non-financial risks associated with the insurance contracts. It shall not reflect the risks that do not arise from the insurance contracts, such as general operational risk.

B90 The risk adjustment for non-financial risk shall be included in the measurement in an explicit way. The risk adjustment for non-financial risk is conceptually separate from the estimates of future cash flows and the discount rates that adjust those cash flows. The entity shall not double-count the risk adjustment for non-financial risk by, for example, also including the risk adjustment for non-financial risk implicitly when determining the estimates of future cash flows or the discount rates. The discount rates that are disclosed to comply with paragraph 120 shall not include any implicit adjustments for non-financial risk.

B91 IFRS 17 does not specify the estimation technique(s) used to determine the risk adjustment for non-financial risk. However, to reflect the compensation the entity would require for bearing the non-financial risk, the risk adjustment for non-financial risk shall have the following characteristics:

  • risks with low frequency and high severity will result in higher risk adjustments for non-financial risk than risks with high frequency and low severity;
  • for similar risks, contracts with a longer duration will result in higher risk adjustments for non-financial risk than contracts with a shorter duration;
  • risks with a wider probability distribution will result in higher risk adjustments for non-financial risk than risks with a narrower distribution;
  • the less that is known about the current estimate and its trend, the higher will be the risk adjustment for non-financial risk; and
  • to the extent that emerging experience reduces uncertainty about the amount and timing of cash flows, risk adjustments for non-financial risk will decrease and vice versa.

B92 An entity shall apply judgement when determining an appropriate estimation technique for the risk adjustment for non-financial risk. When applying that judgement, an entity shall also consider whether the technique provides concise and informative disclosure so that users of financial statements can benchmark the entity’s performance against the performance of other entities. Paragraph 119 requires an entity that uses a technique other than the confidence level technique for determining the risk adjustment for nonfinancial risk to disclose the technique used and the confidence level corresponding to the results of that technique.

Initial recognition of transfers of insurance contracts and business combinations (paragraph 39)

B93 When an entity acquires insurance contracts issued or reinsurance contracts held in a transfer of insurance contracts that do not form a business or in a business combination, the entity shall apply paragraphs 14–24 to identify the groups of contracts acquired, as if it had entered into the contracts on the date of the transaction.

B94 An entity shall use the consideration received or paid for the contracts as a proxy for the premiums received. The consideration received or paid for the contracts excludes the consideration received or paid for any other assets and liabilities acquired in the same transaction. In a business combination, the consideration received or paid is the fair value of the contracts at that date. In determining that fair value, an entity shall not apply paragraph 47 of IFRS 13 (relating to demand features).

B95 Unless the premium allocation approach for the liability for remaining coverage in paragraphs 55–59 applies, on initial recognition the contractual service margin is calculated applying paragraph 38 for acquired insurance contracts issued and paragraph 65 for acquired reinsurance contracts held using the consideration received or paid for the contracts as a proxy for the premiums received or paid at the date of initial recognition. If acquired insurance contracts issued are onerous, applying paragraph 47, the entity shall recognise the excess of the fulfilment cash flows over the consideration paid or received as part of goodwill or gain on a bargain purchase for contracts acquired in a business combination or as a loss in profit or loss for contracts acquired in a transfer. The entity shall establish a loss component of the liability for remaining coverage for that excess, and apply paragraphs 49–52 to allocate subsequent changes in fulfilment cash flows to that loss component.

Changes in the carrying amount of the contractual service margin for insurance contracts without direct participation features (paragraph 44)

B96 For insurance contracts without direct participation features, paragraph 44(c) requires an adjustment to the contractual service margin of a group of insurance contracts for changes in fulfilment cash flows that relate to future service. These changes comprise:

  • experience adjustments arising from premiums received in the period that relate to future service, and related cash flows such as insurance acquisition cash flows and premium-based taxes, measured at the discount rates specified in paragraph B72(c);
  • changes in estimates of the present value of the future cash flows in the liability for remaining coverage, except those described in paragraph B97(a), measured at the discount rates specified in paragraph B72(c);
  • differences between any investment component expected to become payable in the period and the actual investment component that becomes payable in the period, measured at the discount rates specified in paragraph B72(c); and
  • changes in the risk adjustment for non-financial risk that relate to future service.

B97 An entity shall not adjust the contractual service margin for a group of insurance contracts without direct participation features for the following changes in fulfilment cash flows because they do not relate to future service:

  • the effect of the time value of money and changes in the time value of money and the effect of financial risk and changes in financial risk (being the effect, if any, on estimated future cash flows and the effect of a change in discount rate);
  • changes in estimates of fulfilment cash flows in the liability for incurred claims; and
  • experience adjustments, except those described in paragraph B96(a).

B98 The terms of some insurance contracts without direct participation features give an entity discretion over the cash flows to be paid to policyholders. A change in the discretionary cash flows is regarded as relating to future service, and accordingly adjusts the contractual service margin. To determine how to identify a change in discretionary cash flows, an entity shall specify at inception of the contract the basis on which it expects to determine its commitment under the contract; for example, based on a fixed interest rate, or on returns that vary based on specified asset returns.

B99 An entity shall use that specification to distinguish between the effect of changes in assumptions that relate to financial risk on that commitment (which do not adjust the contractual service margin) and the effect of discretionary changes to that commitment (which adjust the contractual service margin).

B100 If an entity cannot specify at inception of the contract what it regards as its commitment under the contract and what it regards as discretionary, it shall regard its commitment to be the return implicit in the estimate of the fulfilment cash flows at inception of the contract, updated to reflect current assumptions that relate to financial risk.

Changes in the carrying amount of the contractual service margin for insurance contracts with direct participation features (paragraph 45)

B101 Insurance contracts with direct participation features are insurance contracts that are substantially investment‑related service contracts under which an entity promises an investment return based on underlying items. Hence, they are defined as insurance contracts for which:

  • the contractual terms specify that the policyholder participates in a share of a clearly identified pool of underlying items (see paragraphs B105–B106);
  • the entity expects to pay to the policyholder an amount equal to a substantial share of the fair value returns on the underlying items (see paragraph B107); and
  • the entity expects a substantial proportion of any change in the amounts to be paid to the policyholder to vary with the change in fair value of the underlying items (see paragraph B107).

B102 An entity shall assess whether the conditions in paragraph B101 are met using its expectations at inception of the contract and shall not reassess the conditions afterwards, unless the contract is modified, applying paragraph 72.

B103 To the extent that insurance contracts in a group affect the cash flows to policyholders of contracts in other groups (see paragraphs B67–B71), an entity shall assess whether the conditions in paragraph B101 are met by considering the cash flows that the entity expects to pay the policyholders determined applying paragraphs B68–B70.

B104 The conditions in paragraph B101 ensure that insurance contracts with direct participation features are contracts under which the entity’s obligation to the policyholder is the net of:

  • the obligation to pay the policyholder an amount equal to the fair value of the underlying items; and
  • a variable fee (see paragraphs B110–B118) that the entity will deduct from (a) in exchange for the future service provided by the insurance contract, comprising:
    • the entity’s share of the fair value of the underlying items; less
    • fulfilment cash flows that do not vary based on the returns on underlying items.

B105 A share referred to in paragraph B101(a) does not preclude the existence of the entity’s discretion to vary the amounts paid to the policyholder. However, the link to the underlying items must be enforceable (see paragraph 2).

B106 The pool of underlying items referred to in paragraph B101(a) can comprise any items, for example a reference portfolio of assets, the net assets of the entity, or a specified subset of the net assets of the entity, as long as they are clearly identified by the contract. An entity need not hold the identified pool of underlying items. However, a clearly identified pool of underlying items does not exist when:

  • an entity can change the underlying items that determine the amount of the entity’s obligation with retrospective effect; or
  • there are no underlying items identified, even if the policyholder could be provided with a return that generally reflects the entity’s overall performance and expectations, or the performance and expectations of a subset of assets the entity holds. An example of such a return is a crediting rate or dividend payment set at the end of the period to which it relates. In this case, the obligation to the policyholder reflects the crediting rate or dividend amounts the entity has set, and does not reflect identified underlying items.

B107 Paragraph B101(b) requires that the entity expects a substantial share of the fair value returns on the underlying items will be paid to the policyholder and paragraph B101(c) requires that the entity expects a substantial proportion of any change in the amounts to be paid to the policyholder to vary with the change in fair value of the underlying items. An entity shall:

  • interpret the term ‘substantial’ in both paragraphs in the context of the objective of insurance contracts with direct participation features being contracts under which the entity provides investment‑related services and is compensated for the services by a fee that is determined by reference to the underlying items; and
  • assess the variability in the amounts in paragraphs B101(b) and B101(c):
    • over the duration of the group of insurance contracts; and
    • on a present value probability-weighted average basis, not a best or worst outcome basis (see paragraphs B37–B38).

B108 For example, if the entity expects to pay a substantial share of the fair value returns on underlying items, subject to a guarantee of a minimum return, there will be scenarios in which:

  • the cash flows that the entity expects to pay to the policyholder vary with the changes in the fair value of the underlying items because the guaranteed return and other cash flows that do not vary based on the returns on underlying items do not exceed the fair value return on the underlying items; and
  • the cash flows that the entity expects to pay to the policyholder do not vary with the changes in the fair value of the underlying items because the guaranteed return and other cash flows that do not vary based on the returns on underlying items exceed the fair value return on the underlying items.

The entity’s assessment of the variability in paragraph B101(c) for this example will reflect a present value probability‑weighted average of all these scenarios.

B109 Reinsurance contracts issued and reinsurance contracts held cannot be insurance contracts with direct participation features for the purposes of IFRS 17.

B110 For insurance contracts with direct participation features, the contractual service margin is adjusted to reflect the variable nature of the fee. Hence, changes in the amounts set out in paragraph B104 are treated as set out in paragraphs B111–B114.

B111 Changes in the obligation to pay the policyholder an amount equal to the fair value of the underlying items (paragraph B104(a)) do not relate to future service and do not adjust the contractual service margin.

B112 Changes in the entity’s share of the fair value of the underlying items (paragraph B104(b)(i)) relate to future service and adjust the contractual service margin, applying paragraph 45(b).

B113 Changes in the fulfilment cash flows that do not vary based on the returns on underlying items (paragraph B104(b)(ii)) comprise:

  • changes in the fulfilment cash flows other than those specified in (b). An entity shall apply paragraphs B96–B97, consistent with insurance contracts without direct participation features, to determine to what extent they relate to future service and, applying paragraph 45(c), adjust the contractual service margin. All the adjustments are measured using current discount rates.
  • the change in the effect of the time value of money and financial risks not arising from the underlying items; for example, the effect of financial guarantees. These relate to future service and, applying paragraph 45(c), adjust the contractual service margin, except to the extent that paragraph B115 applies.

B114           An entity is not required to identify the adjustments to the contractual service margin required by paragraphs B112 and B113 separately. Instead, a combined amount may be determined for some or all of the adjustments.

Risk mitigation

B115 To the extent that an entity meets the conditions in paragraph B116, it may choose not to recognise a change in the contractual service margin to reflect some or all of the changes in the effect of financial risk on the entity’s share of the underlying items (see paragraph B112) or the fulfilment cash flows set out in paragraph B113(b).

B116           To apply paragraph B115, an entity must have a previously documented riskmanagement objective and strategy for using derivatives to mitigate financial risk arising from the insurance contracts and, in applying that objective and strategy:

  • the entity uses a derivative to mitigate the financial risk arising from the insurance contracts.
  • an economic offset exists between the insurance contracts and the derivative, ie the values of the insurance contracts and the derivative generally move in opposite directions because they respond in a similar way to the changes in the risk being mitigated. An entity shall not consider accounting measurement differences in assessing the economic offset.
  • credit risk does not dominate the economic offset.

B117 The entity shall determine the fulfilment cash flows in a group to which paragraph B115 applies in a consistent manner in each reporting period.

B118                 If any of the conditions in paragraph B116 ceases to be met, an entity shall:

  • cease to apply paragraph B115 from that date; and
  • not make any adjustment for changes previously recognised in profit or loss.

Recognition of the contractual service margin in profit or loss

B119 An amount of the contractual service margin for a group of insurance contracts is recognised in profit or loss in each period to reflect the services provided under the group of insurance contracts in that period (see paragraphs 44(e), 45(e) and 66(e)). The amount is determined by:

  • identifying the coverage units in the group. The number of coverage units in a group is the quantity of coverage provided by the contracts in the group, determined by considering for each contract the quantity of the benefits provided under a contract and its expected coverage duration.
  • allocating the contractual service margin at the end of the period (before recognising any amounts in profit or loss to reflect the services provided in the period) equally to each coverage unit provided in the current period and expected to be provided in the future.
  • recognising in profit or loss the amount allocated to coverage units provided in the period.

Insurance revenue (paragraphs 83 and 85)

B120 The total insurance revenue for a group of insurance contracts is the consideration for the contracts, ie the amount of premiums paid to the entity:

  • adjusted for a financing effect; and
  • excluding any investment components.

B121 Paragraph 83 requires the amount of insurance revenue recognised in a period to depict the transfer of promised services at an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those services. The total consideration for a group of contracts covers the following amounts:

  • amounts related to the provision of services, comprising:
    • insurance service expenses, excluding any amounts allocated to the loss component of the liability for remaining coverage;
    • the risk adjustment for non-financial risk, excluding any amounts allocated to the loss component of the liability for remaining coverage; and
    • the contractual service margin.
  • amounts related to insurance acquisition cash flows.

B122 Insurance revenue for a period relating to the amounts described in paragraph B121(a) is determined as set out in paragraphs B123–B124. Insurance revenue for a period relating to the amounts described in paragraph B121(b) is determined as set out in paragraph B125.

B123 Applying IFRS 15, when an entity provides services, it derecognises the performance obligation for those services and recognises revenue. Consistently, applying IFRS 17, when an entity provides services in a period, it reduces the liability for remaining coverage for the services provided and recognises insurance revenue. The reduction in the liability for remaining coverage that gives rise to insurance revenue excludes changes in the liability that do not relate to services expected to be covered by the consideration received by the entity. Those changes are:

  • changes that do not relate to services provided in the period, for example:
    • changes resulting from cash inflows from premiums received;
    • changes that relate to investment components in the period;
    • changes that relate to transaction-based taxes collected on behalf of third parties (such as premium taxes, value added taxes and goods and services taxes) (see paragraph B65(i));
    • insurance finance income or expenses;
    • insurance acquisition cash flows (see paragraph B125); and (vi) derecognition of liabilities transferred to a third party.
  • changes that relate to services, but for which the entity does not expect consideration, ie increases and decreases in the loss component of the liability for remaining coverage (see paragraphs 47–52).

B124 Consequently, insurance revenue for the period can also be analysed as the total of the changes in the liability for remaining coverage in the period that relates to services for which the entity expects to receive consideration. Those changes are:

  • insurance service expenses incurred in the period (measured at the amounts expected at the beginning of the period), excluding:
    • amounts allocated to the loss component of the liability for remaining coverage applying paragraph 51(a);
    • repayments of investment components;
    • amounts that relate to transaction-based taxes collected on behalf of third parties (such as premium taxes, value added taxes and goods and services taxes) (see paragraph B65(i)); and (iv) insurance acquisition expenses (see paragraph B125).
  • the change in the risk adjustment for non-financial risk, excluding:
    • changes included in insurance finance income or expenses applying paragraph 87;
    • changes that adjust the contractual service margin because they relate to future service applying paragraphs 44(c) and 45(c); and
    • amounts allocated to the loss component of the liability for remaining coverage applying paragraph 51(b).
  • the amount of the contractual service margin recognised in profit or loss in the period, applying paragraphs 44(e) and 45(e).

B125 An entity shall determine insurance revenue related to insurance acquisition cash flows by allocating the portion of the premiums that relate to recovering those cash flows to each reporting period in a systematic way on the basis of the passage of time. An entity shall recognise the same amount as insurance service expenses.

B126 When an entity applies the premium allocation approach in paragraphs 55–58, insurance revenue for the period is the amount of expected premium receipts (excluding any investment component and adjusted to reflect the time value of money and the effect of financial risk, if applicable, applying paragraph 56) allocated to the period. The entity shall allocate the expected premium receipts to each period of coverage:

  • on the basis of the passage of time; but
  • if the expected pattern of release of risk during the coverage period differs significantly from the passage of time, then on the basis of the expected timing of incurred insurance service expenses.

B127 An entity shall change the basis of allocation between paragraphs B126(a) and B126(b) as necessary if facts and circumstances change.

Insurance finance income or expenses (paragraphs 87–92)

B128 Paragraph 87 requires an entity to include in insurance finance income or expenses the effect of changes in assumptions that relate to financial risk. For the purposes of IFRS 17:

  • assumptions about inflation based on an index of prices or rates or on prices of assets with inflation-linked returns are assumptions that relate to financial risk; and
  • assumptions about inflation based on an entity’s expectation of specific price changes are not assumptions that relate to financial risk.

B129 Paragraphs 88–89 require an entity to make an accounting policy choice as to whether to disaggregate insurance finance income or expenses for the period between profit or loss and other comprehensive income. An entity shall apply its choice of accounting policy to portfolios of insurance contracts. In assessing the appropriate accounting policy for a portfolio of insurance contracts, applying paragraph 13 of IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors, the entity shall consider for each portfolio the assets that the entity holds and how it accounts for those assets.

B130 If paragraph 88(b) applies, an entity shall include in profit or loss an amount determined by a systematic allocation of the expected total finance income or expenses over the duration of the group of insurance contracts. In this context, a systematic allocation is an allocation of the total expected finance

income or expenses of a group of insurance contracts over the duration of the group that:

  • is based on characteristics of the contracts, without reference to factors that do not affect the cash flows expected to arise under the contracts. For example, the allocation of the finance income or expenses shall not be based on expected recognised returns on assets if those expected recognised returns do not affect the cash flows of the contracts in the group.
  • results in the amounts recognised in other comprehensive income over the duration of the group of contracts totalling zero. The cumulative amount recognised in other comprehensive income at any date is the difference between the carrying amount of the group of contracts and the amount that the group would be measured at when applying the systematic allocation.

B131 For groups of insurance contracts for which changes in assumptions that relate to financial risk do not have a substantial effect on the amounts paid to the policyholder, the systematic allocation is determined using the discount rates specified in paragraph B72(e)(i).

B132 For groups of insurance contracts for which changes in assumptions that relate to financial risk have a substantial effect on the amounts paid to the policyholders:

  • a systematic allocation for the finance income or expenses arising from the estimates of future cash flows can be determined in one of the following ways:
    • using a rate that allocates the remaining revised expected finance income or expenses over the remaining duration of the group of contracts at a constant rate; or
    • for contracts that use a crediting rate to determine amounts due to the policyholders—using an allocation that is based on the amounts credited in the period and expected to be credited in future periods.
  • a systematic allocation for the finance income or expenses arising from the risk adjustment for non-financial risk, if separately disaggregated from other changes in the risk adjustment for non-financial risk applying paragraph 81, is determined using an allocation consistent with that used for the allocation for the finance income or expenses arising from the future cash flows.
  • a systematic allocation for the finance income or expenses arising from the contractual service margin is determined:
    • for insurance contracts that do not have direct participation features, using the discount rates specified in paragraph B72(b); and
    • for insurance contracts with direct participation features, using an allocation consistent with that used for the allocation for the finance income or expenses arising from the future cash flows.

B133 In applying the premium allocation approach to insurance contracts described in paragraphs 53–59, an entity may be required, or may choose, to discount the liability for incurred claims. In such cases, it may choose to disaggregate the insurance finance income or expenses applying paragraph 88(b). If the entity makes this choice, it shall determine the insurance finance income or expenses in profit or loss using the discount rate specified in paragraph B72(e)

(iii).

B134 Paragraph 89 applies if an entity, either by choice or because it is required to, holds the underlying items for insurance contracts with direct participation features. If an entity chooses to disaggregate insurance finance income or expenses applying paragraph 89(b), it shall include in profit or loss expenses or income that exactly match the income or expenses included in profit or loss for the underlying items, resulting in the net of the two separately presented items being nil.

B135 An entity may qualify for the accounting policy choice in paragraph 89 in some periods but not in others because of a change in whether it holds the underlying items. If such a change occurs, the accounting policy choice available to the entity changes from that set out in paragraph 88 to that set out in paragraph 89, or vice versa. Hence, an entity might change its accounting policy between that set out in paragraph 88(b) and that set out in paragraph 89(b). In making such a change an entity shall:

  • include the accumulated amount previously included in other comprehensive income by the date of the change as a reclassification adjustment in profit or loss in the period of change and in future periods, as follows:
    • if the entity had previously applied paragraph 88(b)—the entity shall include in profit or loss the accumulated amount included in other comprehensive income before the change as if the entity were continuing the approach in paragraph 88(b) based on the assumptions that applied immediately before the change; and
    • if the entity had previously applied paragraph 89(b)—the entity shall include in profit or loss the accumulated amount included in other comprehensive income before the change as if the entity were continuing the approach in paragraph 89(b) based on the assumptions that applied immediately before the change.
  • not restate prior period comparative information.

B136 When applying paragraph B135(a), an entity shall not recalculate the accumulated amount previously included in other comprehensive income as if the new disaggregation had always applied; and the assumptions used for the reclassification in future periods shall not be updated after the date of the change.

Interim financial statements

B137 Notwithstanding the requirement in IAS 34 Interim Financial Reporting that the frequency of an entity’s reporting shall not affect the measurement of its annual results, an entity shall not change the treatment of accounting estimates made in previous interim financial statements when applying IFRS 17 in subsequent interim financial statements or in the annual reporting period.

Appendix C Effective date and transition

This appendix is an integral part of IFRS 17 Insurance Contracts.

Effective date

C1 An entity shall apply IFRS 17 for annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2021. If an entity applies IFRS 17 earlier, it shall disclose that fact. Early application is permitted for entities that apply IFRS 9 Financial Instruments and IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers on or before the date of initial application of IFRS 17.

C2                     For the purposes of the transition requirements in paragraphs C1 and C3–C33:

  • the date of initial application is the beginning of the annual reporting period in which an entity first applies IFRS 17; and
  • the transition date is the beginning of the annual reporting period immediately preceding the date of initial application.

Transition

C3                    An entity shall apply IFRS 17 retrospectively unless impracticable, except that:

  • an entity is not required to present the quantitative information required by paragraph 28(f) of IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors; and
  • an entity shall not apply the option in paragraph B115 for periods before the date of initial application of IFRS 17.

C4                    To apply IFRS 17 retrospectively, an entity shall at the transition date:

  • identify, recognise and measure each group of insurance contracts as if IFRS 17 had always applied;
  • derecognise any existing balances that would not exist had IFRS 17 always applied; and
  • recognise any resulting net difference in equity.

C5 If, and only if, it is impracticable for an entity to apply paragraph C3 for a group of insurance contracts, an entity shall apply the following approaches instead of applying paragraph C4(a):

  • the modified retrospective approach in paragraphs C6–C19, subject to paragraph C6(a); or
  • the fair value approach in paragraphs C20–C24.

Modified retrospective approach

C6              The objective of the modified retrospective approach is to achieve the closest outcome to retrospective application possible using reasonable and supportable information available without undue cost or effort. Accordingly, in applying this approach, an entity shall:

  • use reasonable and supportable information. If the entity cannot obtain reasonable and supportable information necessary to apply the modified retrospective approach, it shall apply the fair value approach.
  • maximise the use of information that would have been used to apply a fully retrospective approach, but need only use information available without undue cost or effort.

C7              Paragraphs C9–C19 set out permitted modifications to retrospective application in the following areas:

  • assessments of insurance contracts or groups of insurance contracts that would have been made at the date of inception or initial recognition;
  • amounts related to the contractual service margin or loss component for insurance contracts without direct participation features;
  • amounts related to the contractual service margin or loss component for insurance contracts with direct participation features; and (d) insurance finance income or expenses.

C8 To achieve the objective of the modified retrospective approach, an entity is permitted to use each modification in paragraphs C9–C19 only to the extent that an entity does not have reasonable and supportable information to apply a retrospective approach.

Assessments at inception or initial recognition

C9 To the extent permitted by paragraph C8, an entity shall determine the following matters using information available at the transition date:

  • how to identify groups of insurance contracts, applying paragraphs 14–24;
  • whether an insurance contract meets the definition of an insurance contract with direct participation features, applying paragraphs B101–B109; and
  • how to identify discretionary cash flows for insurance contracts without direct participation features, applying paragraphs B98–B100.

C10 To the extent permitted by paragraph C8, an entity shall not apply paragraph 22 to divide groups into those that do not include contracts issued more than one year apart.

Determining the contractual service margin or loss component for groups of insurance contracts without direct participation features

C11 To the extent permitted by paragraph C8, for contracts without direct participation features, an entity shall determine the contractual service margin or loss component of the liability for remaining coverage (see paragraphs 49–52) at the transition date by applying paragraphs C12–C16.

C12 To the extent permitted by paragraph C8, an entity shall estimate the future cash flows at the date of initial recognition of a group of insurance contracts as the amount of the future cash flows at the transition date (or earlier date, if the future cash flows at that earlier date can be determined retrospectively, applying paragraph C4(a)), adjusted by the cash flows that are known to have occurred between the date of initial recognition of a group of insurance contracts and the transition date (or earlier date). The cash flows that are known to have occurred include cash flows resulting from contracts that ceased to exist before the transition date.

C13 To the extent permitted by paragraph C8, an entity shall determine the discount rates that applied at the date of initial recognition of a group of insurance contracts (or subsequently):

  • using an observable yield curve that, for at least three years immediately before the transition date, approximates the yield curve estimated applying paragraphs 36 and B72–B85, if such an observable yield curve exists.
  • if the observable yield curve in paragraph (a) does not exist, estimate the discount rates that applied at the date of initial recognition (or subsequently) by determining an average spread between an observable yield curve and the yield curve estimated applying paragraphs 36 and B72–B85, and applying that spread to that observable yield curve. That spread shall be an average over at least three years immediately before the transition date.

C14 To the extent permitted by paragraph C8, an entity shall determine the risk adjustment for non-financial risk at the date of initial recognition of a group of insurance contracts (or subsequently) by adjusting the risk adjustment for non-financial risk at the transition date by the expected release of risk before the transition date. The expected release of risk shall be determined by reference to the release of risk for similar insurance contracts that the entity issues at the transition date.

C15 If applying paragraphs C12–C14 results in a contractual service margin at the date of initial recognition, to determine the contractual service margin at the date of transition an entity shall:

  • if the entity applies C13 to estimate the discount rates that apply on initial recognition, use those rates to accrete interest on the contractual service margin; and
  • to the extent permitted by paragraph C8, determine the amount of the contractual service margin recognised in profit or loss because of the transfer of services before the transition date, by comparing the remaining coverage units at that date with the coverage units provided under the group of contracts before the transition date (see paragraph B119).

C16 If applying paragraphs C12–C14 results in a loss component of the liability for remaining coverage at the date of initial recognition, an entity shall determine any amounts allocated to the loss component before the transition date applying paragraphs C12–C14 and using a systematic basis of allocation.

Determining the contractual service margin or loss component for groups of insurance contracts with direct participation features

C17 To the extent permitted by paragraph C8, for contracts with direct participation features an entity shall determine the contractual service margin or loss component of the liability for remaining coverage at the transition date as:

  • the total fair value of the underlying items at that date; minus
  • the fulfilment cash flows at that date; plus or minus (c) an adjustment for:
    • amounts charged by the entity to the policyholders (including amounts deducted from the underlying items) before that date.
    • amounts paid before that date that would not have varied based on the underlying items.
    • the change in the risk adjustment for non-financial risk caused by the release from risk before that date. The entity shall estimate this amount by reference to the release of risk for similar insurance contracts that the entity issues at the transition date.
  • if (a)–(c) result in a contractual service margin—minus the amount of the contractual service margin that relates to services provided before that date. The total of (a)–(c) is a proxy for the total contractual service margin for all services to be provided under the group of contracts, ie before any amounts that would have been recognised in profit or loss for services provided. The entity shall estimate the amounts that would have been recognised in profit or loss for services provided by comparing the remaining coverage units at the transition date with the coverage units provided under the group of contracts before the transition date; or
  • if (a)–(c) result in a loss component—adjust the loss component to nil and increase the liability for remaining coverage excluding the loss component by the same amount.
Insurance finance income or expenses

C18 For groups of insurance contracts that, applying paragraph C10, include contracts issued more than one year apart:

  • an entity is permitted to determine the discount rates at the date of initial recognition of a group specified in paragraphs B72(b)–B72(e)(ii) and the discount rates at the date of the incurred claim specified in paragraph B72(e)(iii) at the transition date instead of at the date of initial recognition or incurred claim.
  • if an entity chooses to disaggregate insurance finance income or expenses between amounts included in profit or loss and amounts included in other comprehensive income applying paragraphs 88(b) or 89(b), the entity needs to determine the cumulative amount of insurance finance income or expenses recognised in other comprehensive income at the transition date to apply paragraph 91(a) in future periods. The entity is permitted to determine that cumulative amount either by applying paragraph C19(b) or:
    • as nil, unless (ii) applies; and
    • for insurance contracts with direct participation features to which paragraph B134 applies, as equal to the cumulative amount recognised in other comprehensive income on the underlying items.

C19 For groups of insurance contracts that do not include contracts issued more than one year apart:

  • if an entity applies paragraph C13 to estimate the discount rates that applied at initial recognition (or subsequently), it shall also determine the discount rates specified in paragraphs B72(b)–B72(e) applying paragraph C13; and
  • if an entity chooses to disaggregate insurance finance income or expenses between amounts included in profit or loss and amounts included in other comprehensive income, applying paragraphs 88(b) or 89(b), the entity needs to determine the cumulative amount of insurance finance income or expenses recognised in other comprehensive income at the transition date to apply paragraph 91(a) in future periods. The entity shall determine that cumulative amount:
    • for insurance contracts for which an entity will apply the methods of systematic allocation set out in paragraph B131—if the entity applies paragraph C13 to estimate the discount rates at initial recognition—using the discount rates that applied at the date of initial recognition, also applying paragraph C13;
    • for insurance contracts for which an entity will apply the methods of systematic allocation set out in paragraph B132—on the basis that the assumptions that relate to financial risk that applied at the date of initial recognition are those that apply on the transition date, ie as nil;
    • for insurance contracts for which an entity will apply the methods of systematic allocation set out in paragraph B133—if the entity applies paragraph C13 to estimate the discount rates at initial recognition (or subsequently)—using the discount rates that applied at the date of the incurred claim, also applying paragraph C13; and
    • for insurance contracts with direct participation features to which paragraph B134 applies—as equal to the cumulative amount recognised in other comprehensive income on the underlying items.

Fair value approach

C20 To apply the fair value approach, an entity shall determine the contractual service margin or loss component of the liability for remaining coverage at the transition date as the difference between the fair value of a group of insurance contracts at that date and the fulfilment cash flows measured at that date. In determining that fair value, an entity shall not apply paragraph 47 of IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement (relating to demand features).

C21            In applying the fair value approach, an entity may apply paragraph C22 to determine:

  • how to identify groups of insurance contracts, applying paragraphs 14–24;
  • whether an insurance contract meets the definition of an insurance contract with direct participation features, applying paragraphs B101–B109; and
  • how to identify discretionary cash flows for insurance contracts without direct participation features, applying paragraphs B98–B100.

C22                   An entity may choose to determine the matters in paragraph C21 using:

  • reasonable and supportable information for what the entity would have determined given the terms of the contract and the market conditions at the date of inception or initial recognition, as appropriate; or
  • reasonable and supportable information available at the transition date.

C23 In applying the fair value approach, an entity is not required to apply paragraph 22, and may include in a group contracts issued more than one year apart. An entity shall only divide groups into those including only contracts issued within a year (or less) if it has reasonable and supportable information to make the division. Whether or not an entity applies paragraph 22, it is permitted to determine the discount rates at the date of initial recognition of a group specified in paragraphs B72(b)–B72(e)(ii) and the discount rates at the date of the incurred claim specified in paragraph B72(e) (iii) at the transition date instead of at the date of initial recognition or incurred claim.

C24 In applying the fair value approach, if an entity chooses to disaggregate insurance finance income or expenses between profit or loss and other comprehensive income, it is permitted to determine the cumulative amount of insurance finance income or expenses recognised in other comprehensive income at the transition date:

  • retrospectively—but only if it has reasonable and supportable

information to do so; or

  • as nil—unless (c) applies; and
  • for insurance contracts with direct participation features to which paragraph B134 applies—as equal to the cumulative amount recognised in other comprehensive income from the underlying items.

Comparative information

C25 Notwithstanding the reference to the annual reporting period immediately preceding the date of initial application in paragraph C2(b), an entity may also present adjusted comparative information applying IFRS 17 for any earlier periods presented, but is not required to do so. If an entity does present adjusted comparative information for any earlier periods, the reference to ‘the beginning of the annual reporting period immediately preceding the date of initial application’ in paragraph C2(b) shall be read as ‘the beginning of the earliest adjusted comparative period presented’.

C26 An entity is not required to provide the disclosures specified in paragraphs 93–132 for any period presented before the beginning of the annual reporting period immediately preceding the date of initial application.

C27 If an entity presents unadjusted comparative information and disclosures for any earlier periods, it shall clearly identify the information that has not been adjusted, disclose that it has been prepared on a different basis, and explain that basis.

C28 An entity need not disclose previously unpublished information about claims development that occurred earlier than five years before the end of the annual reporting period in which it first applies IFRS 17. However, if an entity does not disclose that information, it shall disclose that fact.

Redesignation of financial assets

C29 At the date of initial application of IFRS 17, an entity that had applied IFRS 9 to annual reporting periods before the initial application of IFRS 17:

  • may reassess whether an eligible financial asset meets the condition in paragraph 4.1.2(a) or paragraph 4.1.2A(a) of IFRS 9. A financial asset is eligible only if the financial asset is not held in respect of an activity that is unconnected with contracts within the scope of IFRS 17. Examples of financial assets that would not be eligible for reassessment are financial assets held in respect of banking activities or financial assets held in funds relating to investment contracts that are outside the scope of IFRS 17.
  • shall revoke its previous designation of a financial asset as measured at fair value through profit or loss if the condition in paragraph 4.1.5 of IFRS 9 is no longer met because of the application of IFRS 17.
  • may designate a financial asset as measured at fair value through profit or loss if the condition in paragraph 4.1.5 of IFRS 9 is met.
  • may designate an investment in an equity instrument as at fair value through other comprehensive income applying paragraph 5.7.5 of IFRS 9.
  • may revoke its previous designation of an investment in an equity instrument as at fair value through other comprehensive income applying paragraph 5.7.5 of IFRS 9.

C30 An entity shall apply paragraph C29 on the basis of the facts and circumstances that exist at the date of initial application of IFRS 17. An entity shall apply those designations and classifications retrospectively. In doing so, the entity shall apply the relevant transition requirements in IFRS 9. The date of initial application for that purpose shall be deemed to be the date of initial application of IFRS 17.

C31 An entity that applies paragraph C29 is not required to restate prior periods to reflect such changes in designations or classifications. The entity may restate prior periods only if it is possible without the use of hindsight. If an entity restates prior periods, the restated financial statements must reflect all the requirements of IFRS 9 for those affected financial assets. If an entity does not restate prior periods, the entity shall recognise, in the opening retained earnings (or other component of equity, as appropriate) at the date of initial application, any difference between:

  • the previous carrying amount of those financial assets; and
  • the carrying amount of those financial assets at the date of initial application.

C32 When an entity applies paragraph C29, it shall disclose in that annual reporting period for those financial assets by class:

  • if paragraph C29(a) applies—its basis for determining eligible financial assets;
  • if any of paragraphs C29(a)–C29(e) apply:
    • the measurement category and carrying amount of the affected financial assets determined immediately before the date of initial application of IFRS 17; and
    • the new measurement category and carrying amount of the affected financial assets determined after applying paragraph C29.
  • if paragraph C29(b) applies—the carrying amount of financial assets in the statement of financial position that were previously designated as measured at fair value through profit or loss applying paragraph 4.1.5 of IFRS 9 that are no longer so designated.

C33 When an entity applies paragraph C29, the entity shall disclose in that annual reporting period qualitative information that would enable users of financial statements to understand:

  • how it applied paragraph C29 to financial assets the classification of which has changed on initially applying IFRS 17;
  • the reasons for any designation or de-designation of financial assets as measured at fair value through profit or loss applying paragraph 4.1.5 of IFRS 9; and
  • why the entity came to any different conclusions in the new assessment applying paragraphs 4.1.2(a) or 4.1.2A(a) of IFRS 9.

Withdrawal of other IFRS Standards

C34              IFRS 17 supersedes IFRS 4 Insurance Contracts, as amended in 2016.

Appendix D Amendments to other IFRS Standards

This Appendix describes the amendments to other Standards that the IASB made when it finalised IFRS 17. An entity shall apply the amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2021. If an entity applies IFRS 17 for an earlier period, these amendments shall be applied for that earlier period.

* * * * *

The amendments contained in this appendix when this Standard was issued in 2017 have been incorporated into the text of the relevant Standards included in this volume.

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